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Download full Chapter 1-5 Project topic and material For Final Year student in Polymer And Textile Engineering department titled, Design And Fabrication Of Mini Copula Furnace And An Atomizer For The Production Of Powdered Metal From Waste Aluminum Cans. View table of contents, abstract and chapter one below.


Polymer And Textile Engineering Project Topic Chapter 1-5 titled, Design And Fabrication Of Mini Copula Furnace And An Atomizer For The Production Of Powdered Metal From Waste Aluminium Cans


Cover Page

Title Page





Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Plates


  • Background of Study
  • Aims and Objectives of the Study
  • Problem Statement
  • Scope of Research Project
  • Relevance of Study
  • Limitation of Study


2.1 Introduction to Aluminium and Aluminium Recycling

2.2 Introduction to Powder Metallurgy

2.2.1Historical Development

2.2.2 Atomization Process

2.2.3 Classification of Atomization process

2.2.4 Uses of Powder Metals

2.2.5 Some Common Metal Powder

2.3    Introduction to Atomizer

2.3.1 Classification of Atomizers

2.3.2 Atomizer Requirement

2.4    Introduction to Furnace

2.4.1 Types of Furnaces

2.4.2 Classification of  Furnaces

2.4.3 Introduction to Copula

2.4.4 Parts of a Copula Furnace

2.4.5 Zones of Copula

2.4.6 Copula Operations

2.4.7 Efficiency of Copula Furnace

2.4.8 Advantages and Limitations

2.4.9 Limitations in Copula Furnace

2.5   Introduction to Refractory

2.5.1 Refractory Definition

2.5.2 Classification of Refractory

2.5.3 Properties of Refractory

2.5.4 Types of Refractory

2.5.5 Selection of Refractory

2.5.6 Manufacture of Refractory

2.5.7 Functions and uses of Refractory

2.5.8 Uses of Refractories

2.6   Introduction to Coal

2.6.1 Uses of Coal

2.6.2 Refined Coal(Coke)

2.6.3 Production of Coke

2.6.4 Properties of Coke

2.6.5 Uses of Coke

2.6.6 Advantages of Coal over other Forms of Energy


3.1 Introduction

3.2    The Design of Copula Furnace

3.2.1 Material Balance

3.2.2 Reaction Mechanism

3.2.3 Energy Balance

3.2.4 Enthalpy Change

3.2.5 Standard Heat of Reaction

3.3  Energy Balance for the Furnace

3.3.1 Combustion Chamber

3.3.2 Enthalpy of the Reaction

3.3.3 Standard Heat of Reaction

3.3.4 Enthalpy of Flue Gases

3.3.5 The Design of the Furnace

3.3.6 Design of the Combustion Chamber

3.3.7 Design of the down Section of the Furnace

3.4 Design of an Atomizer

3.5 Costing and Safety Measures

3.5.1 Costing

3.5.2 Safety Measures

3.6  Materials of  Constructions



4.1 Results

4.2 Observations and Discussion

4.3 The Size of the Metal Powder produced

4.4 The Shape of Aluminum metal powder produced


5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Recommendations






This research is centered on the design and fabrication of copula furnace and atomizer for the production aluminum powder metal with the available material.0.4kg of refined coke was chosen as the basis for material and energy balance calculations and the design calculations performed from whose values are used to produce the design drawings. Mild steel was used for the internal linings of the furnace casing while other material were selected based on functionality, durability ,cost and local availability.

The furnace and atomizer were assembled and the furnace inner wall of the casing was lined with refractory bricks made from heated mixture of kaolin, clay, sawdust and water after which the cylindrical shell was positioned. Testing was subsequently performed to evaluate the performance of the furnace and the atomizer by first gathering of the aluminum cans. The furnace was heated to 8700c and it was observe that the furnace has 36.9% efficiency which is within the acceptable value for furnace efficiencies. Atomizer produced various sizes of powder metal depending on the type of mesh used and the shape obtained was irregular in shape.



  • Background of Study

Powder metallurgy is a technique concerned with the production of metal powders and converting them into useful shapes. It is a material processing technique in which particulate materials are consolidated to semi-finished and finished products. Metal powder production techniques are used to manufacture a wide spectrum ofMetal powders designed to meet the requirements of a large variety of applications.Various powder production processes allow precise control of the chemical and physical characteristics ofpowders and permit the development of specific attributes for the desired applications. Powder production processes are constantly being improved to meet the quality, cost and performance requirements of all types of applications. Metal powders are produced by mechanical or chemical methods.

The most commonly used methods include water and gas atomization, milling, mechanical alloying, electrolysis, and chemical reduction of oxides.


The type of powder production process applied depends on the required production rate, the desired powder properties and the properties desired in the final part. Chemical and electrolytic methods are used to produce high purity powders while Mechanical milling is widely used for the production of hard metals and oxides. Atomization is the most versatile method for producing metal powders.

It is the dominant method for producing metal and pre-alloyed powders from aluminum, brass, iron, low alloy steel, stainless steel, tool steel, super alloy, titanium alloy and other alloys.


Atomization [Mehrotra 1984] is a process in which a liquid stream disintegrated into a large number of droplets of various sizes. Basically atomization consists of mechanically disintegrating a stream of molten metal into the fine particles by means of a jet of compressed gases or liquids. It is an important process which finds wide applications such diverse field as spraying for insecticidal use, fuel injection in internal combustion engines, liquid spray drying, and liquid dispersion in numerous liquid–gas contact operations such as distillation, humidification, and spray crystallization.


The technique of atomizing a metal melt, with fluid was connected with the production of metal powders. The basic principle involved in atomization of liquid consists in increasing the surface area of the liquid stream until it becomes unstable disintegrated. The energy required for disintegration can be imparted in several ways depending on the mode in which the energy is supplied. The atomization process [Mehrotra 1984] can be classified into three main categories:

Pressure atomization.

  1. Mechanical
  2. Chemical or centrifugal atomization.

iii.  Fluid atomization.

The present work concentrated on the third type of atomization. The kinetic energy of a second fluid stream, being ejected from a nozzle is used for disintegrating of the liquid. The stream in a free fall is impacted by a high pressure jet of second fluid which is usually gas or water emerges either tangentially or at angle from nozzle. So that molten which in general, have high surface tension can be atomized by the fluid atomization technique.


1.2Aim and Objectives of the Study

1.2.1   Aim of Study

The aim of this study is to design and fabrication a mini copula furnace and an atomizer for the production of powdered metal from waste aluminium cans.


1.2.2Objectives of Study

The objectives of the study include the following

  1. Determination of the volume of a single aluminum can usinga weighing balance.
  2. Carrying out a material and energy balance to determine the mass aluminum to be melted, amount of fuel required and the required capacity of the furnace.
  • Carrying out mechanical design of the mini-copula furnace required to melt the waste aluminum can,
  1. Fabrication of the proposed designed mini-copula furnace plant.
  2. Design of the atomizer for metal powder production.
  3. Fabrication of the designed atomizer
  • Analysis of theobtained aluminumpowdermetal.


1.3Problem Statement

Wide-spread applicationand high demand of powder metal in industrial and domestic processing activities and the littering- rate of aluminum cans all over the country which poses a serious adverse environmental condition,have grown at an alarming rate over the years.Therefore, the purpose of this project is to design and fabricate a mini-copula furnace and an atomizer forthe production of powder metal from waste aluminum cans which can be used for various domestic and industrial applications and also servesas a good environmental pollution control for the aforementioned waste.

1.4Scope of the Research Project

This researchproject focuses on the design and fabrication of a mini-copula furnace and an atomizer for the production of powder metal from waste aluminum cans through process atomization.


1.5Relevance of the Study

The importance of this study includes the following:

  1. To reduce the rate of environmental pollution (air, soil and water pollution) caused by littering waste aluminum cans.
  2. Meet up with the ever-growing demand for powder aluminum  metal in the automobile industry
  • To save energy and raw materials for the future industries.
  1. To provide raw material for metal matrix composites and wide applications in paint industries.
  2. To encourage researchers think of ways of harnessing other waste materials.
  3. To increase the availability of solid fuels for rockets.
  • It also serves as a reference material to any researcher on this field.


1.6Limitation of the Study

The factors hindering effective execution of this study are:

  1. Inadequate power supply for the operation of the fabricating machines.
  2. Inadequate fund
  3. Time limit towards successful completion of the project
  4. Use of readily available air as the atomizing fluid instead of costly pure nitrogen.



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