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A critical investigation of birth preparedness and emergency readiness plans of antenatal clinic attendees in general hospital enugu state

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Pregnancy-related problems are one of the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age in poor countries, killing almost half a million women each year UNICEF (2004). Maternal mortality is still a public health problem across the world, particularly in poor nations, where 99 percent of these fatalities occur WHO (2004). The global burden of maternal death is alarming. In 2013, there were no less than 289,000 maternal deaths (World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), 2014); Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for 62 percent (179,000 maternal deaths) of these globally estimated maternal deaths WHO,UNUCEF,UNFDA(2014-2017). Nigeria is one of the most affected nations by unsafe motherhood, with a high maternal death rate that accounts for more than 10% of worldwide maternal mortality estimates doctor and finley(2012). According to the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) report from 2013, Nigeria has a maternal mortality rate of 545 deaths per 100,000 live births, accounting for 13% of worldwide maternal fatalities.

One of the most important functions of prenatal care is to offer health education about pregnancy risk signals, delivery, and the creation of a birth plan, as well as to urge delivery under the supervision of a competent attendant Affipunguh (2016). Health education during prenatal care has been demonstrated to increase the use of competent health care and improve mothers’ understanding of obstetric risk indicators in studies conducted in various countries Magoma(2010),Kakaire(2011). Improved awareness of obstetric danger signals, birth preparation practices, and emergency preparedness are some of the measures targeted at improving maternal health service use and boosting access to competent treatment during labor, especially for women with obstetric difficulties Hussein et al(2011).

Birth preparation is a technique based on the premise that preparing for delivery decreases delays in receiving expert maternal and neonatal care, especially during labor. Knowledge of danger signs, the desired place of birth, the preferred birth attendant, the location of the closest appropriate care facility, funds for birth-related and emergency expenses, a birth companion, support in looking after the home and children while the woman is away, and transportation to a health facility are all elements of a birth plan/emergency preparedness plan.

Knowing the warning signs of obstetric crises and understanding the need for a quick and proper reaction when one occurs can help decrease time spent making decisions and getting to health care facilities. Vaginal bleeding, severe headaches, severe vomiting, swelling of the hands and face, trouble breathing, fits, fever, reduced or nonexistent fetal activity, and drainage of liquor are all symptoms of pregnancy.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

According to the World Health Organization in 2009, maternal fatalities in poor countries are considered to occur as a result of delays in deciding to seek proper treatment, arriving at an appropriate health institution, and obtaining enough emergency care once there. Haemorrhage, postpartum infection, hypertensive disorders, obstructed labor, and abortion complications are the most prevalent causes of maternal mortality Pembe(2009).

Because awareness of obstetric danger signs and adequate preparation for a baby’s birth would promote timely intervention and reduce delays in obtaining care in the event of an emergency or complication, this study assessed pregnant women’s awareness of obstetric danger signs and practice of birth preparedness at the Lagos Island Maternity Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria.

1.3 OF THE STUDY OBJECTIVE

The overall goal of the research is to critical investigate Birth Preparedness And Emergency Readiness Plans Of Antenatal Clinic Attendees In General Hospital Enugu State.Specifically, the study is set to

  1. Determine the level of birth preparedness among expectant women in Enugu State.
  2. Identify what it takes to be well-prepared for child birth.
  3. Assess the extent of emergency preparednessin terms of childbirth

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions guide the objective of the study:

  1. What is the level of birth preparedness among expectant women in Enugu State?
  2. What does it take to be well-prepared for child birth?
  3. What is the extent of emergency preparedness in terms of childbirth?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The overall goal of this study is to determine if pregnant women visiting an antenatal clinic at Lagos Island Maternity Hospital are aware of obstetric risk indicators and practice birth preparation. The purpose of the study is to determine the degree of obstetric hazard awareness among pregnant women visiting the prenatal clinic at Enugu state maternity hospital, as well as the practice of birth readiness among these women.

Finally, this study will contribute to the current literature in this field and will also serve as a resource for academics, researchers, and students who may want to do future research on this or a comparable issue.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The research was limited to Enugu state general hospital and will also covered the practice of birth readiness among pregnant women.

1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY

The study was limited due to the short time frame, budget and the inability to cover all hospitals in Enugu state.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Birth Preparedness: Birth preparedness encompasses the process of planning for a normal birth and anticipating the actions needed in case of an emergency. It can be measured by the mothers’ knowledge of identifying danger signs and their preparation to take measures during emergency and normal obstetric care.

Emergency Readiness: The term refers to the steps you take to make sure you are safe before, during, and after an emergency.

Antenatal Clinic Attendees: Antenatal care is the routine health control of presumed healthy pregnant women without symptoms (screening), in order to diagnose diseases or complicate obstetric conditions without symptoms, and to provide information about lifestyle, pregnancy, and delivery.

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