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Chapter 1 to 3
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Preview abstract and chapter 1 below


A Research Proposal on the Impact of the Family Socioeconomic Status on the Educational Achievement of the Child in Senior Secondary School, Keffi Local Govt Area Nassarawa State.


Background to the Study

Educational outcomes have long been found to be significantly influenced by the socioeconomic status (SES) of the family (Craig & Ronald, 2023). According to several studies, kids from higher SES homes typically outperform kids from lower SES backgrounds academically (Muhammad & Akanle, 2020). However little is known about the precise mechanisms by which socioeconomic status affects academic performance, especially when it comes to senior secondary schools in Nassarawa State’s Keffi Local Government Area. To address educational inequities, it is imperative to comprehend these mechanisms to build tailored treatments (Schultz, 2021).

Parental involvement in school is one possible way that family SES affects academic attainment. Higher SES parents are more likely, according to research, to be actively involved in their kids’ education by offering resources like tutoring, curriculum, and extracurricular activities (Okorodudu & Ossai, 2022). By creating a supportive learning atmosphere and highlighting the value of education, this involvement can have a favourable effect on students’ academic achievement (Omoegun, 2021). Students from families with lower socioeconomic status, on the other hand, might not have access to these resources, which would disadvantage them in educational settings (Duncan & Magnuson, 2023).

Family SES can also affect the standard of living in the house and the accessibility of learning materials. Families with higher socioeconomic status usually have access to a variety of educational tools, such as computers, books, and field trips (Ali, 2021). According to Okafor (2020), these tools have the potential to improve students’ educational experiences and offer avenues for extracurricular intellectual engagement. Lower SES households, on the other hand, might find it difficult to pay for these resources, which would limit their kids’ access to educational enrichment programmes (Avwata, 2021). According to Richard-Oddo (2020), pupils hailing from higher socioeconomic status households may possess a notable edge when it comes to academic readiness and performance.

Additionally, family SES may have an impact on a student’s ability to enrol in reputable schools and participate in extracurricular activities. Rich communities frequently provide schools with greater financing and resources, which results in better facilities, fewer class sizes, and a greater selection of extracurricular and academic activities (Caro, 2019). Higher SES households are more likely to send their children to these schools, where they may take advantage of the improved learning environment and extracurricular activities (Akinade, 2022). However, children from poorer socioeconomic backgrounds might attend institutions with fewer resources and fewer extracurricular activities available, which would increase the achievement disparity (Nworgu, 2021).

Furthermore, family SES may have an impact on a student’s ability to receive therapy and tutoring as well as other forms of educational help. Families with higher socioeconomic status are more likely to be able to pay for private tutoring and to have access to educational professionals, which can provide extra help to enhance learning outside of the classroom (Mishra, 2022). Students’ academic performance can be improved and academic issues can be addressed with the aid of this extra support (Suleman et al., 2022). Students from lower SES families, on the other hand, do not have as easy access to these resources, which would make it more difficult for them to overcome academic challenges and realise their full potential (Zahra, 2020).

Statement of Problem

One of the most important issues in educational research is the disparity in academic achievement between pupils from different socioeconomic backgrounds (Ali, 2021). Significant gaps still exist in education, especially in senior secondary schools in Nassarawa State’s Keffi Local Government Area, despite efforts to promote equitable chances in the field. Although several research has demonstrated a relationship between academic performance and family socioeconomic status (SES) (Muhammad & Akanle, 2020), the precise mechanisms underlying this relationship are still not well known in this particular situation (Craig & Ronald, 2023).

The dearth of thorough studies exploring the particular impact of family SES on academic achievement among senior secondary school students in the Keffi Local Government Area is one of the main gaps in the body of literature currently in existence. While research from other areas has shed light on the general relationship between SES and academic outcomes, more localised study is required to address the particular contextual factors that may contribute to educational disparities in this field (Omoegun, 2021).

Moreover, current research frequently overlooks the complex structure of socioeconomic status in favour of broad SES indices, such as parental income or educational attainment (Duncan & Magnuson, 2023). This ignores the possible impact of additional variables that could contribute to differences in educational achievements, such as parental occupation, resource accessibility, and neighbourhood features (Akinade, 2022). Efforts to reduce educational inequality may fall short if the varied components of SES and their varying effects on academic achievement are not fully understood (Richard-Oddo, 2020).

Furthermore, very few studies have looked into potential mediating factors that might moderate this link, even though some have examined the influence of family SES on educational chances and results (Mishra, 2022). For example, family involvement in education, the availability of support services, and access to high-quality schools could all be significant ways that socioeconomic status (SES) affects academic attainment (Zahra, 2020). To reduce the negative effects of socioeconomic disparities on educational achievements, it is imperative to recognise and comprehend these mediating elements (Suleman et al., 2022).

Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study include to:

  1. Investigate the relationship between family socioeconomic status and the educational achievement of senior secondary school students in Keffi Local Government Area, Nassarawa State.
  2. Identify specific aspects of family SES that most strongly correlate with academic performance.
  3. Explore potential mediating factors that influence the relationship between family SES and educational achievement.

Research Questions

The following research questions will be examined in this study:

  1. To what extent does family socioeconomic status influence the educational achievement of senior secondary school students in Keffi Local Government Area, Nassarawa State?
  2. Which components of family socioeconomic status have the strongest association with academic performance?
  3. What are the potential mediating factors that explain the relationship between family SES and educational achievement?


Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested in this study:

  1. There is no significant positive relationship between family socioeconomic status and the educational achievement of senior secondary school students in Keffi Local Government Area, Nassarawa State.
  2. Higher levels of parental education and income are not associated with better academic performance among students.
  3. Factors such as parental involvement and access to educational resources do not mediate the relationship between family SES and educational achievement.

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study hold significant implications for policymakers, educators, and stakeholders, shedding light on the critical need to address socioeconomic disparities in educational outcomes. Understanding the intricate pathways through which family socioeconomic status (SES) influences academic achievement is paramount for developing effective interventions to support students from disadvantaged backgrounds.

Policymakers can utilize the insights gained from this study to design policies and initiatives aimed at reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities on educational outcomes. By incorporating evidence-based strategies that target the specific mechanisms through which family SES influences academic achievement, policymakers can work towards creating a more equitable educational system. This may involve allocating resources to schools and communities with higher concentrations of disadvantaged students, providing additional support services, and implementing policies to address structural inequalities.

Educators play a crucial role in implementing interventions that support students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Armed with a deeper understanding of how family SES influences academic achievement, educators can tailor their teaching strategies to meet the needs of students facing socioeconomic challenges. This may involve implementing differentiated instruction, providing additional academic support, and fostering a supportive learning environment that acknowledges and addresses the diverse needs of students.

Stakeholders, including parents, community members, and advocacy groups, can also play a vital role in addressing socioeconomic disparities in educational outcomes. By advocating for policies and initiatives that prioritize equity and access to educational resources, stakeholders can contribute to creating a more inclusive educational system. Additionally, community-based programs and initiatives that provide support and resources to students from disadvantaged backgrounds can complement efforts within the formal education system.

Scope of the Study

This study focused on senior secondary school students in Keffi Local Government Area, Nassarawa State, considering various aspects of family SES such as parental education, occupation, income, and household resources.



  • Suleman, Q., Aslam, H. D., Shakir, M., Akhtar, S., Hussain, I., & Akhtar, Z. (2022). Effects of family structure on the Academic Performance of students at Elementary Level in District Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan). Journal of Sociology Research, 3(2), 23–45.
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  • Zahra, A. T. (2020). Relationship of academic, physical and social self-concepts of students with their academic achievement. Contemporary Issues in Educational Research.


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