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ABSTRACT

The suitability of Crumb Rubber (CR) to partially modifying bitumen in Asphalt Emulsion
production for use as slurry seal was investigated. Bitumen was replaced with 0%, 5%, 10%,
15%, 20% and 25% Crumb Rubber, and subjected to methyl blue, sand equivalency, cohesion,
wet track abrasion (WTA) and loaded wheel tracks (LWT) tests. Preliminary tests: using
Penetration, Softening point, Viscosity and Flash and Fire point tests were also performed on the
bitumen. Based on the result of the tests, optimum CR content of 17.5% was recommended for
use, because it achieved a smooth texture, within mixing time of 200 Seconds and Cohesion at
30 and 60minutes of 23 and 28 Kg-cm respectively. WTA Loss of 365.2g/m2, are within the
limits specified by the International Slurry Seal Association. Above the Optimum Crumb Rubber
the texture of the mixture was not smooth enough for use as slurry sealant. Successful use of CR
will serve as an effective way of converting rubber waste to beneficial use, thereby saving the
environment and conserving bitumen.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Content Pages
Title page i
Declaration page iii
Approval page iv
Dedication v
Acknowledgement vi
Abstract v
Table of Contents viii
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xiv
List of Abbreviation, Symbol and Annotations xv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Preamble 1
1.2 Basic sealant material 2
1.2.1 Asphalt Cement (Bitumen) 2
1.2.2 Fine Aggregate 3
1.2.3 Crumb rubber 3
1.2.4 Ordinary Portland Cement 4
1.3 Problem Statement 4
1.4 Aim and Objectives 5
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1.5 Scope of work 6
1.6 Justification of study 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Background 7
2.1 Wet Process 11
2.2 A Brief Review of History of asphalt rubber as joint sealers 12
2.3 Chemical composition of tyre 19
2.4 Asphalt cement (Bituminous binder) 22
2.5 Current asphalt mix design procedures 23
2.6 Asphalt cement 23
2.7 Cracks and types 24
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 25
3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 Sampling of Materials and Preliminary tests 25
3.2.1 Sampling of Materials 25
3.2.2 Fine Aggregates 25
3.2.3 Crumb Rubber 26
3.2.4 Ordinary Portland Cement 27
3.2.5 Modified Asphalt (Bitumen) 27
3.3 The test required on slurry seal and Production with
Crumb rubber Modified 28
3.4 The test require on Slurry seal 29
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3.4.1 Asphalt Sieve test (ASTM D6933) 30
3.4.2 Storage stability and Settlement test (ASTMD6930) 31
3.4.3 Asphalt Residue test, Evaporation (ASTM D6934) 32
3.4.4 Viscosity test (Saybolt-Furol viscosity ASTM D6934) 35
3.4.5 Penetration test (ASTM D5) 37
3.4.6 Softening Point test (ASTM D36) 37
3.4.7 Flash and Fire point test (ASTM D92) 37
3.4.8 Gradation / Classification test 38
3.4.9 Sand equivalent test (ASTM D2419) 38
3.4.10 Methylene blue test (ASTM C837 – 09) 41
3.4.11 Mixing / Setting Times test (ASTM C403) 42
3.4.12 Mix Consistency (SLURRY) ASTM D6103 43
3.4.13 Cohesion test (ASTM D3910) 43
3.4.14 Wet Track Abrasion (ASTM D1044) 45
3.4.15 Loaded Wheel Track Abrasion (ASTM D2240) 48
3.4.16 Test on Cement (OPC) 50
3.5 Material mix design 50
3.5.1 Slurry Seal Mix Design Data 50
3.6 Mix stability 51
3.7 Determining the Type of Maintenance 51
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 54
4.1 Asphalt (Bitumen) and Slurry Test result 54
4.2 Test on Cement result 54
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4.3 Specific Gravity of the materials 54
4.4 Aggregate Gradation and Data 55
4.5 Emulsion Test Result (Issa A143) 57
4.5 Saybolt-Furol Viscosity test result 59
4.5 Residue by Distillation test result 60
4.5 Penetration test result 60
4.5 Softening point result 61
4.5 Kinematic Viscosity test result 62
4.6 Slurry Seal Trial Mix Design 63
4.7 Slurry Seal Non Modified Mix Design 66
4.8 Slurry Seal Modified Mix Design 66
4.9 Summary of the optimum test’s values 69
4.10 Rate of application 69
4.11 Sanding 70
4.12 Cracks Treatment and Surface Preparation 70
CHAPTER FIVE Conclusion AND Recommendation 71
5.1 Conclusion 71
5.2 Recommendation 72
5.3 References 73
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Project Topics

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background
Roads are built by a high-tech process that involves the use of aggregate, heavy machinery, and
the hard work of road crews. Carefully constructed roads last for decades. However, the
performance of the roads may be affected by wheel load pressure. To overcome the adverse
effect of traffic on pavement, there is need for regular maintenance, whether it’s crumbling at the
edges, developing pot holes, or cracking across the middle. One of the most important measures
used in road maintenance is Crack Sealing. There are several crack sealing materials in use in
pavement; each designed to keep the road smooth and safe during its life. (Atkinson, 1997)
Roads endure enormous stress and strain as vehicle tires continually push and pull at paved
surfaces. The faster or heavier the vehicle, the more the pavement is compressed and then
tensioned. Temperature changes, within 24-hour can cause expansion and contraction of the
pavement sheet. Traffic and temperature create small surface cracks. When water seeps through
such cracks to the base materials it weakens the pavement, resulting in more crack formation
which becomes wider if not repaired.
Crack sealing is an inexpensive routine maintenance treatment that will significantly delay
roadway deterioration. It is done through the use of local road crews that apply sealing material
directly into cracks before cracks become too large or before the roadway is subject to failure.
Flexible rubberized asphalt sealants bond to crack walls and move with the pavement, preventing
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water from entering the road base. Thereby extending the life span of roads and reducing the cost
of maintenance. (Atkinson, 1997)
Pavement cracks can be repaired with either cold or hot sealants. Cold applied materials include
liquid asphalt and polymer-modified liquid asphalt. Hot applied materials include bitumen,
mineral-filled bitumen, fiberized asphalt, asphalt rubber, rubberized asphalt, and low-modulus
rubberized asphalt. To effectively seal a crack, the material must move with the road surface and
remain adhered to crack walls. Mixtures of asphalt and rubber are long-wearing and can move
with pavement during weather changes. One such mixture, commonly called “asphalt-rubber,” is
a special mixture of bitumen and used car tires. Asphalt-rubber is especially effective on roads
subject to high traffic volume and heavy loads.
Other mixtures are effective for wide (high severity) cracks. These include polymer-modified
liquid asphalt, rubberized asphalt, and low-modulus rubberized asphalt. Polymer-modified liquid
asphalt is a mixture of natural and synthetic compounds with liquid bitumen. Rubberized asphalt
and low-modulus rubberized asphalt are made by adding rubber to asphalt for flexibility. The
choice of material depends on the type and amount of rubber in the mixture, and the type of
asphalt used. Some materials, although often used because they are inexpensive, have little
flexibility. These include bitumen, liquid asphalt, mineral-filled asphalt cement, and fiberized
asphalt.
1.1.1 Asphalt Cement (Bitumen)
Asphalt cement or (Bitumen) is a viscous liquid or solid material, black or brown in colour,
having adhesive qualities, consisting essentially of hydrocarbons, derived from petroleum or
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occurring in natural asphalt and soluble in carbon disulphide. They are usually fairly hard at
normal temperatures. When heated, they soften and flow. When mixed with aggregates in their
fluid state, and then allowed to cool, they solidify and bind the aggregates, forming a pavement
surface. (Kendrick et al., 2009.) Bitumen can be obtained in fluid form as cutback bitumen or an
emulsion of interest to this study is consisting of 62 percent bitumen, 38 percent water and an
emulsifier, mixed with crumb rubber.
1.1.2 Fine Aggregates
Aggregates are granular mineral particles used either in combination with various types of
cementing material to form concretes, or alone as road base, backfill, etc. Typical areas where
aggregates are used are; Portland cement concrete, asphalt concrete, asphalt surface, crack
sealing material, road base and sub-bases, rail road ballast, concrete blocks, water filtration beds,
drainage structures, riprap, and gabion materials. (Atkinson, 1997)
1.1.3 Crumb rubber
Crumb rubber is obtained from grounded used car tires, added to asphalt in a given proportion to
form “Asphalt-rubber”. Asphalt-rubber as sealant is effective on roads subject to high volume of
traffic and heavy axle loads. (Eyo, 2007)
TYPES OF CRM
I. Ground crumb rubber modifier – irregularly shaped, torn scrap rubber particles with a
large surface area, generally produced by a cracker mill.
II. High natural rubber (Hi Nat) – scrap rubber product that includes 40-48 percent natural
rubber or isoprene and a minimum of 50 percent rubber hydrocarbon according to Caltrans
requirements. Sources of high natural rubber include scrap tire rubber from some types of
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heavy truck tires, but are not limited to scrap tires. Other sources of high natural rubber
include scrap from tennis balls and mat rubber.
III Buffing Waste: – High quality scrap tire rubber that is a byproduct from the conditioning
of tire carcasses in preparation for re-treading. Buffing contain essentially no metal or fiber.
IV Tread Rubber: – Scrap tire rubber that consists primarily of tread rubber with less than
approximately less than 5 percent sidewall rubber.
V Tread Peel: – Pieces of scrap tire tread rubber obtained as by-product of tire retreading
operations that contain little if any tire cord.
IV Whole Tire Rubber: – Scrap tire rubber that includes tread and sidewalls in proportions
that approximate the respective weights in an average tire.
1.1.4 Ordinary Portland cement (OPC)
This is manufactured from readily available bedrock or shell deposits. The main minerals
required for the production of Portland cement are lime (Ca0), Silica (Si02), Alumina (Al203) and
Iron oxide (Fe203). The main component is lime (60 – 65%), which accounts for the location of
cement manufacturing company close to the source of this raw material.
(Atkins, 1997)
1.2 Problem Statement
The problems of pavement distresses and failures are inherent in pavement structures due to
traffic loading and environmental degradation. To worsen the above problem of natural
deterioration, one major concern in road construction is the funding and the rising trend of
material cost. Effort are been made by researchers to source for materials of minimal value to
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augment the existing materials which are fast depleting. Used tyres and other polymer materials
constitute colossal waste in the environment. California State Department of Transportation
(Caltrans) conducted a research on used tyres and discovered its engineering properties include
increased pavement longevity, smoothness and noise reduction and by 1999 research determined
that asphalt rubber rehabilitation and maintenance strategies are more cost effective compare to
conventional Asphalt concrete.
This work is a strategy to reduce cost of maintenance (using preventive maintenance strategy)
and reduce environmental hazard of indiscriminate disposal of used tyres. Several other
researchers on used have been conducted worldwide (Caltrans, 2003). In Nigeria there are a lots
of used tyres that have not been properly disposed. The researcher on used tyre for pavement
design, maintenance and rehabilitation present a scope for optimum utilization of waste product
(used tyres) to create wealth (asphalt rubber pavement).
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
This study is aimed at identifying the proportion of Crumb rubber when added to asphalt cement
(bitumen) that can give the best performance in production of crack sealant. The objectives of the
study are;
To design an appropriate mix for Crumb Rubber / Asphalt cement (bitumen) using Slurry Seal
Mix Design and also to estimate optimum binder content (Bitumen/Rubber) based on results of
the Slurry Mix Design. Finally to evaluate the performance of the Modified Slurry Seal on cracks
for road maintenance purposes.
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1.4 SCOPE OF WORK
The work is restricted to assessing the possibility of adapting Crumb rubber as a partial
replacement for bituminous binder in incremental order of 5 percent, ranging from 0 – 25
percent, using a Slurry Seal Mix Design with acceptable crushed rock / quarry dust and CQS-1H
emulsion to meet standard specification.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
The primary reason for using modified slurry seal is that it provides significantly improved
engineering properties over conventional slurry seal. It last longer in Crack sealing than the
conventional one.
In an era where budgetary allocations are very limited compare to the volume of maintenance
work required, there is the need for an alternative approach to road maintenance using locally
sourced materials that is cost effect and can achieve the same or better result as conventional
material and method using preventive maintenance.
It is pertinent to know that Modified Slurry Seal is durable, flexible in terms of production and
disallowed water from penetrating into to the road base. (ISSA, 2003). It reduces aging and it
contribution significantly to the reduction of waste tyres; which is the additive used in the
production of Modified Slurry seal. This recycled tyre rubber (CRM), mixed with bitumen
emulsion brings about a better emulsion. The use of CRM rubber will help to minimize the
disposal of waste automobile tyres that have become a menace to the environment.
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