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Download this complete Project material titled; A Study Of Rock Paintings In Bauchi And Jigawa States with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

 

Globally, rock paintings are age-long art forms that have revealed the activities of early humans in the respective sites. This is similar to the rock paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa States of Nigeria. The Study of Rock Paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa States is carried out to: Identify the imageries that constitute the rock paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa states, investigate specific similarities and differences that exist between the rock paintings of Bauchi and Jigawa States, examine the socio-cultural functions of the paintings and engravings, see the paintings and engravings in Bauchi and Jigawa states and document same. All the rock paintings that were identified in the selected areas were discussed and analyzed, and subsequently documented. In the course of the study also, it was discovered that there were similarities and differences in the imageries, styles and colours used in executing the rock paintings. Again, the study revealed that, the rock paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa States served various functions such as: magical, religious and ceremonial purposes. At present, the dwellers no longer participate in ceremonies that are linked to the rock paintings due to their current faith. It was confirmed that, these rock paintings actually exist and the sites are good for tourism activities. The tourism sector should integrate same in their program to help boost tourism in Nigeria. Most of the rock paintings are badly defaced either by human activities of bad weather, while some of the rock paintings sites are not fenced, and some, have no tour guides. Hence, the researcher recommends that Nigerian Government and non-governmental organizations should sponsor researchers to work more in-depth in the area of rock paintings in Nigeria. Also, they should put in place, measures that will protect the fast deterioration of Rock Paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa States. Walls or fences should be built in all the rock painting sites. All roads leading to the rock paintings should be reconstructed, tarred and guides/workers be appointed on all the rock painting sites.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -i
Declaration- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -iii
Dedication- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -v
Abstract- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -vi
Table of content – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – vii
List of figures – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – x
List of plates – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -xi
Map of Bauchi State – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – xii
Map of Jigawa State – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -xiv
CHAPTER ONE
(INTRODUCTION) Introduction- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1 Background of the study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 2 Statement of the Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5 Aim and Objective of the Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 7 Justification of the Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -8 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -8 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 9 Limitation of the study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – 9
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CHAPTER TWO
(LITERATURE REVIEW) Introduction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 11 Rock Paintings in Europe – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 12 Rock Paintings in Australia – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 19 Rock Paintings in Africa – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 20 Rock Paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa states – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 30 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 31
CHAPTER THREE
(METHODOLOGY) Introduction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -33 Sources of Data – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 33 Population/Sampling – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 34 Methods of Data Collection – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 35 Literature – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 35 Pilot Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -35 Field Work – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 36 Methods of Data Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 37
CHAPTER FOUR
(ANALYSIS) Introduction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -38 Discussion on selected Rock Paintings in Bauchi State – – – – – – – – – – 38 Geji Cave – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 38
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Shira Cave – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 48 Discussion on selected Rock Paintings in Jigawa State- – – – – – – – – – – 61 DutsenHabude, Birnin Kudu – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 61 Dutsen Mesa Rock Painting – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -70 Functions of Rock Paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa States – – – – – – – – 73 Comparing the Rock Paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa States – – – – – – – 76 Tourism Potentials of Rock Paintings of Bauchi and Jigawa States – – 79
CHAPTER FIVE
(SUMMARY/CONCLUSION) Introduction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -82 Summary – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -82 Conclusions – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -84 Notes – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 86 Reference – — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 88
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CHAPTER ONE

troduction:
The early humans used trees, river sites and caves as shelter at the early stages of life. These sides became media for depiction of their daily activities. The early humans artistically depicted on the walls of caves their hunting expedition, intentions of games, and rituals that served as a form of prayer for their daily activities. The evidences of such are found around the world with paintings and engravings super-imposed on one another in various caves as described by Gardner (1959) and Stokstad (2008). Such discoveries are found in; Altamira in Northern Spain, Lascaux in France, Ahaggar in Algeria, Kalahari rocks in Botswana/Namibia, the Atlas Mountains in Morocco, and Drankesberg mountains in South Africa. The art works showed variety of themes, techniques and media. This form of art was possibly done to satisfy a need, rather than, art for art sake.
According to Gardner (1959) art is defined as “selective communication of human experiences in tangible forms, existing as matter in space.” These experiences are shown in the paintings of early humans. They painted animals they could see around them and the daily activities they were engaged in. The urge to decorate one’s environment has been observed in the life of the early man as described by Stokstad (2008) that, the idea which says “human beings have an inherent desire to decorate themselves and their surroundings, which is an aesthetic wisdom, is somehow inborn to the human species.” The early men have proven this, by executing his art works on the walls of the caves where they dwelled in.
These dwellings of the early man have over the years been discovered with evidences of artistic activities. In Altamira, northern Spain, bison, bulls, horses and other animals were painted on cave ceilings. Similarly, in Lascaux, France, the evidence of cave paintings showed various forms of animals. These paintings are said to be done by Paleolithic artists, in
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about 13,000 B.C. colours red and yellow ochre were used to depict the paintings of a leaping cow and group of horses shown smaller than the cow. The colours were either blown through reeds onto the wall or mixed with animal fat and applied with reeds or thistles. In Austria and China, series of rock paintings have been discovered to show artistic brilliance even at that early stage of man. The works show various animals and body decorations (Gardner 1959, Jason 1977, and Stokstad 2008). As such, some writers believe that, the prehistoric hunters painted these to gain magical powers that would ensure a successful hunt.
In Africa, a lot of rock paintings have been uncovered, especially in northern Africa, where animals such as elephants, bulls, hippopotamus, reindeer, horses, camels and the likes, are found. Most of these animals were captured in the rock paintings found in Algeria, Tunisia, Zimbabwe, South Africa and West Africa as well. The works in Africa seem to be earlier than those found in Europe even in their discoveries, and those in West Africa seem to receive little attention from writers (Gombrich 1967, Leuzinger 1976, and Willett 1971). It is therefore, on this note that the study intends to identify the rock paintings of Bauchi and Jigawa states of Nigeria and make a comparative study of same.
Background of the study
Before 1976, Bauchi was under the then North-Eastern State of Nigeria. According to the 2006 Population Census, the state has a population of 4,653,066. Also, Gin (2012), The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2010) state that, “Bauchi state during the colonial era, up to independence, formed part of the Bauchi-Plateau, of the then Northern Region, until the 1967 state creation exercise, when the Bauchi, Borno, and Gongola provinces constituted the former North-Eastern State were formed.” The creation of Bauchi state according to Gin (2012) was on 3rd February, 1976, during the then military regime of Genaral Murtala Ramat
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Mohammed. It included the present Bauchi and Gombe states, with 16 Local Government Areas. The number of Local Government Areas in the then Bauchi state was increased to 20 and later to 23. However, in 1996 when Gombe state was carved out of Bauchi, additional local government areas were created in the country, Bauchi state was left with 20 Local Government Areas namely Bauchi, Tafawa Balewa, Dass, Darazo, Bogoro, Toro, Misau, Giade, Shira, Ningi, Jama’are, Warji, Katagum, Ganjuwa, Itas/Gadau, Kirfi, Zaki, Alkaleri, Gamawa, Danbam.
According to Gin (2012), Bauchi State Government report (2010), the Federal Government of Nigeria (2011),
The geographical location of Bauchi state occupies a total land area of 49,119 km² representing about 5.3% of Nigeria’s total land mass and is located between latitudes 9° 3′ and 12° 3′ north from the equator. Longitudinally, the state lies between 8° 50′ and 11° east of the Greenwich meridian. The state is bordered by seven states, Kano and Jigawa to the north, Taraba and Plateau to the south, Gombe and Yobe to the east and Kaduna to the West. Bauchi state is one of the states in the northern part of Nigeria that span two distinctive vegetation zones, namely, the Sudan savannah and the Sahel savannah. The Sudan savannah type of vegetation covers the southern part of the state. Here, the vegetation gets richer towards the south, especially along water sources or rivers, but generally, the vegetation is less uniform and grasses are shorter than what grows even farther south, that is, in the forest zone of the middle belt. The Sahel type of savannah, which is also known as the semi-desert vegetation, becomes manifest from the middle of the state, as one moves from the state’s south, to its north. This type of vegetation, comprises isolated stands of thorny shrubs. On the other hand, the southwestern part of the state is mountainous as a result of the continuation of the Jos Plateau topography, while the northern part is generally sandy.
The Federal Government of Nigeria (2011) adds that, Bauchi state houses two important rivers which are the Gongola and Jama’are rivers. The Gongola River crosses Bauchi state through Tafawa Balewa Local Government Area in the south and moves to Kirfi and Alkaleri Local Government Areas in the eastern part of the state, while the Jama’are River cuts across a number of Local Government Areas in the northern part of the state. Also, a substantial part of the Hadeija-Jama’are River basin, lies in Bauchi state, which along with various fadama (floodplain) areas in the state, provides suitable land for agricultural
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activities. These are further supported by the number of dams meant for irrigation and other purposes. These include; the Gubi and Tilde-Fulani dams. There are also, lakes such as the Maladumba Lake, in Misau Local Government Area that supports fadama agriculture.
According to Nigeria Galleria (2011) and Anon (2011), “Jigawa State was created on the 27th August 1991 from Kano State, by the then regime of General Ibrahim Babangida. Its capital is Dutse, Situated in central northern Nigeria. Jigawa State covers about 23,154 square kilometers; it shares a common border with Kano and Katsina States to the west, Bauchi State to the South East, Yobe State to the North East and Republic of Niger to the North. The population of the state based on the Population Census of 2006 is estimated at about 4,348,649.”
Jigawa’s topography is generally characterized by undulating land, with sand dunes of various sizes spanning several kilometers. The Federal Government of Nigeria (2011) and Anon (2011) state that, the State has a total land mass of approximately 22,410 square kilometers. The Southern part of Jigawa comprises the Basement Complex while the Northeast is made up of sedimentary rocks of the Chad Formation. The main rivers are Hadejia, Kafin Hausa and Iggi Rivers with a number of tributaries feeding extensive marshlands in north-eastern part of the State. Hadejia – Kafin Hausa River traverses the State from West to East through the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands and empties into the Lake Chad Basin.
Most parts of Jigawa State lie within the Sudan Savannah with elements of Guinea Savannah in the Southern part. Nigeria Galleria (2011) and Anon (2011) report that, both natural and human factors are depleting forest making the Northern part of the State vulnerable to desert encroachment. The State enjoys vast fertile arable land, which almost all tropical crops could adapt to, thus constituting one of the natural resources of the state. The
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Sudan Savannah vegetation zone is also made up of vast grazing lands suitable for livestock production.
Jigawa state was created out of Kano state as earlier mentioned; it has twenty seven local governments. Jigawa State (2011) Anon (2011) mention that Jigawa State has 27 Local Government Areas namely; Auyo, Babura, Biriniwa, Birnin Kudu, Buji, Dutse, Gagarawa, Garki, Gumel, Guri, Gwaram and Gwiwa: others are; Hadejia, Jahun, Kafin Hausa, Kaugama, Kazaure, Kiri Kasama, Kiyawa, Maigatari, Malam Madori, Miga, Ringim, Roni, Sule Tankarkar, Taura and Yankwashi.
The rocky areas in Bauchi and Jigawa states that showed evidence of paintings/engravings include: Dutsen Damisa near Gumulel in Bauchi State, the Rock Painting at Dutsen Zane near Geji in Bauchi State, and Rock Paintings in Shadawanka, near Army Barracks in Bauchi town. Another site in Bauchi state includes rock paintings in the rock shelters of Shira, in Northern part of Bauchi state. While in Jigawa state, there are Rock Paintings at Dutsen Habude in Birnin Kudu, Tikwar Hill, Dutsen Mesa, Dutsen Murufu and Dutsen Zango, all in Birnin Kudu area, of Jigawa state.
Statement of the Problem
Rock paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa states, is the thrust of this research. After the discovery of rock paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa states, in the 1950s and 1960s, The National Commission for Museums and Monuments of Nigeria declared the sites as ancient monuments. The declaration of 23rd April 1959, states that, the Rock Paintings of Dutsen Damisa near Gumulel in Geji, Bauchi State, some thirty two kilometres to town, are in a better state of preservation than those at Geji. Though artistically, they are of lower standard compare to those at Geji. Also, on the 19th of March, 1963, the Rock Paintings in
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Shadawanka, near Bauchi, were discoverd. Shadawanka is about five kilometers north of Bauchi and the cave is visible from the main road. This is followed by the rock paintings in the Northern part of Bauchi state, particularly at Shira in Azare province which was declared on 5th of August, 1964.
In Jigawa state, the National Museums and Monuments also declared Ancient Monument on the same date as those of Bauchi; some of which are, the Rock Painting at Dutsen Habude and Dutsen Murufu all in Birnin Kudu. Dutsen Murufu lies South of the main road, on the east side of the town. Again, on 15th December 1964, the presence of Rock paintings, Gongs and Shelter at Dutsen Mesa in Birnin Kudu were declared. While in February 1954, two other groups of paintings were found. In April 1955, a fourth group and in June 1955 three groups making a total of seven near Birnin Kudu were also declared monuments. Finally, the Rock Paintings of Dutsen Zango at Birnin Kudu came to light on 15th December, 1964 as declared by the Commission for Museums and Monuments of Nigeria. Dutsen Zango lies one hundred yards north of the main road opposite the residence of the Sarkin Kudu and also very close to the area court, and contains important series of paintings and rock gongs.
Since the declaration of rock paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa states by the National Commission for Museums and Monuments of Nigeria in the 1950s and 1960s, there has been little or no study made to deliberately document the rock paintings and engravings of Bauchi and Jigawa states. Attempts made by Jafar (1985) Idris (2011) to discuss the paintings in Jigawa State alone did not address the content of the rock paintings in the two states under study, nor were there imageries to analyze their findings. Hence, the problem of this study is that, both the entire declaration made by the Commission for Museums and monuments, Jafar and Idris did not explain the various paintings done within Bauchi and Jigawa states, nor was
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there an attempt to deliberately document same, hence this research seeks to investigate the afore mentioned claims, analyze the content of the rock paintings using the imageries and to document same. This research hopes to answer the following questions.
Research questions:
i. What are the imageries that constitute the rock paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa states?
ii. What are the similarities and differences that can be drawn from these works?
iii. Do the rock paintings by their nature and content have any socio-cultural functions?
iv. What is the evidence that these paintings and engravings do exist?
Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to study the rock paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa states, while the specific objectives of the study are to:
i. Identify the imageries that constitute the rock paintings in Bauchi and Jigawa states.
ii. Investigate specific similarities and differences that exist between the rock paintings of Bauchi and Jigawa States.
iii. Examine the socio-cultural functions of the paintings and engravings.
iv. See the paintings and engravings in Bauchi and Jigawa states and document same.
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Justification of the Study
Rock paintings all over the world are traceable to early life of humans. It has also been used to describe the functions of art in human’s life. Similarly, the rock paintings of Bauchi and Jigawa states give a clue to the possible early existence of humans in the rock sites. This study is justified because it draws references and inferences to the early activities of the people who lived in the sites. The art works also add to the insufficient documents of these sites, and to art historical studies especially in terms of its nature and content. This study is justified also for the complimentary role it plays, in further bringing to the fore details of what the National Commission for Museums and Monuments of Nigeria declared in the 1950s / 1960s.
Another justification of the study is found in Willett’s assertion. Willett (1971) states that, the extension of the Sahara desert to West Africa has shown some elements of rock paintings in the region. Though little is known on the rock paintings of West Africa, however, some works have been discovered such as the rock paintings, rock gongs, rock slides and initiation rites. In addition to the declaration of rock paintings in West Africa, as made by Willett and Trust for African Rock Art also notes the west African region as one with rock paintings, by identifying Niger and Mali without giving details; it says, “most of Africa’s rock art is found in the Sahara Desert, in Egypt, Chad, Libya, Niger, Algeria, Mali, Morocco and Mauritania.” Hence, this study is further justified in its attempt to unravel the claims made by Willett and The Trust for African Rock Art.
Significance of the study
This research is significant in some ways. First, it is significant for adding to the few documents that are available for researchers on rock paintings in Nigeria, specifically the two
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under study. Also, the history of the people living within the areas of the rock paintings of Bauchi and Jigawa states are brought into the existing rock history of Africa. Finally, the study helps tourism experts in Nigeria, to integrate their activities/programs to include aspects of these rock paintings/engravings in Bauchi and Jigawa states, for the benefit of the sector.
Scope of the study
Though, the National commission for Museums and Monuments declared about eight rock paintings sites in Bauchi and Jigawa states, this research covered only four sites. The eight sites include Dutsen Zane at Geji, Dutsen Damisa at Gumulel, Sadawanka near Bauchi town, Dutsen Maryo at Shira, all in Bauchi state. Others are Dutsen Habude at Birnin kudu, Dutsen Murufu at Birnin kudu, Dutsen Mesa at Birnin kudu and Dutsen Zango at Birnin kudu all in Jigawa state. In view of this therefore, the scope of this study is limited to the rock paintings of Geji and Shira, in Bauchi state on one hand, and those of Dutsen Habude and Dutsen Mesa at Birnin kudu, Jigawa state on the other. This is purposely done in order to have a thorough investigation within the limited period available for this study.
The researcher chose two sites from each of the states under study to give room for balanced comparison. It is also hoped that the four sites chosen best represent each of the states properly. The choice was informed by the availability of rock paintings in those caves instead of the presence of rock gongs which does not concern this study.
Limitation of the study
The researcher was faced with the challenge of access in most of the areas visited. At Birnin Kudu particularly, the researcher was denied the opportunity to go round the rock housing the paintings at Dutsen Mesa which is one of the sites selected for the study. The
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military in Birnin Kudu use the area as a minicamp to combat the current security challenges in the north. It took the researcher and the staff of the National Museum Birnin Kudu, two and half months just to have two snap shots of the rock paintings at Dutsen Mesa. At a point, the team was warned not to go near the rock or they would be shot. Finally, the rock site director intervened, by contacting the appropriate authorities. He personally used his camera and got the snap shots under heavy security.
A similar incident happened in Bauchi town. After leaving Geji, the researcher was directed by the chief of Natsira Geji, to stop at Shadawanka village in Bauchi town and see another rock painting there. On reaching area, the researcher discovered that Shadawanka village is where the present Shadawanka Army Barracks is situated. At that time, nobody was allowed to climb any of the rocks in the village because of the security challenges facing the region.
Some community leaders refused to grant the researcher audience on the basis that, it was hard to trust strangers at that period. They suspected that, a stranger could be a spy or a terrorist. Even when he was accompanied by a known person, some of the leaders declined making comments. As such, some of the information that could have been relevant to the study, have likely been lost.
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