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 3,000

ABSTRACT

 

The study was conducted to determine the abundance of mosquito species within
Sokoto metropolis. Three (3) locations, which are Danbuwa, Gobirawa and GidanIgwai,
in three (3) Local Government Areas, namely; DangeShuni, Sokoto South and Sokoto
North Local Government Areas respectively, were sampled out of the five (5) Local
Government Areas that make up Sokoto Metropolis were sampled. A total of 341
Mosquitoes species belonging to two genera were collected. The genera identified are
Anopheles and Culex. The number of Culex and Anopheles were 213(62.5%) and
128(37.5%) respectively, showing a significant difference between the two genera. The
total number of males was 194, representing 56.9% of the sample and a total number of
females was 147, representing 43.1% of the total sample, showing a significant difference
between the gender (P >0.05)
The total number of the engorged Mosquitoes collected were 57, representing 39%
of the total sample, while the total number of the not engorged mosquitoes collected were
90, representing 61% of the total sample collected. There was no significant difference
between the engorged and the not engorged mosquitoes P <0.05. The number of males
recorded in Danbuwa area was more than the number of females. In Gobirawa area also,
more males than females were recorded. Also in GidanIgwai area, the number of males
recorded was more than the number of females. However, these values were insignificant
(p<0.05).
Finally, only Danbuwa had more number of engorged females than the not
engorged, the other two areas had lesser number of engorged than the not engorged. The
values were, however, also insignificant (p<0.05).
The results of the study is of Public Health concern as the species of
mosquitoes encountered have been known for the transmission of one form of disease
or the other.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Content Pages
Title Page …………………………………………………………. i
Certification …………………………………………………………. ii
Dedication …………………………………………………………. iii
Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………. iv
Table of content …………………………………………………………. v
List of tables …………………………………………………………. vii
Abstract …………………………………………………………. viii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Statement of the research problem………………………………….. 3
1.2 Significance of the research………………………………………… 4
1.3 Aim and objectives of the research ……………………………….. 5
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Review of literature………………………………………………… 6
2.1 Classification of mosquitoes………………………………………… 6
2.2 Morphology of mosquitoes…………………………………………. 7
2.3 General life cycle of mosquito……………………………………… 10
2.4 Feeding habits of mosquitoes………………………………………. 14
6
2.5 Economic importance of mosquitoes………………………………… 17
2.6 Control of mosquitoes ……………………………………………. 18
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and method ……………………………………………. 23
3.1 Study area …………………………………………………………. 23
3.2 Mosquito collection …………………………………………… 24
3.3 Identification …………………………………………………… 24
3.4 Statistical analysis …………………………………………………… 27
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results………………………………………………………………… 28
4.1 General results …………………………………………………….28
4.2 Results of mosquitoes collected by location ………………………… 33
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion ………………………………………………………….. 38
5.1 Conclusion ………………………………………………………….. 40
5.2 Recommendation …………………………………………………… 41
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………….. 42
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Data for total number of Mosquitoes collected.
Table 2: Total number of male and female Mosquitoes collected.
Table 3: Total number of engorged/not engorged mosquitoes collected.
Table 4: Mosquito data for Danbuwa Area (DangeShuni Local Government Area).
Table 5: Mosquito data for Gobirawa Area (Sokoto South Local Government Area)
Table 6: Mosquito data for GidanIgwai Area (Sokoto North Local Government
Area)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Mosquitoes are slender and relatively small insects, usually measuringabout 3–
6 mm in length. Some species, however, can be as small as 2 mmwhile others may
be as long as 19 mm (Service, 2008). The long antennae have numerous whorls of
hair, short in the female and long and bushy in the male. In most species of
mosquitoes, the mouthparts of the female are long, adapted for piercing and for
sucking blood. The male, which feeds on nectar and water, has rudimentary
mouthparts. Females of this group prefer the blood of warm-blooded animals.
When they bite, they inject some of their salivary fluid into the wound, causing
swelling and irritation. Many inject infectious microorganisms and thus transmit
such diseases as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and filariasis (Patel et al, 2012).
There are some 3300 species of mosquitoes belonging to 41 genera, all
contained in the family Culicidae (Service, 2008). This family is divided into three
subfamilies: Toxorhynchitinae, Anophelinae (anophelines) and Culicinae
(culicines). Mosquitoes have a worldwide distribution; they occur throughout the
tropical and temperate regions and extend their range northwards into the Arctic
Circle. The only areas from which they are absent are Antarctica, and a few
islands. They are found at elevations of 5500mand down mines at depths of 1250m
below sea level (Service, 2008).
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The most important pest and vector species belong to the genera Anopheles,
Culex, Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Haemagogus and
Sabethes.Anophelesspecies, as well as transmitting malaria, are vectors of
Filariasis (Wuchereriabancrofti, Brugiamalayi and Brugiatimori) and a few
arboviruses. Certain Culexspecies transmit Wuchereriabancrofti and a variety of
arboviruses. Aedes species are important vectors of yellow fever, dengue,
encephalitis viruses and many other arboviruses, and in a few restricted areas they
are also vectors of Wuchereriabancrofti and Brugiamalayi. Species in the very
closely related genus Ochlerotatus also transmitfilariasis and encephalitis viruses.
Mansonia species transmit Brugiamalayi and sometimes
Wuchereriabancrofti and a few arboviruses. Haemagogus and Sabethes
mosquitoes are vectors of yellow fever and a few other arboviruses in Central and
South America, while the genus Psorophora contains some troublesome pest
species in North and South America, as well as a few transmitting arboviruses
(Service, 2008).
Many species, although not carriers of any disease, can nevertheless be
troublesome because of the serious biting nuisances they cause.
The mosquito is one of the insects that have come to be known by man
especially in homes for their bites which elicits the formation of antibodies. This is
due to the venom that contains toxic protein, which may be inoculated as a result of
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these bites. It can also cause sharp-pains with some allergic tendencies. Although it
does not only bite, but can also serve as nuisance by causing discomfort to their
hosts (especially higher vertebrates) as a result of their sounds(Richard, 1993).
Mosquitoes are also widely spread due to their high adaptability, higher
reproductive rate, wings, which makes them long distance travellers. Mosquitoes lay
their eggs in places where stagnant waters are found. For example pools, ditches,
gutters, rivers, streams and other places (Patel et al., 2012)
Although some species of mosquitoes do not bite people, rather they prefer
birds or amphibians hosts. Certain mosquito species prefers to feed during the
daytime, while others feed at night (Ilahi,2013). Various mosquito species have
evolved to seek out and lay their eggs in specific locations (Patriciaet al., 2014).
Female mosquitoes lay their eggs only in water; some species lay their eggs
in running water, others in woodland pools, marshes, swamps, estuaries, or in
containers such as rain barrels (Service, 2008).
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Mosquitoes are vicious biters and their bites constitute biting nuisance,
allergic reactions, skin irritations, scratching, restlessness and sleepless nights
(Onyidoet al., 2009). Some biteduring the day while others bite during the night or
at both night and day periods. Through their blood sucking habits, they act as
vectors of a variety of human pathogens including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and
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helminthic diseases. They transmit to man such deadly diseases as malaria, yellow
fever, filariasis,dengue and various forms of viral encephalitis (Ukpaiand Ajoku,
2003).
The anopheles mosquitoes especially, Anophelesgambiae, transmit malaria
and filariasis. The Aedesmosquitoes particularly Aedesaegypti, A. albopictus, A.
africanus, A. luteocephalusand A. simpsoni, transmit yellow fever, dengue,
haemorrhagic fevers and various forms of viral encephalitis. The Culexmosquitoes
particularly Culex quinquefasciatus are very important transmitters of filarial
worms especially Wuchereriabancrofti which causes elephantiasis. They also
transmit various forms of viral encephalitis (Onyidoet al., 2009).
Mosquitoes also bite livestock and transmit some animal diseases like fowl
pox disease of poultry, myxomatosis of rabbits, rift valley fever of sheep,
encephalitis of horses and heartworm disease of dogs (Service, 1980).
All these diseases cause high death toll on both human and animal
populations and lead to poor socio-economic development of many countries.
1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH
The mosquitoes remain a major vector of killer diseases in every part of the
world, and Nigeria is not an exception. They also cause nuisance by the sound they
make. But they serve as a vital ecological function in that their larvae, pupae, and
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adults are important food source for fishes, birds, bats, frogs and insects (Patricia et
al., 2014).
Although the occurrence of various species of mosquitoes may be seen to
vary from one location to another, the result obtained in this study would high-light
some important information on the diversity and distribution of mosquitoes as well
as help in designing an effective control measure.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
The aim of the research is to determine the relative abundance and
distribution of mosquito species within Sokoto Metropolis.
The objectives of this research are to:
 Identify the species within the areas under study.
 Determine the most abundant species within the area.
 Determine the distribution of mosquito species within the study areas based
on area of collection, sex and feeding state.

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