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Download this complete Project material titled; Access To Improved Water Supply For Domestic Use In Ootunja Ikole Local Government, Ekiti State with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

This project is designed to determine households’ access to safe water supply in Ootunja,
Ikole-Ekiti, in terms of quality and quantity as the importance of improved water supply
to human health cannot be over emphasized. However, safe/improve water supply to
most Nigerian cities is still inadequate. In the study area the relationship between water
quality, the degree of water source protection and quantity. This aim was achieved
through the use of well-structured questionnaire in gathering information on time to water
collect, distance from household to source, quantity collected, different water samples
were collected and analyzed in the laboratory to measure the quality of the water that is
being used for domestic activities in Ootunja, Ikole-Ekiti house-hold and it was compared
the World Health Organisation standards for drinking water parameter which are the
physical parameter, the chemical parameter and micro-biological parameter. Results
showed that sample A did not meet the required drinking water quality standards for the
physical and chemical parameter while all other water samples met the chemical
parameter as they all fall within the permissible value of the W.H.O chemical standard.
Also all the water sample did not meet the micro-biological W.H.O standard. The water
samples were all contaminated with Aerobic mesophilic organism and coli form
organism, Laboratory results also showed that in sample A,B,D aerobic mesophilic
organism were too numerous to count. It was concluded that the study area has access to
enough water quantity based on W.H.O standard It was recommended that
NGOs/funding agencies should participate in development of improved water supply
programmes and a lot of awareness creation activities should be done on sanitation and
hygiene through extension workers.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract……………………………………………………….……..…….………………i
Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………….………………ii
Dedication ……………………………………………………….…………………….…iii
Certification …………………………..………………………….…………….…………iv
Table of Content ………………………………………………………………….………v
List of Figures ………………………………………………………..………….…… viii
List of Plates ………………………………………………………………..……………ix
List of Table ………………………………………………………….……………………x
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction …………………………..……………………..…….…..1 1.1 Background ………………………………………..……………………..….…….…1 1.2 Justification …………………………………………………………………..………..3 1.3 Problem ………………………………………………………………..………………3 1.4 Aims and objectives…………………………………………………..………………….4 1.5 Population & Geographical Landscape of the Study Area…………..………..……….4 1.5.1 Climate and Vegetation …………………………………………………………7 1.5.2 Sources of water in Ikole Local Government ………………………………..…7
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review…………………………………………………….…8 2.1 The Need for Water Supply………………………..…………………………….…..13 2.2 Concept of Domestic Water………………………..…………………………….…..16 2.3 What is meant by access to safe/improved water……………………….…….….…..17 2.4 Sources of Water ………..……………………………………………………………18
2.4.1 Surface Water …………………………….…………………………………………19
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2.4.2 Groundwater …………………………………………………………………….…21
2.4.2.1 Description of a Groundwater System …..…………………..………………21
2.5 Water Quality Parameters ………………….………………………………………..22
2.5.1 Perception of Drinking Water……………………………………………………22 2.5.2 The Quality of Groundwater……………………………………..……..……..22
2.6.1 Chemical parameters ………………………………………………………………26 2.6.2 Bacteriological parameters …………………………………………………………29 2.6.3 Physical and aesthetic parameters ……………………………………………….…32 2.7 Water treatment plants ………………………………………………………….……33 2.8 Factors Leading to Water Quality Deterioration ……………………………………38
CHAPTER THREE: Methodology…………………………………………………….….…………….……….39 3.1 Data collection methods……………….…………………………..…………………………39
3.2 Water Sampling…………………………………………..…………………………41
3.3 Method of analysis of Samples ………………………….………..………………..43
3.3.1 Temperature …………………………………………..…….………………..43
3.3.2 pH …………………………………………………………..………………..43
3.3.3 EC (Electrical Conductivity)…………………………………………………44
3.3.4 Alkalinity ……………………………………………………………………45
3.3.5 Calcium ………………………………………………………………………45
3.3.6 Magnesium …………….………….……………………………………………..45
3.3.7 Chloride ………………………..…………………………………………….46
3.3.8 Turbidity: ……………………………………..…………………………..…46
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3.3.9 Phosphate ……………………………………………………………………46
3.3.10 Nitrate……………………………………………………………………….46
3.3.11 Total hardness..…………………………………………………………….46
3.3.12 Residual chlorine …………………………………..………………….……47
3.3.13 Total solid ………………………………………..……..…………………..47
3.3.14 Nitrate (NO3)………………………………………………………………..47
3.3.15 Aluminum (Al) …………………………………………………………….47
3.3.16 Zinc (Zn) ………………………………………………………………….47
CHAPTER FOUR: Result and Discussion ………………………………………………48
4.1 Distributions of Respondents by Access to Safe/Improved Water for
Domestic Use ……………………………………………………….………….…48
4.2 Household water consumption …………………………………….…….………….50 4.3 Water Quality ……………………………………….………………….……..51 4.3.1 Aesthetic Parameters ……………………………………………………………51 4.3.2 Micro-Biological parameters ……………………………………………………55
4.4 The discrepancy between actual and reported access to improved water sources …………………………………………………………………………………..……….56
CHAPTER FIVE: Conclusion and Recommendation ……………………………..…..66 5.1 Conclusion ……………………………………………………..…….……….66
5.2Recommendations…………………………………………….………………………57
REFERENCE……………………………..………………………..…………………….59
APPENDIXES ……………………………..……………………………………………61
Appendix 1 ………………………………………………………………………………61

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Nigeria is one of the member countries that adopted the millennium development
declaration with its main objective of poverty reduction (UNDP, 2008). This resulted in
prioritizing accessibility to improved water supply. Prior research has revealed that
access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene are the significant elements for poverty
alleviation (Water Aid, 2009). Access to safe drinking water and sanitation is a global
concern. However, developing countries, like Nigeria, have suffered from a lack of
access to safe drinking water from improved sources and to adequate sanitation services
(WHO, 2006). As a result, people are still dependent on unprotected water sources such
as rivers, streams, springs and hand dug wells. Since these sources are open, they are
highly susceptible to flood and birds, animals and human contamination. In addition,
most sources are found near gullies where open field defecation is common and flood
washed wastes affect the quality of water.
According to an ADF (2005) report, the Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
objective of Nigeria is to increase the safe/improved water sources coverage from 2004
levels of 25% water supply and 8% sanitation to 62% for water supply and 54%
sanitation by 2020. As a consequence, governmental and nongovernmental organizations
made efforts to construct improved sources to provide access to safe and potable drinking
water. Despite these efforts, improved water sources are often located far from user
households, and due to the undulating nature of the country.
Topography, water sources often occur at inconvenient locations, forcing people to travel
long distances over continuous short and long steep slopes. These factors lead to less
access to water needed by the household for consumption and forced households to seek
out alternate unimproved and unhealthy nearby water sources due to reluctance in using
improved sources. It is common that people who are most vulnerable to water-borne
diseases are those who use polluted drinking water sources. The report from UNICEF
(2010), in the world 884 million people use unimproved drinking water sources in 2010,
and in 2015 estimates about 672 million people will still using unimproved drinking
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water sources. The WHO (2000) revealed that seventy five percent of all diseases in
developing countries arise from polluted drinking water. The lack of access to water also
limits sanitation and hygiene practices in many households because of the priority given
for drinking and cooking purposes. Water quality concerns are often the most important
component for measuring access to improved water sources. Acceptable quality shows
the safety of drinking water in terms of its physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters (WHO, 2004). User communities‟ perceptions of quality also carry great
weight in their drinking water safety (Doria, 2010). Depending on their perception on
taste, odor and appearance (Sheat, 1992; Doria, 2010), this can lead to having different
opinions about the aesthetic values of water quality. Consumer perceptions and aesthetic
criteria need to be considered when assessing drinking water supplies even though they
may not adversely affect human health (WHO, 2004).
Despite the best governmental and nongovernmental efforts, a large percentage of the
water supply schemes are malfunctioning, forcing consumers to use unprotected sources
that pose health hazards and which thus seriously affect their productivity. It is
imperative to ensure that the water supply and sanitation services are adequate, affordable
and reliable. The study was conducted in Amhara region Simada district where many
governmental and nongovernmental efforts focused on water supply projects. Despite the
opportunity for urban inhabitants to use tap water stands installed in the past few years,
people are still collecting water from previously used distant water sources because of
dissatisfaction with the change in the taste of the water, low income and longer waiting
time as compared with the old protected springs. As a result of this dissatisfaction,
consumers generally expect their water to have little or no flavor. People can detect
variations in pH, mineral and organic content of drinking water (Dietrich, 2006). The
variation in pH is detected indirectly, with greater acidity increasing corrosivity that in
turn can contaminate the water, and which implies a change in the taste of water. In
contrast, even though many water points have been built by different implementing
projects in many areas, drinking water scarcity is still a great problem. Distance from the
source to the house, waiting time, adequacy, quality and early failure of the scheme are
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common phenomena which force households to seek alternative unimproved water
sources.
1.2 Justification
Creating community awareness of their water supply and sanitation services is
one of the options for improving sustainable access (Mtinda, 2007). Improving the water
supply coverage and quality has a number of consequences in addition to the fact that
investigating the socioeconomic and other factors affecting household water consumption
patterns provides guidance for policy makers and those in various agencies implementing
projects. It also ensures the projects capture the major points to be considered before
installation begins and ensures the ongoing provision of a service that is fundamental to
improve health, reducing the burden of women and children carrying water long
distances, and enabling users to live a life of dignity. Water supply and sanitation services
should not be seen as isolated factors (Water Aid, 2009).
Furthermore to achieve the MDGs of access to improved water sources is better to
incorporate each element to understand and recommend the major factors which hinder
the vision of the long term programs for the provision of safe or quality water and
sanitation services is very crucial.
1.3 Problem
Lack of access to safe and clean water is locked in the heart of the poverty. Even
though the issue of water is observed as a general problem for both the urban and the
rural population, women bear the greatest burden because of their social gender roles
including collecting water for their households (Rose, 2009). Because of their task of
water provision at the households, women and children suffer from disease have limited
participation in education, and both income generating activities and engagement in
cultural and political issues are often compromised.
Several studies have been carried out to analyze people’s perception and attitude
about the drinking water source quality and accessibility. Creating good community
awareness about water quality issues and the associated problems like sanitation and
hygiene services is important to alleviate health effects but it remains below the expected
rate of coverage.
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By the year 2015 the national water supply and sanitation program under its
millennium development goal planned to increase the coverage of water supply and
sanitation by 64% and 54% respectively. It has been said that the chances of achieving
the Millennium Development Goal of halving the proportion of people without access to
safe water by 2020 will be seriously lowered unless levels of sustainability can be greatly
improved (Haysom, 2006; Harvey et.al, 2007).
1.4 Aims and Objectives
The main aim of this project is to assess access to safe/improve water supply for
domestic uses.
The specific objectives are:
1. To assess the presence of alternative water sources used.
2. To assess the time required and distance individuals must travel to access water
sources for households.
3. To assess the demand pattern improved sources at the household.
4. To assess the relationship between water quality, the degree of water source
protection and sanitation behaviors.
5. To determine how community perception on water quality is related to the actual
measured water quality.
6. To determine the key factors contributing to the continued use of unimproved water
sources.
1.5 Population & Geographical Landscape of the Study Area
Geographically, Ikole Local Government area of Ekiti State, Nigeria is entirely within the tropic. It is located between longitude 5°31′0″E, East of Greenwich and latitude 7°47′0″N, North of the Equator as shown in the Fig.1.1 . Its neighbours are
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Kwara State to the North, Kogi State to the North east, Ekiti East to the East, Gboyin
Local Government in the South and Oye Local government in the West. The headquarters of the local government, Ikole-Ekiti is about 40 kilometres from Ado – Ekiti, the Ekiti
State capital. The local government is mainly on the upland zone rising to about 250
metres above the sea level.
The Local Government occupies an area of about 374,940kms of land and according to
the 2006 National Population Census figure, the total population of the local government
was 168,436; Male:87,976; Female: 80,460.The Local Government is predominantly a
homogenous society and carefully populated by Yoruba speaking people of the South
West Zone of Nigeria. The Religious of the people are mainly Christian and Islamic
religious while a percentage of the people are Traditional religion worshippers. The place
in the Ikole Local Government that attracts tourists from all over is the Itapaji Water
Dam, Itapaji-Ekiti. ekitistate.gov.ng(2016)
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Fig 1.1 .Ikole-Ekiti on the map of Nigeria
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1.5.1 Climate and Vegetation
Ikole is situated in the deciduous forest area of the State. Rainfall is about 1,778
mm per annum. Rain starts in March and peters out in November. The good drainage of
the land makes it very suitable for agricultural pursuits. It is a common feature that trees
shed their leaves every year during the dry season which begins in November and ends in February. The two seasons – Dry Season (November – February) and Rainy Season (early March – mid November) are quite distinct and they are very important to the
agricultural pursuits of the people.
1.5.2 Sources of water in Ikole Local Government
1) Hand dug wells,
2) Bore-holes (pumped by powered machines and hand pump),
3) Surface water in form of streams,
4) Public Water Works (Itapaji dam),
5) Rain water harvesting

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