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Download this complete Project material titled; Adaptation Of The Dagi Motif For Painting with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

 

The research titled: “Adaptation of the Dagi Motif for Painting” is aimed at
bringing to light the aesthetic qualities that are inherent in Northern Knot motif
which bears the nomenclature “Dagi” with the view to further advance the study of
the ubiquitous icon as a source for artistic purpose (particularly for painting. The
data for the study were therefore, based on selected Dagi Motif as found on palace
gate, door post of houses, embroidery and other household utensil found in Zaria
Emirate council. However, similar forms of interest in books and previous
paintings were also made use of. They served as creative models for the study.
Result and findings of this study are presented as plates followed by discussions.
At the end of the research, certain observations were made. It was found that in
exploring the Dagi motif, mere visual representation could be carried further to
highly complex visual sophistication as a play of light upon the dagi motif can be
interesting with certain areas reflecting or refract light with fascinating results.
Thus, painters should continue to tap into “Dagi” inspirational depth to further
advance modern painting.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

TITLE PAGE – – – – – – – – i
DECLARATION – – – – – – – – ii
CERTIFICATION – – – – – – – – iii
DEDICATION – – – – – – – – iv
ACKNOWLEDGMENT – – – – – – – – v
ABSTRACT – – – – – – – – vi
TABLE OF CONTENT – – – – – – – – vii
LIST OF FIGURES – – – – – – – – x
LIST OF PLATES – – – – – – – – xi
DEFINITION OF TERMS – – – – – – – xii
CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Background of the Study – – – – – – – 4
1.3 Statement of the Problem- – – – – – – 5
1.4 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – 6
1.5 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 6
1.6 Justification – – – – – – – – – 7
1.7 Scope of the Study – – – – – – – – 7
1.8 Limitation – – – – – – – – – 7
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND WORKS
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 8
2.2 Related Works – – – – – – – 10
viii
2.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 25
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 26
3.2 Method of Data Collection- – – – – – – 26
3.3 Research Design use for the Study- – – – – – 27
3.4 Methods of Data Analysis- – – – – – – 27
3.5 Stages of Work – – – – – – – – 27
3.6 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 28
CHAPTER FOUR
ANALYSIS OF WORK
4.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 34
4.0.1 Discussion of Works Produced – – – – – – 34
4.1.0 Category One – – – – – – – – 35
4.1.1 Northern Knot – – – – – – – – 35
4.1.2 From the Sea – – – – – – – – 36
4.1.3 Mother Earth – – – – – – – – 37
4.1.4 Northern Knot II – – – – – – – – 38
4.2.0 Category Two – – – – – – – – 39
4.2.1 Edge II – – – – – – – – – 39
4.2.2 Organ – – – – – – – – – 40
4.2.3 City at Night – – – – – – – – 41
4.2.4 Edge I – – – – – – – – – 43
4.2.5 The Mat – – – – – – – – – 44
4.2.6 Purple Rain – – – – – – – – – 45
4.3.0 Category Three – – – – – – – – 46
ix
4.3.1 Fragment – – – – – – – – – 46
4.3.2 The Big Bang – – – – – – – – 47
4.3.3 Lizard on the Wall – – – – – – – 48
4.3.4 Reintegration – – – – – – – – 49
4.3.5 The profile – – – – – – – – – 50
4.3.6 Eyo – – – – – – – – – 51
4.3.7 Inikpi – – – – – – – – – 52
4.3.8 Landscape at Dawn – – – – – – – 54
4.3.9 Falling Heaven – – – – – – – – 55
4.3.10 Nucleus – – – – – – – – – 56
4.3.11 Going Home – – – – – – – – 57
4.4 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 58
CHAPTER FIVE
FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – 59
5.2 Findings – – – – – – – – – 59
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 59
5.4 Recommendation – – – – – – – – 60
5.5 References – – – – – – – – – 61
5.6 Appendixes – – – – – – – – – 63

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1 Introduction
There are research works currently in print which deal with icons, symbols
and motifs from the northern part of Nigeria. However, no book about pictorial
symbols would be complete without some consideration of the Dagi. Dagi is a
motif incorporated into almost all Northern Nigeria artistic expressions such as
cultural and traditional embroidery, wall decorations, architectural design and
durbar. It has equally evolved over a period of time into different shapes, designs
and patterns.
The focus of this study is narrowed to this motif which serves as a medium
for personal expression for the artist but this role however, does not prevent it from
serving other purposes. According to the Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary of
current English (2000), a motif is a design or a pattern used as a decoration. While
Banjoko (2000), sees a motif as a unit of a design or major theme in an art work
especially in pattern making. Motifs can be formed from natural or artificial
objects, abstract, geometric, regular or irregular shapes. (Chambers 20th Century
Dictionary (1983), Defines a symbol as an emblem; that which by custom or
convention represents something else while motif is a theme, subject, an element in
a composition, especially a dominant element. It is often symbolic.
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Nataf (1994), is of the view that “a symbol is not a simple convention as is
the case in mathematics. Symbolism is not a language, but a way of speaking; it is
much more than collection of signs. A true symbol always designates the being – in
– the world”. The Dagi motif is subject to constant concrete adaptation to the ever –
changing fields of its application and this has given rise to various stylization,
transformation but not beyond recognition.
Today, as people travel long but are increasingly lazy about learning other
people’s languages, the role of the sign can become an important means of
communication. Holmes (1985) stated that a symbol stands for something. It is
visually precise; it attempts to get at the essence of an idea and by repeated use can
come to equal it.
Frutiger, (1989).word or speech, written or spoken,
do not appear to play any part at all in the
mechanism of my thought processes.
The basic psychic elements of thought are certain
signs and more or less clear pictures, which can
be reproduced and combined to order.
Often, motifs have been an integral part of the human society and it is
believed that even language and the art of writing are all woven into symbolism.
One of the earliest forms of writing (hieroglyphs) is said to have originated from
various motif and symbols embedded in the day to day life of man.
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Visual Aesthetics
The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2000) defines aesthetics as a
“Branch of philosophy which tries to make clear laws and principles of beauty”
while Wagbonje (1987) sees Aesthetics as “Originating from a Greek root
Aesthetikos” pertaining to sense of perception” and that traditionally, aestheticians
have inquired into the nature of our experiences of the beauty in art and in nature
and into the nature of the objective of these experiences particularly works of art.
Wong (1993) states that “most representational forms capture the basic
characteristics of shapes, and avoid subjects with unusual, less familiar details”.
From this definition, aesthetic structure exist inside the viewer, but only because
the potential for visual form already exists outside him, in other word “visual
form” is used as an objective term and “aesthetic structure” is used as a subjective
term.
Cheatham (1987) made it clear that every idea can be expressed through
numerous methods and media – the components of process. Each idea can be
executed in any number of visual combinations of these process elements. When
considered in this way, it becomes apparent that the visual possibilities for a single
idea and the exploration of such possibilities are limitless; and that ultimately these
explorations and consideration can only be accomplished visually.
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1.2 Background of the Study
There are many languages in northern Nigeria but the common language is
Hausa with Islam as the dominant religion and its doctrine of non – representational
art; this has been an important catalyst in northern Nigeria artistic development.
Heathcote (1979), opines that the earliest history of the Hausa people is obscure,
Bayajida, a price of Baghdad, came to Borno. There he married Majira; a daughter
of the reigning king. When Bayajida’s life was threatened he fled, taking with him
his wife and his horses. Eventually he reached Daura, on the way his wife, who
was pregnant, was left at Biram. She gave birth to a son and when he grew up he
became the ruler there. Having arrived in Daura, Bayajida killed a large snake,
called Sarki which lived in the local well and allowed water to be drawn only on
Fridays. In return for his service the queen of Daura married Bayajida she bore him
a son, Bawo, in his turn had six sons. These became the rulers of Daura, Kano,
Katsina, Zazzau (Zaria), Gobir, and Rano. With Biram these formed the original
seven Hausa states, the Hausa Bakwai.
Origin of the Northern Knot Motif
So far, no certain spot has been marked to be the birth place of the Dagi even
though some speculations holds that it is from the oriental world, Jefferson (1974),
in quoting Heathcote, states that “The precise origin of many of the motifs used in
Hausa embroidery will probably never be known. Variations of some, such as the
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Dagi (knot), can be found in various parts of Africa which are far removed
from one another”. However Heathcote (1979) also wrote that it is certain that
there were silk fabrics being woven in southern Spain and northern Africa in the
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and that some of the patterns on them
incorporated motifs such as the eight – pointed star, the motif of two interlaced
ovals (known by the Hausas as Dagi), and various geometric – interlace devices.
All these motifs eventually turned up in Hausa embroidery or other forms of Hausa
decorative art.
The interest of the researcher lies in the artistic rather than the traditional or
historical aspect of the Dagi, the motif which is believed to have been inspired by
the star is associated with royalty that is embedded in the northern Nigerian
aristocratic nature or philosophy. The Dagi if seen as a whole, the experiences are
in complete harmony with each other and if viewed evokes a strange visual tension
which offers many interesting possibilities for painting. The play of light upon the
Motif can be interesting as certain areas reflect or refract light with fascinating
results.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Many Nigerian artists research on traditional forms, patterns, symbols and
motifs from different or diverse ethnic groups in the country, but few have taken
the Northern knot as a single visual subject for artistic exploration.
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1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this research are:
i. To explore the rich artistic qualities of the Dagi motif
ii. To appreciate the artistic forms peculiar to the Dagi motif.
iii. The study intend to manipulate the Dagi for visual expressions as well as to
unfold its aesthetic values and qualities.
iv. To serve as a resource material for further reference in artistic work.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The researcher hopes to promote socio-cultural and aesthetic awareness
among the diverse ethnic groups in Northern Nigeria, as well as synthesizing the
cultural tradition that surrounds the Dagi motif with contemporary dynamics of art.
The study will provide a spring board for further studies in the projection of the
traditional motifs in Northern Nigeria, through visual statements as in the case of
this research.
1.6 Justification
It is observed that not much has been documented through appropriate visual
representation of the Dagi motif in art. This study therefore explores the aesthetic
potentials of the motif. In doing this, the study will also provide a painterly
understanding of the motif.
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1.7 Scope of the Study
This research is on one of the traditional symbolic motifs of the Hausa
known as Dagi as found in the Zaria Emirate Council.
1.8 Limitation
There appears to be scanty literature on the history of the Dagi Motif and
some of the artisans had no western education, so the researcher had difficulty in
communication.
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