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Download this complete Project material titled; Adapting International System Of Typographic And Picture Education (Isotype) Way-Finding Design In The Jos Metropolis with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

The renewed attempt by the Plateau State Government to further review the implementation of the Greater Jos Master Plan has made the opportunity for the inclusion of appropriate way-finding signs in to the entire design process imperative. This has given rise to this study, which is to determine whether the some existing Directional Signs in Jos metropolis conform to ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education). ISOTYPEis a concept developed by Otto Neurath as a system of combining written text and symbols for effective communication at all levels of literacy. A total of 150 non literate and 132 literate persons and ten existing Directional Signs were selected using stratified random sampling procedure constituted the population of the study. A combination of survey and experimental design methods were used for the study. Questionnaires administered in interview sessions were used for data collection. Furthermore, symbol recognition test was administered to the respondents and the findings were used in redesigning directional signs for Jos metropolis. The results revealed that 88% of non-literate and 98% of literate respondents correctly identified symbols; only 10% of DS combined text and symbol, 30% symbol only, while 60% were text only. The study recommends combination of text and symbol as DS, and proper testing and education of symbols before putting them to use.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page:…………………………………………………………………………….……i
Dedication:…..………………………………….……………………………..………….iii
Certification:………………………………………..………………………………..…..iv
Acknowledgment:…………………….…………….……………………….……….……v
Abstract:…………………………….……………….………….………………….……..vi
Table of Contents:………………………………..……………….……………………..vii
List of Tables:……………………………………………………….…………………..…x
List of Figures:………………………………………………………….…………………xi
List of Plates:……………………………………………………………….…….……..xii
List of Graph:…………………………………………………………………………..xiii
List of Appendences:…………………………………………………………………….xiv
Definition of Terms and Abbreviations:………………………………..…………..……xv
Chapter One
1.1.Introduction:……………………………………………………………………………………………………1
1.2. Background of the Study:………………………………………………………………………………..5
1.3. Statement of the Problem:………………………………………………………………………………..8
1.4. Objectives of the Study:…………………………………………………………………………………..8
1.5. Basic Assumption of the Study:…………………………….………….……….……9
1.6. Research Questions:………………………………………………………………………………………..9
1.7. Hypothesis of the Study…….:…………………………………………….………….9
1.8. Significance of the Study:………………………………………………………………………………10
1.9. Justification of the Study:………………………………………………………………………………11
1.10. Scope and delimitation of the Study:……………………………………………………………..11
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1.11. Limitation of the Study:……………………………………………………………………………….12
1.12. Theoretical Framework:……………………………………………………………………………….12
Chapter Two
2.1. Overview of Review Process………………………………………………………………………….14
2.2. Graphic Communications:……………………………………………………………………………..14
2.2.1. Signs Symbols and Icons:…………………………….……………………….….15
2.2.2. The Use of Typography:…………………………………………………………………………….16
2.3. The use of Colour:………………………………………………………………………………………..19
2.4.Perception of Symbols:………………………………………………………………………………….20
2.5.Cross-Cultural Perception of Symbols:……………………………………………………………25
2.6. Visual Literacy:……………………………………………………………………………………………26
2.7. ISOTYPE:……………………………………………………………………………………………………28
2.8. Wayfinding:…………………………………………………………………………………………………30
2.9. Conclusion of the review of related Literature:…………………………………………………36
Chapter Three
3.1. Introduction to Methodology:…………………………………………………………………………38
3.2. Research Design:………………………………………………………………………………………….39
3.3. Population of the Study:………………………………………………………………………………..40
3.4. Sampling Methods:……………………………………………………………………………………….40
3.5. Data Collection:……………………………………………………………………………………………41
3.6. Instrumentation:……………………………………………………………………………………………41
3.7. Validity of Instruments:…………………………………………………………………………………42
3.8. Data Analysis:………………………………………………………………………………………………42
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Chapter Four
4.0. Data Presentation and Analysis of Findings:…………………………………………………….44
4.1. Background:…………………………………………………………..…….……….44
4.4. Comparative Table Display of Symbol Identification Test Result (non-literate and literate Respondents):…………………………………………………………………………………………51
4.5. Data Analysis and Interpretation of Findings:…………………………………………………..61
Chapter Five
5.0. Discussion of Findings and Studio Practice:…………………………………………………….63
5.4. Summary of Discussion:………………………………………………………………………………..68
5.5. Studio Practice:…………………………………………………………………………………………….68
5.6. Signs, Symbols and Directional Signs:………………………………..……………70
5.7. Studio Developed DS for Jos metropolis:……………………………..……………72
Chapter Six
6.1. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations…………………………………..…77
6.2. Summary of Findings…………………………………………………………………………………….77
6.3. Major Findings of the Study…………………………………………………………………………..79
6.4. Recommendations for Further Studies:……………………………………………………………80
References:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………82
Appendinces:……………………………………………………………………………………………………..85
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CHAPTER ONE

Long before paper was invented, humans made marks on objects, such as cave walls, rocks, trees and other objects in their surroundings. The purpose of making these marks or signs was to communicate information visually (SEGD 2005),this may have been for different purposes, including the need for some sort of direction, safe shelter or a productive huntingexpedition.
Plate I: An early cave painting. Source: www.alifetimeofcolor.com
The firstrecorded directional signs were milestones on the Roman road network. Large stones were placed at intervals along the roads, giving the distance in Roman miles to nearby cities.Because of their communication intents, these signs were imbued with meaning and became a shared language among the people who made and used them (Niron 2009).
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As civilisation set in, cities became more complex, which gave rise to the need for information and easy navigation within the cities. Thus, the need for proactive, systematically planned, visually unified communication system for societal development arose (Arthur and Passini1992).In the 21st century, a great deal of information can be accessed with less effort, through television, radio, internet and telephone. Morellup, (2005) however, observed that the world is progressively suffering from information overload. It therefore, follows that simplicity in information presentation is one of the several waysof facilitating good decision-making in a world that is fast becoming a global village. The concern raised by Morellup has given rise to the need to develop an international language that will communicate intended information concisely across to as many people as possible, within a very short time, irrespective of language and literacy levels.
Otto Neurath in the early 1924 simplified important public information so that people could easily comprehendwhat was being communicated across cultures. After the Second World War, Neurath, an Austrian mathematician, philosopher, and social critic, sought to create ways to empower and educate the working class on important economic and social issues in order to better their lives. He envisaged a socially emancipated life made possible by public information(Tufte 2001).
Leading a group of artists, statisticians and researchers, Neurathdeveloped a system for the pictorial representation of statistical information for easy understanding. Neurath and his team named the system ISOTYPE (International System of TYpographic Picture Education).The basic principle behind the system was the use of written text and
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graphic symbols to represent or give quantitative and qualitative information for public
use. This would make information available to as many people as possible, within a
very short time. The goal of ISOTYPE was to be an “international picture language”,
a universal graphic vocabulary accessible to people of all languages and levels of
literacy. The use of text and symbols was intended to be easily translated, transcending
linguistic boundaries. ―We have made one international picture language (as a helping
language) into which statements may be put from all the normal languages of the earth.
We have given it the name ISOTYPE‖, (Tufte 2001).
Neurath believed that as the world was preparing for the future, the gap between the
educated and uneducated must be filled. A good way to bridge the gap would be
through ISOTYPE, a method with a special visual dictionary and a special visual
grammar; that is, a new visual world, equivalent to our word world. Charts, pictures,
models, movies, games, illustrations can, with a little related text, show in the symbol
language the main facts and explain the important problems in any field of knowledge.
Plate II:Symbols of different human races (Tufte 2001)
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With international business and connection, many cities in the world now use
directional signsthat combine text and symbols. These directional signsare commonly
seen at public places like airports, motor parks, filling stations, post offices, hospitals,
hotels, train stations and tourists sites.
Plate III: Directional Signs at an Airport. Source: www.designworkplan.com
The aim is to allow people to access important public information with less effort,
irrespective of language and literacy.The text messages are written in the spoken
languages of the environment, while the symbols on the other hand, are the pictorial
representation of the written text, and can easily be comprehended, because they are
illustrations of familiar objects that are commonly used in daily life. For example a
silhouette of a person lying down on bed symbolises a hotel. It is called way-finding
design (Gibson 2009).
Hotel
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Plate IV: directional sign of a hotel, Source: Researcher’s Construct
Adaption and application of ISOTYPE in urban centres in Nigeria can be beneficial, particularly in a city like Jos, where the few directional signs (DS), as observed by this research, do not combinewritten text and graphic symbols.Because ISOTYPEhelps to communicate meaningful information via the combination of words and symbolsas directional signs, this will not only communicate the desired information across, but also enhance the status of the city as a tourist haven. The inclusion of tourism as one of the Plateau State Government ―10-Point Agenda‖calls forthe need to make way-finding for the visitors and residents of Jos stress free(Plateau State 4-Year Strategic Plan 2008-2012).
Asthe Plateau State Government revises the Greater Jos Master Plan, there is the need to carefully consider the importance of incorporating ISOTYPE into the plan. This will go a long way in aiding both the literate and non-literate persons to locate their destination with less effort.
1.2.Background of the Study
Jos is the capital of Plateau State, located at the central part of Nigeria. The origin of Jos as an urban centre can be traced to the tin mining industry founded during the colonial rulein 1902. By 1914 Jos became the centre of tin mining, mainly because of large deposits of tin that were discovered there, andbecause there wasa lot of land and water (Jacobs 1996).
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Plate V:Amining site in BarkinLadi L.G.A. Source: Plateau the Beautiful Magazine
In 1915, the colonial administration granted Jos the status of a second-class township. This led to the division of the town into clusters, in line with the typical colonial fashion of designing cities. This division granted the new settlers access to land in Jos, and they all contributed to the growth of the economy of the township in numerous ways. Jos grew very rapidly after the early layout. There was massive infrastructural development put in place by the Colonial Government, which attracted technical hands and people engaged in commercial and other related pursuits. The economic, commercial, and political significance of Jos continued to expand both during the Colonial period and beyond independence in 1960 (Pwajok 2012).
After independence, the then Military Government of Benue Plateau State, under Police Commissioner, Joseph DeshiGomwalk in 1972, designed a new Jos Master Plan.The Master Plan provides for the development of residential areas, road networks, industrial areas, and, most especially, developing the tourism potentials that abound in the state. This in turn will attractinvestors and tourists, thereby enhancing economic activity in
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Jos, and the state as a whole (FolaKonsult 2008). Subsequent administrations, however, did not continue with the implementation of the plan. This has led to a lot of uncontrolled physical development, which doesnot conform to the master plan, making the Jos metropolis congested and, consequently, making wayfinding difficult, especially for visitors.
The need to revisit the Jos Master Plan became imperative. In 2007, the Plateau State Government, under the leadership of Governor Jonah David Jang revised the master plan for the city of Jos. The master plan was expanded to cover Jos North, Jos South, Bassa, Riyom and BarlinLadi Local Government Areas; it was also renamed ―The Greater Jos Master Plan‖, with an implementation period of 18 years, starting from 2008 to 2025(FolaKonsult 2008).
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Plate VI: A map of Plateau State, showing the six LGAs that covers the Greater Jos Master Plan Area. Source: Plateau State Ministry of Urban Planning, Jos
1.3.Statement of the Problem
The first post–colonial Master Plan for the city of Jos was designed by The Joseph DeshiGomwalk-led Administration of Benue Plateau State in 1972. Subsequent administrations did not adhereto its implementation plan. This gave rise to an uncontrolled physical development within the Jos metropolis, and resulted in the distortion of the plan, making way-finding very difficult. Furthermore, observations that informed this research suggested that the few directional signs (DS) within the Jos Metropolis do not seem to conform toISOTYPE standards and norms. The designers of these DS did not combine written text and graphic symbols on most of them. Consequently, some of the DSmay not be performing their communication function effectively, especially to those who cannot read the ―text-only‖ messages. Therefore, it is desirable to evaluate/determine the communication effect of the existing DS in Jos metropolis now that the Plateau state Government is revisiting the Jos master plan so as to properly adapt the concept of ISOTYPE in the plan.
1.4. Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are to:
i. determine the effectiveness of directional signs within the Jos metropolis that conform to ISOTYPE standards in communicating intended public information to all, irrespective of language and literacy levels.
ii. determine whether the existing directional signs within the Jos metropolis conform to ISOTYPE norms and standards.
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iii. propose the development of a non-verbal communication system as DS for Jos metropolis using ISOTYPE standards.
1.5. Basic Assumption of the Study
It is the assumption of this researcher that the combination ofwritten text and graphic symbols as DS in Jos metropolis, will effectively communicate intended information to more people, irrespective of their language and literacy levels than text only and symbol only.
Consequently, research questions were constructed to allow for a generalised conclusion to be made.
1.6.Research Questions
To carry out this study, some basic questions that willdetermine the effectiveness of directional signs (DS)in Jos metropolis must be asked. Such questions include:
(i) Do the existing directional signs within the Jos metropolis conform to ISOTYPE standards and norms?
(ii) Would directional signs in Jos metropolis that conform to ISOTYPE standards be effective in communicating intended public information to all, irrespective of language and literacy levels?
1.7. Hypothesis of the Study
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There is no significant difference between DS that combine text and symbol in performing its communication function and those that do not.
1.8. Significance of the Study
The conducive weather of Jos, among other factors, attracts tourism and migration of people from all over Nigeria, West Africa, and many parts of the world, giving rise to an influx of population in Jos metropolis. In order to ease the flow of movement in the area, DS in Jos metro need to conform to ISOTYPE standards.
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Plate VII:The Riyom Rock, a tourist site in Jos. Source: Plateau the Beautiful Magazine
1.9.Justification of the Study
Lynch, in his work Image of a city cited by Arthur and Passini 1992, affirmed that way-finding design is an integral part of any urban metropolitan design;theaim of such way-finding design in a city is to serve as directional guides for easy movement, thereby making public places and services accessible to all, with less effort.Combining written text and graphic symbols on directional signs for public places will not only fulfill the communication function of informing and directing visitors in a new environment, but will also enhance the beauty of the city. A friend of the researcher was able to get some foreigners working with a road construction company to fill some of the questionnaire, and did the symbol identification skill test. This was interesting because even though they were literate, they could not read English. Their ability to identify and recognised these symbols correctly has greatly added the needed impetus to this research.
1.10. Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This research is restricted to the use of DS in public facilities such as motor parks, hotels, hospitals, and airport. It is also narrowed to the combination of written text and graphic symbols as DS, with the aim of communicating intended information to the public in Jos metropolis. While DS in this study are strictly way-finding signs that are meant to help people in accessing public facilities with less effort, as against traffic signs that are for car and road users, billboards for the advertisement of services and
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products, mostly for commercial reasons, and signboards that are mostly for private businesses.
1.11. Limitation of the Study
This study intended to record at least five of the existing DS in each of the six local government areas that covered the Greater Jos Metropolis, but only a total of ten DS in all were randomly recorded. This was because of the massive road construction in the area of study that led to the removal of some of the DS.Six hundred questionnaires were to be administered, but because of the security challenges,some places could not be accessed, onlythree hundred questionnaires were administered to respondents. The ethno-religious crisis also affected the timeframe and free distribution of questionnaire as planned by the researcher. For example, the Bauchi Road/AngwanRogo area was considered to be very volatile, the researcher had to employ the use of another set of research assistants who are residing around the these areas. As a result, not all of the literate respondents filled questionnaires could not be retrieved.
1.12. Theoretical Framework
The impetus of this study was based on the concept of ISOTYPE by Otto Neurath (Tufte 2001) andCollins, et al as stated by Niron 2009. Neurath founded ISOTYPE (International System OfTYpographic Picture Education).Neurath advocatedfor the combination of typography (texts) and Pictures (graphic symbols) in public information dissemination.
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Large information reduced into brief text and symbols,when displayed as public information, will educate and inform the non-literate and literate audiencesacrosscultures. This conventionis now commonly used at airports, hotels, hospitals, public places, to communicateintended public information easily, to as many people as possible with less effort.Collins, et al in Niron(2009), tested safety symbols intended for a public building in America. Theyused symbols to indicate escape routes, from hotel, old people’s houses and university hostels. More than 75% of respondents misunderstood five out of the seven symbols. They recommended that symbols for use in public places should be properly tested before they are put in use.Adapting the combination of text and graphic symbols for DS in Jos metropolis can be said to effective in communicating public information to all, irrespective of language and literacy levels, but such symbols should be properly tested before putting them to use.
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