TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of content
- Background of the study
- Statement of the problem
- Purpose of the study/objectives
- Significance of the study
- Research questions
- Research hypotheses
- Conceptual and operational definition of terms.
- Limitations of the study.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
- Sources of literature.
- Message generations.
- Message evaluation and selection
- Message execution
- Evaluation advertising effectiveness
- The review.
- Summary of literature review.
- Research method.
- Research design
- Research sample
- Measuring instrument
- Data collection
- Data analysis
- Expected results.
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
- Data analysis
- The test of hypothesis
- Opinion of responses
- Findings from data presentation and analysis
- Discussions of findings
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- Summary / Conclusion
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria Television Authority Enugu was established in the year 1960 by the Premier of an Eastern region of Nigeria Dr. Michael Okpara. It was the oldest television station in Nigeria. It was received in the thirteen states of the federation. The station has two studios and each of them equipped with video cameras and microphones, because of the tempograph of Enugu the studio and the transmitter are not con-sided.
The transmitter is located about 15 kilometers away from the studio. The station transmitters on 201.75mhz video and 196.25 audio, both local and network programmes are received from the station. In the year 2003 the station was upgraded to a zonal network center. The implication of the above is that the station not only now receives both also transmittes both network news and programmes. The zone covers Abia State, Akwa-Ibom state, Anambra state, Benue state, Cross-River state, Ebonyi state, Enugu state, Imo state and Rivers state. It can be said that the zone and its stations are fulfilling their primary functions of informing, educating and entertainment.
The secondary function of NTA is that it creates employment opportunities
Economic situation in Nigeria today and its attendant problems especially on the purchasing power of her citizens has greatly affected television usage.
In line with the above is the incessant arrests and sometimes close down of some media organizations in the country resulting from their beautifully designed progremmes targeted at attracting viewers but found provoking by the government.
The above mentioned problems in no small measure affected the smooth running of the mass media organization in Nigeria.
Therefore, towards ensuring continuity in the business, it behooves the management of the mass media organization to evolve survival strategies via diversification of activities.
A remarkable survival strategy often adopted, especially in terms of returns on the business and the creation of awareness is advertising.
- Trust worthiness of the mass media organization one hand that of the sponsor n the other side.
- Prestige of the sponsor of the advertisement.
- The quality of product being advertised etc.
The above mentioned variables or factors individually cannot influence advertising effectively but rather a concerted interactions of efforts of these variables. Thus positive result can only be achieved by careful implementation of these variables systematically by the mass media.
- THE STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS TRIED TO LOOK INTO THE FOLLOWING.
- How NTA Enugu use advertisements from their customers to generate revenue.
- Whether the advertising strategies influence the viewers / customers.
- Whether there is enough revenue from it to sustain the organization.
- To modify the strategies if not sustainable.
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY / OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study is to create knowledge on advertising effectiveness in mass media organization. It would also examine problems that hinder advertisements.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
- It is believed that the following people benefit from NTA Enugu.
- Advertising agencies / other customers
- Viewers of the station in known both the old and the new products.
- The mass media organisation in enhancing its positioning in television house.
- Furthermore, the result will help the mass media organization in identifying those strategies that will help them in manipulating the television viewers behaviour.
- To serve as a reference strategy to other broadcast media organization for purposes of research documentation.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Do customers bring advertisement for NTA Enugu?
- Do NTA Enugu advertisement influence the customers?
- Do NTA Enugu generate a lot of revenue from such advertisement for their survival?
- Do NTA advertisement creates awareness to the customers?
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
In order to direct the major activities for this study in finding solutions to the statement of problems, the following hypotheses have been found relevant.
Hi: Customers bring advertisements to NTA Enugu
Ho: Customers do not bring advertisements to NTA Enugu
H2: NTA Enugu advertisements influence the customers and the advertising agencies / consumers
Ho: NTA Enugu advertisements do not influence the customers and the advertising agencies / consumers.
H3: NTA Enugu generate a lot of revenue from such advertisements for their survival
Ho: NTA Enugu do not generate a lot of revenue from such advertisements for their survival
Advertising according to Kotler (1993:100) is defined as any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by identified sponsor. Besides, advertising per-se is a vehicle through which manufacturing companies, producers of goods organization, individuals etc communicate to their target audience.
Advertising is however, affected via the following channels.
- Radio and television
- Outdoor displays (posters, bill boards) sign sky writing.
- Newspaper and magazine space.
- Direct mail
- Novelties (match boxes, pen, calendars)
- Tear pads (car, bus)
- Directories (Yellow pages and circulars.
Further more, advertising has many purposes.
- Long term build up of the organization corporate image (institutional advertising)
- Long term build up for a particular brand (brand advertising)
- Information dissemination about a sale or service or event (classified advertising)
- Announcement of a special sale (sale or promotional advertising)
- Advocacy of a particular cause (advocacy advertising)
Alternatively, Kotler (1993:150) opined that advertising objectives can be classified as to whether their aims is to the following:
- Information advertising with primary demand. This strategy has been used effectively in yogurt industry to inform customers of yogurts nutritional benefits and many uses.
- Persuasive advertising has been used effectively in the demand for a particular brand. This strategy has been employed in the advertising of spirits both paste, tires, automobiles etc.
However, some persuasive advertising has moved into category of comparison advertising, which seeks to establish the superiority of one brand through specific comparison with one or more other brand in the product class.
- Reminder advertising is highly important in the nature stage of the product to keep customers thinking about the product. For example, expensive four colour coca-cola in magazines have the purpose not of informing or persuading but reminding people to purchase coca-cola.
Finally, the choice of the advertising objective according to Kotler (1993:200) should be based on a through analysis of the current market situation. For example, if the product is mature and the company is the market leader, and if brand image is low, the proper objective should be to stimulate more brand usage.
On the other hand, if the product is new, and the company is not the market leader, but its brand is superior to the leader, then the proper objective is to convince the market of the brand superiority.
It is pertinent to mention here that different channels of advertising have different levels of persuability on the target audience for example, television combines images and goggles and others use appropriate stimulators.
This study is a focus on the effectiveness of television advertising as a survival strategy of mass media organization. In other words, the study is on how mass media organization can effectively manipulate its advertising for the profitability of the organization.
Thus for a successful implementation of effective advertising strategy, mass media organizational design the following variables name:
- Language creativity.
- Choice of appropriate page.
- Size of advertisement.
- Nature and responsibility of communication.
- Credibility of the source of advertisement.
- CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS.
This is a promotional tool used by the advertiser to reach the target.
Is the art of existing amidst odds.
It is a part way of realizing organizational goals.
On organization operations among all other things to inform, entertain, educate and serializing the economic needs of its environment or public either through newspapers, magazines, radio, television, satellite, internet. Etc.
An organization is defined as any administrative, management and financial structure through which the activities of its work units and individuals seeks to achieve a predetermined goal.
- It is greatly believed that advertising per-se is the major contributor to the mass media organization, be it government owned.
- Finally, experts, internally manipulate the television advertising to catch the target consumers of commodities / service.
- A lot of revenue could be generated from such advertisements.
- LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY.
This study despite the anticipated huge contributions expected is, however constrained by the following:
- THE CONSTRAINT:
The time from allotted for this study is so short as to cover all the major determinants required for more effective advertising.
- MONEY CONSTRAINT:
The money at the disposal of these researchers is the meager.
This focusing the study only on one mass media.
- Finally, the television organization chosen for the purpose of the study is a well known station therefore, some vital information needed for this study were not disclosed.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
SUMMARY / CONCLUSION
The main objective of this study is to find out whether advertising is a survival strategy for mass media organization. The project started with the problem definitions.
In chapter one, on the basis of problems definitions, three hypotheses were set to guide the major activities of this project. Hypotheses were conceptualized and investigations thoroughly carried out. It was found out that advertising is very crucial for the survival of mass media organization.
In other to be conversant with he theoretical background, a detailed literature review was conducted in chapter two. The researcher therefore want to find out how far advertising has helped mass media organization in its operations and what others said on the topic.
In chapter three, discusses those major methodological issues of the project. It deals on the methodology used in the project.
Based on the findings of this study, we can now conclude that advertising is very vital in attracting customers of television. So the mass media organization should design strategic policy incorporating all the variables needed for effective advertising.
DISCUSSIONS OF FINDINGS
The results of the data analysis clearly indicated that all the three (3) hypotheses tested yield positive results.
Hypothesis one, which stated that customers bring advertisements to NTA Enugu, was supported. This result is in the support of earlier studies by Kotler (1980:245 and 1983:265) on variables that influence customers behaviour. In this study, advertisement inform of job information, sports information etc.
May be the major stimulating factor in attracting the viewing of television by customers. The aforementioned often create imbalance in these customers only to be solved via the viewing of television that carry these terms.
Hence the hypothesis was supported.
Hypothesis to which stated that NTA Enugu advertisements influences the customers and advertising agencies / customers was supported. The result again is in line with the earlier studies of Kotler (1980:285 and 1983:266). The advertising designs which incorporates variables such as time, colour production, pictures audio etc tend to act as stimulators. These stimulators from the spark that persuade customers to watch the advertisement. The use of colour production devices and other appropriate stimuli by NTA must have accounted for the revenue accruing from her advertising. This also accounted why the hypothesis was supported.