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An analysis of senior high school teachers perception on educational reforms in ghana ( case study of winneba senior high school, ghana)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Education is the most powerful tool for development; it necessitates careful management, planning, modification, improvement, and evaluation of previous educational systems in comparison to current educational systems, as well as forecasting of future educational, technological, socioeconomic, and other needs. As a result, modifying educational institutions to meet social demands and objectives is a key challenge that requires careful consideration. In light of the rapidly changing society, especially at the start of the twenty-first century, education still needs attention (Executives Online Interim Management 2004).

Teaching and learning specific abilities, as well as something less concrete but more profound, are all part of education. It also has a significant impact on the transmission of culture from generation to generation. Education entails the use of pedagogy, a set of theoretical and applied research on teaching and learning that draws on a variety of disciplines, including the humanities, science, and technology. Human education begins at birth and continues throughout life; but, for some, the trials and tribulations of daily life provide considerably more instruction than conventional schooling (Wikipedia, 2007). It entails the individual’s knowledge, positive judgment, and well-developed wisdom. It is the application of pedagogy to a body of research that encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including science, the humanities, and others.

In Ghana, there are three levels of education: primary, secondary, and postsecondary. The basic level from nursery through Junior Secondary School makes up the first cycle. Senior High Schools and Technical Institutes are included in the second cycle. Universities, polytechnics, colleges of education, and nursing schools are all part of the tertiary level. Educational institutions, like all other organizations, require ongoing monitoring to find areas for potential improvement, according to Credaro (2001). Educational changes, on the other hand, are frequently poorly handled, resulting in a tremendous waste of funds, human resources, and untapped potential. Reforms include a wide range of topics and have an impact on every aspect of our lives. Consensus on the nature of the planned change is generally unstable at best and illusory at worst, which is a feature of all non-trivial reforms. Reforms that necessitate a shift in teaching methods or a rethinking of what is valued are difficult to implement (Passey and Samways, 1997).

Education is the foundation for a community’s growth. A well-educated populace leads to a high-quality life. This appears to have driven governments and nations to invest extensively in education, as well as reform it, in order to enhance citizens’ lifestyles in a methodical manner. A planned program or movement aimed at bringing about a systematic change in educational theory or practice across a community is known as education reform (Wikipedia, 2007).

Historically, successive governments have focused public emphasis on education in order to urge the nation to respond to the demands of the global economic system, beginning with the colonial era. Educational institutions around the world, like all other organizations, require regular monitoring to find areas for future growth. Educational improvements, on the other hand, are frequently poorly executed. This results in significant financial and human resource waste, as well as a loss of potential.

People and employees, in particular, appear to have a negative attitude toward change. Employees appear to feel that change will result in the loss of their jobs, status, or social security, as well as untold pain. The majority of the time, the first consequences of change on employees, leaders, and performance are unfavorable. Fears, tension, frustration, and a resistance to adapting are among them. As a result, most individuals respond negatively to change rather than seeing it as an opportunity to make improvements. This usually happens when there isn’t enough knowledge about how change will influence people’s particular conditions, such as chores, workload, or responsibilities. These present significant issues for policymakers and management (Recklies, 2001).

Every day, we face problems; how we respond to them will determine whether we succeed or fail. Personnel are responsible for implementing policies developed by policymakers during educational reforms, which is very crucial. Policy and reform implementation entails a number of obstacles that must be effectively managed. Because educational institutions are made up of people, they are bound to face challenges from their constituents. Managing change is a critical issue that must be managed covertly by management to assure the achievement of set goals and policy implementation.

The following are some of the educational challenges:

l   How to deal with change and innovation in academic settings;

l   Getting used to a new curriculum;

l   Professional development for teachers

l   Experienced educators advancing to managerial positions

l   Teaching and Learning Materials Preparation

l   Planning and organization;

l   Collaboration and collaboration are important;

l   Assessment and dissemination

People resist change for a variety of reasons, including the following:

l   Anxiety over the unknown:

l   Miscellaneous tasks

l   Loss of status;

l   Exploring new possibilities;

l   An old system is preferable to a new one;

l   I’m just not ready to switch to a new system yet.

Since independence, Ghana has undergone significant educational reforms. What factors influenced these reforms, and what impact have these varied educational reforms had? Have we made progress on these reforms as a country? The researchers began this endeavor in light of these considerations. According to Credero (2001), educational institutions are organized on a variety of levels, ranging from a single classroom under the supervision of a single teacher, to groups of classrooms supervised by a Head Teacher or Executive Teacher, to a whole-school structure under the supervision of the principal. A School Board oversees both government-supported and independent or private schools (Board of Governors).

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

When an organization’s existing status prevents it from efficiently serving customers, innovating for the future, or capitalizing on a new endeavor, change must occur quickly. When habits, procedures, and structures are competitive and productive, they can aid in the strengthening of an organization. As a result, it is critical that adjustments be made from time to time in order to keep the organization current with current trends.

Each decade appears to have brought with it one or more educational reforms in Ghana. Even though these reforms were meticulously planned and hailed as the mother of all answers to the country’s problems, flaws appeared almost immediately after they were implemented. Teachers appear to have issues with the revisions and have identified perceived flaws. According to Lervim, as cited in Fry, Stoner, and Hatwuck (1998), effective change requires people to unfreeze, or break away from their current cognitive patterns and behavior. When we adopt new attitudes, ideals, and approaches, we will see change.

Education reform necessitates a change in the current system. Ghana has undergone far too many reforms since independence, and the execution of these reforms appears to be causing citizens concern and uncertainty. Reforming education necessitates a shift in the existing system.

Despite the fact that each educational reform conducted since the colonial era until independence has been thorough, the public has had reason to complain about the reforms. According to Antwi (1995), various policies have been developed to improve the country’s educational quality. The first policy was implemented in 1852 by the newly formed British colonial administration to offer better education for the people of the Castles and Forts on the Gold Coast.

The issue that needs to be asked is: what is the root of all of this school reform? According to Education Agenda (2008), President Kufour stated on the 11th of April, 2007, when launching the current reform, that teacher quality is critical to the implementation of the reform program at all levels, thus the government’s commitment to improving working conditions for teachers to do their best. The President went on to say that no amount of money spent on facilities would make a difference in accomplishing the reform goals unless teachers at all levels of the educational system embraced the reforms.

The President’s comment implies that the complete reform’s effectiveness is contingent on the presence of a well-prepared and motivated teacher. The preceding remark demonstrates the importance of teachers in educational transformation. Following the implementation, a one-on-one interview with teachers revealed that many of them did not comprehend why the reform was necessary. It was also revealed that some people had not taken the time to learn about the new legislation. The issue in this regard is: what impact do teachers have on reforms? What has led earlier reforms to fall short of the mark, necessitating more frequent revisions? What effect does teacher education have on reform?

1.3 OF THE STUDY OBJECTIVE

The overall goal of the research is to analysis the senior high school teachers perception on educational reforms in Ghana. Specifically, the study is set to;

  1. Investigate training programmes that are given to teachers in Senior High Schools when educational reforms are carried out.
  2. Investigate what teaching-learning materials are made available for schools to enable teachers to undertake their activities effectively
  3. Investigate if infrastructural developments helps in the implementation of educational reforms?

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions guide the objective of the study:

  1. What training programmes are given to teachers in Senior High Schools when educational reforms are carried out?
  2. What teaching-learning materials are made available for schools to enable teachers to undertake their activities effectively?
  3. Did infrastructural developments help in the implementation of educational reforms?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study’s goals were to determine what drives educational reforms, what should be done to ensure that changes are successful, and how reforms should be implemented. It was also to look into the training programs that had been implemented in order to reform our educational system. Infrastructure development to support educational reforms, as well as the production of teaching and learning materials. as well as contribute to the current literature.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The research is restricted to the Ghanaian government’s educational reforms. Other areas influenced by educational changes, such as book production and academic program length, will be excluded from the project. This project will be limited to the teaching staff at Winneba Senior High School in Ghana’s Central Region’s Effutu Metropolis.

1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY

When performing studies, the probability of meeting difficulties exists. Challenges abound in this research project. Because she was on a national assignment, the researcher did not meet the head of the target institution. The researchers were also unable to meet all of the respondents in the school due to their teaching schedules. Some of the respondents were hesitant to complete the survey. The researcher had to entrust the collection of the questionnaire to a volunteer staff member.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Perception: the way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted.

Educational Reforms: Education reform comprises any planned changes in the way a school or school system functions, from teaching methodologies to administrative processes.

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