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Download this complete Project material titled; An Analysis On The Effect Of Hippocratea Africana Root Back Extract On Estradiol Concentration In Female Albino Wistar Rats with abstract, chapter 1-5, references and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0   INTRODUCTION
Malaria is one of the most important killer diseases in Africa causing more than one million deaths every year. In Nigeria, the infection rate has been described as holoedenic with more than 75% of children ages 2-9 years infected (Saloko et al., 1994). Persistence of malaria symptoms after treatment with over the counter available antimalarial drugs have resulted in a gradual loss of faith in orthodox drugs (Moody, 2007).
There is also increased dependence on herbal remedies due to the high cost of the world health organization (WHO) recommended artesunute (Acts) for the treatment of malaria by the peasant and low income earners  who are the most affected by the disease (Ndem et al., 2013). Available evidence shown that herbal remedies have been used in the treatment of ailment and have continued to play significant roles in the general provision of good health to people over the world (Farombia, 2003). Leaves, bark, root and even the latex of plant are used medicinally by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of various body ailments such as malaria, typhoid, fever, cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension etc (Farombia, 2003).
Most medicinal plant used for the treatment of ailment are by far less concentrated, less toxic and are used in much lower does than orthodox medicine which in concentrated drugs formulations are designed to target and reverse specific pathologies in the minimum time, one of such plant is Hippocratea africana (Moody, 2007). In the case of malaria, several herbal remedies have been decumented to have antiplasmodial activity such as Azadirachta indica, magnifera indica, cymbogon citratus and citrus auranferal. Hippocratea africana have been  reported to possess invivo antiplasmodial activity with lethal dosage (LD50) of 2.5mg/kg body loeight in mice (Okokon et al., 2006) Hippocratea africana also possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties which are probably mediated through inhibition of various antacoid formation and releases (perez et al., 1995) Hippocratea africana have been reported to have non effect on albumin and protein concentration in female albino wistar rats (Ndem et al.,2013).
Studied carried act in mice shows that, ethanolic root extract of Hippocratea africana possess promising blood schizotocidal activity, both in early and establish, infection at oral doses of 200 to 600mg/kg/day (Okokon et al., 2006).
The chemosuppresive effect of Hippocretea africana at 400 to 600mg/kg were 81.8% and 90.6% respectively while that of chloroquine at 5mg/kg was 92.5%. Taking chloroquine during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal and neonatal death, miscarriage and still birth (Michaelides et al, 2011). Pyrimethamine has been reported to cause spermatogemic arrest and male infertility in a dose dependent manner (Cosentino et al., 1990). The infertility effect of amodiaquine hydrocholoride has been reported to disrupt the oestrus cycle and ovulation and reduces the number of ova release (Gbotowrun et al., 2011). Artesunate has been reported to cause significant embryo-fetal toxicity causing embryo deaths and malformation (Ruth et al., 2010). Maternal alcohol consumption may prevent proper implantation of the fertilized egg, usually terminating pregnancy (Nathanson, 2007).
Most of the research on antimalarial herb recorded are on their antiplasmodial properties. There is no literature on the effect of Hippocratea africana, for example on its effect on hormone concentration. This study is therefore designed to investrgate the effect of Hippocratea africana root bark extract on estradiol concentration of female albino wistar rats.
1.1   AIM OF THIS STUDY
The aim of this research is to determine the effect of Hippocratea africana root bark extract on estradiol concentration in female albino wistar rats.
1.2   SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this work includes:

  1. Pulverizing the plant (Hippocratea africana) material.
  2. Obtaining the crude extract of hippocratea africana using 80% ethanol.
  3. Determining the effect of Hipporcatea africana on the estradiol concentration of female albino wistar rats.

1.3   HYPOTHESIS
Based on the aim of the study, the following null and alternative hypotheses will guide this work.

Null Hypotheses 
There is no significant effect of Hippicratea africana root bark extract on estradiol concentration in female albino wistar rats.

Alternative Hypotheses
There is significant effect of Hippocratea africana root bark extract on estradiol concentration in female albino wistar rats.

1.4   JUSTIFICATION
The current trend in the problem of reproductive failure terms infertility in Nigeria necessitate this study on the effect of root bark extract of hippocratea africana normally use traditionally in the treatment of malaria on the level estradiol in female albino wistar rats.

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