An Appraisal Of The Transnational Cooperation And The Niger – Delta Region On Peace
A transnational corporation is a company, firm or enterprise with its headquarters in a developed country and also operates in other countries, both developed and developing. They are spread all around the world. They are engaged in mining, tea, rubber, coffee and cocoa plantation, oil extraction and refining, manufacturing for home production and exports. Their operations also include such services as banking, insurance, shipping, hotels and so on. Transnational corporations overwhelmingly dominate not only global investment but also international production, trade, finance and technology.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Approval page i
Table of content vi
1.0 General Framework of the study
1.2 Statement of the Research problem
1.3 Aim of the Study
1.4 Objective of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Limitations of the Study
1.7 Significance of the study
1.9 Methodology of the Study
1.10 Theoretical Framework
1.11 Conceptual Definition
1.12 Chapter outline/Structure
2.0 Literature Review
Corporate social responsibility and policy variations
3.1Corporate Social Responsibility as understood by TNCs and its Variations and forms of implementation
- Corporate Social Responsibility an Instrument of Short-Term or
Sustainable Development in Nigeria
- Vehicle of CSR Implementation in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
Summary of TNCs, CSR and Policy Implementation Variation
CONSEQUENCES OF WEAK REGULATORY FRAMEWORK IN
NIGERIA: THE ENVIRONMENTAL CASE
- Historical Development of Environmental Law
- Case of Nigeria, Weak Regulatory framework and CSR; consequences for the Environment
- Environmental Impacts of TNCS Activities in Niger-Delta
- Social Challenges as Consequences of CSR and Weak Environmental Regulatory framework in Niger-Delta
CONSEQUENCES OF WEAK REGULATORY FRAMEWORK IN NIGERIA:
THE HUMAN RIGHTS CASE
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations.
1.0 GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
Transnational corporations (TNCs) are a distinctive feature of international private enterprise (IPE) today. Transnational Corporations compete in regional and global markets and engage in foreign direct investment that is much sought after by natural governments seeking jobs, technology, and the resources for economic growth. Transnational corporations have always been controversial because of the power they seem to possess and because their “global reach” makes them difficult for nation-states to regulate or control.
Many scholars have called for a formal international regime to govern state transnational interaction, much as the world trade organization provides a system of governance for international trade flows. But recent attempts to negotiate such a regime have been unable to overcome the self-interest and fears of transnational corporations and of states. Transnational corporation investment flows have fallen recently, and competition for transnational markets and investment has intensified, putting more pressure on states and transnational corporations.
One of the distinctive features of the twenty-first century is the central role played by transnational corporations. International trade, global finance, national security, and knowledge and technology are all affected by transnational corporations and the competition among them in regional and global markets.
Before we begin, however, we must deal briefly with terminology. Businesses that compete in global markets have been given different names at different times and in different fields of study. Once they were called simply ‘international businesses’, to distinguish them from firms that operated in local or national markets. For many years the term multinational corporation (MNC) was applied to indicate that the firm operated in several different national markets. As global markets and production structure have emerged, the accepted term has become transnational corporation (TNC). The prefix “trans” means to go beyond and the markets where these businesses compete are regional or global and clearly go beyond or transcend national markets. We will be familiar with the business they do, the items they produce and sell, and the markets where they live. It is estimated that there are about 65,000 transnational corporations in the world today with 850,000 foreign affiliates. Together they employ about 54 million workers.
Therefore, this study was carried out on transnational cooperation and the Niger – Delta region on peace.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Many people assume that transnational corporations are very powerful because they are such large organizations and because, through their foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, they influence the global distribution of investment and technology. Some people go so far as to assert that transnational corporations are as powerful as states, or more powerful than states.
One commonly cited “fact” is that 51 of the top 100 “economic entities” are corporation, and the other 49 are countries. This statistic is based on tables that compare the gross domestic products of countries with the total revenues of corporations. Transnational corporations are bigger than all but the biggest nation-states and must, therefore, have tremendous power. This message is also, of course nonsense. To make this comparison is to misunderstand what a transnational corporation is and also to misunderstand what a state is.
From a technical standpoint, comparing countries and transnational corporations this way is comparing apples with oranges. This analysis compares transnational corporations and nation-states in strictly monetary terms, ignoring many factors that really matter a great deal more. This focus on one factor, money, is ironic because many critics of transnational corporations criticize corporations for ignoring important non monetary factors, such as security or the environment. States possess territory and make laws; they have sovereignty, citizens and they have armies and navies. They have legitimacy, too which means that the international community accepts their right to make important social decisions. Transnational corporations have none of these things unless you think that employee or customers are the same as national citizens. Therefore, the need to carry out a research on transnational cooperation and the Niger – Delta region on peace.
1.3 AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of the research is to examine transnational cooperation and the Niger – Delta region on peace since 1990’s till present. The research will also x-ray the activities of transnational corporations in Nigeria for over 20 years, its problems and achievement as well as factors militating against effective and efficient operation in Nigeria with a view to proffering operational solutions for smooth operation of transnational corporations in Nigeria.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to examine transnational cooperation and the Niger – Delta region on peace.
The specific objectives of this research are;
- To ascertain the influences of transnational corporation in the Niger Delta
- To proffer possible solutions for the effective and efficient relationship between transnational corporation and the Niger Delta.
- To ascertain if transnational corporation enhances or impedes peace in the Niger Delta.
- To analyze the economic policies that will be responsive enough to strengthen economic union between transnational corporation and the Niger Delta.
- To analyze the contemporary pattern of transnational corporation investment in Nigeria.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
A research of this kind should ideally take continental or international scope in outlook since the issues being investigated is a worldwide problem. But as a result of logistics and other constraints, the researcher has been limited to Nigeria and the influence of transnational corporation from the 1990’s to present. Nigeria has stumbled and is still stumbling from one action to another of transnational corporations in order to develop and strengthen their economic relationship with a number of transnational corporations. Although there are so many countries facing the challenges of transnational corporation. The research decided to choose the Niger Delta as its domain because of its concern to the challenges confronting the Niger Delta.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In carrying out this study as it is usually the case with most human endeavors certain problems were encountered. The mere fact that the researcher is undertaking a scientific study for the first time is in itself an understandable hindrance. The researcher was also faced with the task of preparing for his examination and at the time embarking on this research. Therefore writing the examination was also on impediment to the study.
Besides, lack of research books is also a great problem that faced the researcher in his study. There was the problem of getting adequate and useful information and materials needed for a comprehensive research work especially with particular reference to the topic.
Moreover, finance was another serious limitation the researcher had to battle with. Although information on the topic is scattered on the internet but there was the problem of finance to access these information and print them.
It is in the light of the above limitations that the research was limited to the topic under study. However, until a more elaborate and comprehensive research is carried out, the contents of this research will be simplified as much as possible for future research work.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this research will be provide the platform for the strengthening of operations of transnational corporations in the Niger Delta and Nigeria in general and to critically analyze the prospects and challenges of transnational corporation as well as proffer possible solutions for the way forward between transnational corporation and her host country. Although transnational corporation has been facing a lot of challenges ranging from political instability, security issues in host nations, and host nation has been faced with exploitation, political interference by transnational corporation. It benefits in terms of economic cooperation, investment, trade relations, technical and financial assistance have far outweighed the above challenges.
Moreover, the research will provide the bases for one economic policy that will be responsive enough to strengthen economic union between transnational corporations and host nations.
To this end therefore, it will provide an avenue for reference and research information for scholar, students and workers alike. This person will benefit greatly from the information deposited in this work, while Nigeria government, having extracted useful information will now be able to map out favorable economic policies to pursue and strengthen economic growth and development in the nation.
The propositions that will guide our planned research work are as follows:
- Contemporary pattern of transnational corporation investments ii. Transnational corporation boosts host nations economic growth and development and foreign direct investment
- Transnational Corporation erodes issues of unemployment, dominate production and investment.
- Transnational corporations are so large that they dwarf all but a few states.
- Transnational corporations invest in less developed
countries to exploit their cheap labor and natural resources.
1.9 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
The research for this thesis was based on descriptive content analysis of secondary data. The secondary source included transnational corporation’s documents like the mid-term report, annual reports, and the transnational corporation draft treaty. Data was collected from books, journals articles, magazines, published thesis and unpublished materials.
1.10 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Theories are sets of logically related symbols which represent what we think happen in the real world. They provide logical bases for our research work because they employ facts, models or laws about a phenomenon.
The world today is fast becoming a global village and for Nigeria to maximize the gains of globalization there is every need for them to integrate their economy and harmonize their economic policies.
However, for the purpose of this research, functionalism theory will be adopted. This theory favors cooperation in non political issues first before achieving political union. Transnational corporations were set-up for “economic” purposes but has over the years involved other sectorial approaches. Many people imagine that most transnational corporations are North based businesses that have shifted production to the less developed south to take advantage of cheap labour or natural resources, but the facts do not support this conclusion. This accounts for why transnational corporation start by establishing themselves in host nations, liberalize trade, harmonize trade, engage in import and export and other financial policies for better monetary union before looking forward toward political union.
1.11 CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION
FUNCTIONALISM: This is international cooperation in
specific areas such as communications, trade, travel, health or environmental protection activity. The advocates believe that cooperation on the above other than political issues would foster cooperation and make states and transnational corporations trust one another to the point were rivalry is eliminated.
TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATION: Are companies based in one state with affiliated branches or subsidiaries operating in other states.
1.12 CHAPTER OUTLINE/STRUCTURE
This research is structured into five chapters. Chapter one introduces the subject matter which examines the statement of the research problem, aim of the study, objectives of the study scope of the study, limitations of the study, significance of the study, propositions, methodology of the study, theoretical framework, conceptual definition and chapter outline. Chapter two is the literature review which examines the concept of Nigeria and influences of
transnational corporations. In chapter three efforts have being made to extensively discuss the perspective and origins of transnational corporations and its influence in Nigeria, as well as the patterns of transnational corporations operations in Nigeria. Chapter four is Nigeria and the influence of transnational corporation, benefits and demerits of transnational corporation in Nigeria. Chapter five summarizes the research with operational recommendations.
Paul De Grauwe and Fillip Camerman, How big are the Big
David C. Korten (1996), when corporations rule the world. West
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Raymond Vernon (1998) in the Hurricane’s Eye: The Troubled Prospects of Multinational Enterprises. Cambridge, MA:
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Joshua S. Goldstein (2008-2009), international relations, Pearson