The research is an appraisal of Yohanna Datiri‟s ceramics that address issues in the society. Related literature on the ceramist were reviewed under specific headings and review of contemporary ceramists in Nigeria. The role played by this ceramist and issues raised in the work are highlighted in the review, as well as the analysis and sources of inspiration, techniques and styles of his ceramic. Data collected for the study were analysed and from the findings it was discovered that Yohanna Datiri was inspired by his teachers and lecturers. It was also discovered that the ceramist has been practicing through coiling, pinching and so on. Other techniques of ceramics such as hand built technique. The study also revealed that most of the ceramics produced by Datiri were centered on royalty for instance royal goblets, royal ritual pot, royal vase and Damanjei (royal father) which are inspired by Berom traditional cultural issues. The study further revealed that the artist has participated in several exhibitions (both exhibition, solo and group) within and outside Nigeria. The study also revealed that Datiri‟s ceramics address contemporary issues in the Nigerian society; such issues includes social, political, religious and economic issues. Through his ceramics, the study discovered also the uniqueness in style especially ceramic-sculpture. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were advanced so as to encourage ceramic practice both in institutions and private practice while historians on the other hand will document the works to add to the existing were literature available on ceramists from other parts of Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – – vii
List of Figures – – – – – – – – – – x
List of Plates – – – – – – – – – – xi
Definition of Operational Terms – – – – – – – xii
Introduction – – – – – – – – – 1
Preamble – – – – – – – – – 1
Background of the Study – – – – – – – – 3
Statement of Research Problem – – – – – – – 7
Aim and Objectives of the Study – – – – – – 7
Research Questions – – – – – – – – – 7
Justification of the Study – – – – – – – 7
Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 8
Scope of the Study – – – – – – – – – 8
Conceptual Framework – – – – – – – – 9
Literature Review- – – – – – – – – 10
Introduction – – – – – – – – – 10
The Historical Background of ceramics – – – – – – 11
The Development of Ceramics in Nigeria – – – – – – 14
Ceramics-Sculpture – – – – – – – – – 20
Background of Ceramists and their Works- – – – – – 22
Materials, Styles and Techniques – – – – – – – 51
Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – 60
Research Methodology and Procedures – – – – – – 62
Introduction – – – – – – – – – – 62
Methods of Data Collection – – – – – – – – 63
Population/Sampling Technique- – – – – – – 64
Research Instruments – – – – – – – – – 65
Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – – – 66
Data Analysis And Discussion – – – – – – – 67
Introduction – – – – – – – – – – 67
Categorization – – – – – – – – – 67
Analysis of Yohanna Datiri – – – – – – – – 67
Inspiration, Techniques and Styles of Datiri‟s Ceramics – – – – 69
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations – – – – – 94
Summary – – – – – – – – – – 94
Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – 94
Findings – – – – – – – – – 85
Recommendations – – – – – – – – 97
Contributions to Knowledge – – – – – – – 98
References – – – – – – – – – – 99
Appendix I: Draft – Interview Questions- – – – – – 106
Appendix II: Interview Questions and Answers – – – – – 107
Appendix III: The Researcher with the Artist – – – – – 109
The antecedence to contemporary Nigeria ceramic art and artists development can be traced to the 1920s, through the efforts of Aina Onabolu. Babalola (2004), supports the view that “it is generally and truly believed that the standard history of modern art began with the pioneering efforts of Aina Onabolu”. His efforts led to the training of other contemporary Nigerian artists who include ceramists, like Abbas Ahuwan, Benjo Igwilo, Alkali Vershima, Chris Echeta and Ozioma Onuzulike amongst others. However, it was not until between 1950s and 1960s that modern ceramic practice began to actively receive external influence, through Micheal Cardew, a technical officer who trained Ladi Kwali in the pottery centre in Abuja, (Gukas 2007). From that period onward, new methods of producing ceramic wares using modern tools and equipment were introduced into traditional pottery and ceramic practice. This did not only lead to the development of new modes of aesthetic perception of ceramic forms, but also brought about technical and material transformation in firing, decorating and glazing of ceramic wares in Nigeria. Apart from that, the scope of the profession was expanded, as men began to actively take part in the ceramic venture, which was an exclusive preserve of women in some traditional African settings. They contributed into the provision of an enabling environment for future generations of Nigerian ceramists to begin their artistic expressions in different ceramic forms which later transformed from ceramic styles known as ceramic sculpture.
These ceramic artists have expressed themselves in various techniques and styles both traditional and contemporary approach. They express themselves in different art forms to contribute in creating a repository of their own works such that they inspire other growing
number of ceramists who continue to create a variety of artistic ideas, techniques, styles and media. This gave rise to various authors to define and discuss ceramics artforms in different perspective.
Ceramics is an aspect of art which has been in existence for a long period of time which was also known as pottery. Early archaeologists, in excavating most of the material evidence of prehistoric times, have proved that pottery making has been in most parts of Nigeria dating back to 3000 BC. Ahuwan (2004), “defines ceramics as a “compound material that has shape and then hardened by heating to high temperature. Such ceramic works include the making of vessels, jugs, bowls, vases, pots and general utensils”. Alasa in Greg, (2004) points out that ceramic is an inorganic and non metallic solid material prepared by the action of heating and subsequent cooling. Ceramic is simply the art and science of making objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials by the action of heat”. The author further says that, “ceramics are seen as mirror for political, social, economic, traditional, educational reformation, transformation and growth of the society”.
Okonkwo (2012) observes that “ceramist art is a visual form that have created a visual language which are understood by the artists and those who appreciate ceramic art.” Ceramic works produced over the years by ceramist are worthy of appraisal and documentation for which researcher set out to appraise the ceramic works of Yohanna Datiri. Alkali and Ahuwan (2014) observed that a lot of published literature on contemporary history of ceramics in Nigeria has not captured the works of many ceramists and their contributions in the profession; such that even when little is reflected, it is not accessible to a wide readership particularly in the academics.
Onuzulike (2005) supports the above position, citing the work of Benjo Igwilo “lamenting the relative lack of interest on the part of Art Historians to document and appraise the activities of potters. He attributes this attitude to the bad influence of western critics who prefer to discuss painters and sculptors more than other aspects of the Fine and Applied Arts”. This statement shows that, there exists a wide gap of ceramics appraisal and documentation on contemporary Nigerian ceramics. Jari and Duniya (2015), observed that “many researchers keep away from writing on virgin areas because of the absence of literature on some ceramists”. This has created problems of omission of ceramics as a visual art form in the long run. The researcher however, is compelled to provide some materials, which will serve as stimuli for others while also helping some others appraise and document the contributions of ceramists like Yohanna Datiri whose work is the focus of the study.
The ongoing trends of contemporary ceramics have continued to breed numerous ceramists. Among such ceramists who contributed greatly to new definitions of aesthetic forms on constant experimentation of forms, styles, techniques and media whose works have been reviewed are ceramists like, Abbas Ahuwan, Joel Gukas, Chris Echeta, Chris Afuba, Saibu Alasa to mention but a few. It is on the basis of this, among other factors that this study appraises the ceramic work of Yohanna Datiri, within the context of how this has contributed to the emerging trends, in the development of ceramics practice in Nigeria.
Background of the Study
Datiri (2014) reports that, he was born on 1st November, 1961 in Barkin-Ladi Local Government Area of Plateau State. He attended Ekklisiyar Kristi a Nigeria (EKAN) Primary School, Sho from January 1969 to June 1976, where he obtained his First School Leaving Certificate. It is important to state that Datiri‟s artistic inspiration began during that period.
Furthermore, it was during his early contact with clay in his primary school days that provided an inspiration for his ceramics career. The pupils were made to go in search of clay deposits, collect and prepare the clay for making simple clay vessels that enabled them develop the interest and some skills at that early stage. These activities provided Datiri with some sense of the early beginnings of his creative impetus in visual arts in general and ceramics in particular.
According to Datiri (2014), after his completion of primary school in 1976, he proceeded to the Gindiri Teacher‟s College, Plateau State, from September 1976 to June, 1981, where he obtained Teachers Grade II Certificate. Another source of his inspiration was during secondary school days, when in his final year, he met Gukas Habila, who was posted to the school to teach art for a mandatory one year National Youth Service Corp (NYSC) in 1980/1981. Datiri was further motivated by Gukas and was exposed to the production techniques of glazed ceramic wares. In 1982, Yohanna applied and gained admission into Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria for his pre-degree, and completed it in 1983. He later obtained his Bachelor of Arts Degree from the Department of Industrial Design, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) Zaria, in June 1986, specialized in ceramics. Due to his quest for more knowledge, he returned to Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria in 1996 to pursue a Masters Degree in Industrial Design, and completed the Master of Arts (M.A). Ceramics in 1998. His thesis is titled “Model diesel oil burner: An Additional Option to Ceramic Printing Techniques”.
Datiri enrolled for his Doctoral programme at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (ATBU) Bauchi in 2006 and completed it in 2011 with a dissertation titled “An Investigation of Suitability of the Kerang and Miango Volcanic Ashes for the Production of Ceramic Bodies
and Glazes” in the Faculty of Environmental Sciences. The work was adjudged the best in Environmental Sciences for the year 2011, and the Ph.D dissertation won the Best dissertation Award of the NUDIAS instituted by the Nigerian University Commission (NUC). He also enrolled with the University of Jos and bagged a Postgraduate Diploma in Technical Education (PDTE) in 2012.
Datiri has taught Art at various levels of his teaching career from 1981 to date. He started briefly after his grade II in Gindiri, at Ekklisiyar Kristi a Nigeria (EKAN) school, Sho and later introduced Art as a subject at the Federal Government Girls‟ College, Gusau, Zamfara State, where he taught between 1988 to 1990. He left Federal Government Girls‟ College Gusau to join the services of College of Education, Akwanga. Nassarawa State and taught between 1990 to 1997, and College of Education, Gindiri, Plateau State from 1997 to 2014, where he taught ceramics in both institutions, before he joined the services of the Department of Fine and Applied Arts, University of Jos as a pioneer lecturer of Ceramics in 2014.
Datiri has participated in conferences, such as the Ceramic Researchers Association of Nigeria (CePAN) Conference, Craft Potters Association of Nigeria (CPAN) Conference and also those of the College of Education Academic Staff Union (COEASU). Yohanna Datiri has participated in many exhibitions, both Solo and group. In 1986 at the department of Industrial Design, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. In 1987, Datiri had another exhibition of crafts potters Association of Nigeria (CPAN) held at the British Council, Kaduna. Between1991 and 1994 he also attended another exhibition organised by the crafts potters Association of Nigeria (CPAN) at the same British Council, Kaduna. In that same year, he also held the lecturers‟ exhibition at College of Education, Gindiri, Plateau State. In between 1996 to 1997, Datiri also participated in yet another exhibition of corpers‟ week/Exhibition in
Enugu. This was later followed with second National Conference Exhibition in 2001 at the school of Education, College of Education, Gindiri Plateau State. In 2006 he participated in another exhibition organised by the College of Education Academic Staff Union (COEASU) Conference, College of Education; Gindiri. Other three exhibitions were held between 2008, 2010 and 2013 respectively in the same institution.
Datiri‟s recent exhibitions include the one in London titled “Culture passion and Time”. In 2014. “Fibres of Art” in 2015 and also “Art and Illusion” in the same year. Among others is the exhibition of the University Jos held during its University Convocation in 2016 at the University of Jos, Plateau state. Yohanna Datiri‟s interest for exhibitions is as a result of his early exposure through educational visits (excursions) organized by the pottery centre in Jos museum and the exhibition held by the then young Gukas. This decision motivated him to study ceramics in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Considering the background of Yohanna Datiri, he had contributed to the growth and development of modern Nigerian ceramic through his teaching and production of works, participation in exhibitions and attending conferences, as well as training of artists in the various institutions where he has worked. It is against this background that the researcher considers it necessary to appraise the ceramics of Datiri in order to bring about a better understanding and appreciation of his works.
Statement of the Problem
The researcher observed that a lot of published works on contemporary Nigerian ceramics have not captured many ceramic artists and their works. This has created a vacuum for the general art enthusiasts in knowing the extent of the contributions of ceramist. This means
therefore, that there are possibly a lot of information about such artist‟s work that is not known and one of ceramist. Such ceramist who falls within this category is Yohanna Datiri, which the researcher appraises his ceramics arts. .
Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to appraise Yohanna Datiri‟s ceramics
The objectives are to:
i. trace the artist‟s source(s) of inspiration.
ii. identify the artist‟s techniques of ceramics
iii. analyze his ceramics styles
i. What are the source(s) of Datiri‟s artistic inspiration?
ii. How can Datiri‟s ceramics techniques be identified?
iii. In what way can Datiri‟s ceramics styles be analyzed?
Justification of the study
Over the years very little has been documented concerning the contributions of ceramic artists to the development of contemporary Nigerian Art. A lot of such artists exist, and have contributed in their areas of specialization, in art. It is against this backdrop that the researcher considered it necessary to appraise the ceramics of Yohanna Datiri. Onuzulike (2005) laments this relative lack of interest on the part of art historians to appraise and document the activities of potters generally. In the same vein, Alkali and Ahuwan (2014) observes that, “a lot of published literature on contemporary history of ceramics in Nigeria has not captured the works of many ceramists and their contributions in the profession”.
It is in view of the vacuum created that the researcher considers it necessary to project the contributions of Yohanna Datiri.
Significance of the Study
The appraisal of Yohanna Datiri‟s ceramics and its contributions to the development of contemporary ceramics in Nigeria is significant because Datiri has produced quite a number and body of ceramics works which have added immensely to the existing body of works in Nigerian ceramics in particular. In the light of the above, this study adds to the few existing literature on contemporary ceramic in Nigeria. The result of this study will also guide scholars to appreciate and understand the works produced by Yohanna Datiri as emerging artists, art educators and art historians will benefit from this scholarly work.
Scope of the study
The scope of the study includes 12 selected ceramics works of Yohanna Datiri covering a period of ten years (2006 to 2016). This period was chosen because it is a period in which the ceramist had added his academic prowess into his ceramics with a unique indigenous style, techniques, form and content derived from socio-cultural and philosophical influences.
The conceptual framework of this research is based on the contribution of Gukas (2016) who points out that the interest of Artists in African creative hand built pottery is what aroused his interest in studying the philosophy governing the shapes and decorative motifs used on traditional African pots. The framework is also based on Alkali (2009) who states that, there exist styles, motifs, techniques and themes from other cultures yet to be exploited and fused or integrated into modern art practices. Alasa (2011) also opines that, “ceramic as a visual art is a means of social, political, education and economic reformation, transformation and growth”. It is also based on Akpang‟s (2013) concept of Hybrid Aesthetics, which avers that
“Hybrid Aesthetic as an art style or convention, which combines two or three cultures, styles and techniques to create a unique art, which exist in the boundaries between the two cultures and at same time elevates modern visual forms or art, to a creative contemporary status”. Thus, the analysis of Yohanna Datiri‟s ceramic art will be in terms of how they conform to these four scholarly ideas. First, the interest in form of art production, the existence of form, style, motif, techniques and themes from one culture to another. Such hybrid of juxtaposition of form, style and content is considered in studying Datiri‟s ceramics. In the above, Datiri‟s works tends to have a close link to Akpang‟s concept of hybrid Aesthetic which borrows from one culture to add into new thoughts for another art which becomes a new culture. Thus, the concept is used as a microcosm in which a comparative study of his works are studied vis-a-vis other ceramists in the review of related works.
GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT»
Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 08060082010, 08107932631, 08157509410 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: firstname.lastname@example.org