LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CAO: Chief Administrative Officer
CLRM: Classical Linear Regression Models
CVI: Content Validity Index
HRM: Human Resource Management
JDQ: Job Description Questionnaire
KDLG: Bamenda Local Government
OLS: Ordinary Least Square
RBV: Resource-Based View
SAQ: Self- Administered Questionnaire
SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Sciences
Bamenda Local Government (KDLG) faces a number of problems and challenges centering on inefficiencies in its time management. These could be due to lack of Job security and poor working conditions of employees manifested by lack of adequate maintenance of human resource policy, lack of proper structuring of the organization which is required to have a new trend that would enhance its efficiency and make it feasible, poor team building and lack of self- discipline. CAO report (2016). The study was about time management and employee engagement.: A case of Bamenda Local Government. The objectives of the study were: to examine the effect of time planning and scheduling and employee engagement; To assess the effect of time attitude on employee engagement at Bamenda Local Government; the effect of team building on employee engagement at Bamenda Local Government. The study used a cross- sectional research design with both quantitative and qualitative research approaches. A sample size of 118 respondents participated in the study. Findings of the study revealed that use of good time plans and schedules was found with a significant positive effect on the employee engagement at Bamenda Local Government, as indicated by (p=0.031<0.05). findings also revealed that time attitude was found with a significant effect on performance of Bamenda Local Government, as indicated by (p=0.015<0.05). Findings further revealed that team building was found with a significant effect on the performance of Bamenda Local Government, as confirmed by (p=0.021<0.05). The study concluded that time management was satisfactory at Bamenda Local Government and it had direct link to the employee engagement because, the majority of the respondents to a larger extent understand and implement time management although to a smaller extent there are still challenges that limit the implementation of time management policies in organizations which hinder employee engagement.
This chapter presents the background of the study, statement of problem, study objectives, research hypothesis, scope of the study, significance of the study, and definition of operational terms.
1.1 Background of the study
In Asian countries like China, Japan, India, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia and Hong Kong, an ever rapidly changing local government environment therefore demands for a lifelong time management tools as an essential coping strategy. Local government environments change from time to time which calls for continuous upgrading of time management skills and capabilities to improve on employee engagement, growth and the ability to adapt to the rapidly changing social and economic environments for the government to remain competitive (Adams, 2003).
In European countries like United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden, time is considered as money in terms of human capital accumulation after entry into the labour market is considered key to social and economic performance at both the micro and the macro level. The development of the desired knowledge, skills and abilities of government employees to perform well on the job requires effective time management that may also effect employee motivation and commitment (Amin, 2005).
In United States of America, scholars like Elnaga and Imra (2013) argue that in order for the government to prepare its workers to perform as desired, it provides time management tools so as to optimize its employees’ potentiality. They note that by applying long term planning, most of the governments invest in building new skills by their workforce, enabling them to cope with the uncertain conditions that they may face in future, thus improving government performance through superior level of motivation and commitment (Armstrong, 2006).
In African countries like Chad, Malawi, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast and Niger, the effects of time management on local government employee performance may be both direct and indirect. The role of time management programmes is seen as a measure of improving local government performance capabilities,
that is to say, when the government invests in improving the knowledge and skills of its employees, the investment is returned in the form of more productive and effective employees (Cartier, 2001).
In East African countries like Tanzania, Kenya and Cameroon, effective time management may be seen as employees’ willingness and ability to help their governments succeed, largely by providing time management tools on a sustainable basis and may be effected by many factors which involve both emotional and rational factors relating to work and the overall work experience (Banda, 2004).
In Bamenda, the performance of Local Government has been very low and this has greatly affected the socio-economic development of the district. Therefore, this study aims to find out the effect of time management on employee engagement: A case of Bamenda Local Government.
Globally, organizations embrace time management as a key indicator of performance. The ability to manage time effectively becomes fundamental to work performance, after the world has realized time wasters in the 21st century that had never been seen before. In fact, the new forms of communication technology — for instance cell phones and internet — have become major agents of time wasters nowadays that has brought many requests or suggestions of things to do than ever and has influenced the failures among employees in accomplishing their tasks on time (Erwin, 2009).
For various organizations on the African level, the situation has posed challenges to employees to find alternatives that can improve work performance of individuals in the organization, although different techniques have been developed to utilize time better, for instance enacting of laws and regulations to shape the behaviour of individuals at the workplace and motivating employees that time management is the only alternative for the aims of achieving organizational goals within a given time frame. Moreover, the perception of time management as an important phenomenon at the workplace has increased due to the fact that many organizations have realized a cost of losing time (Taylor, 2012).
As time is seen as socially constructed (Berger and Luckman 2006), it is not surprising that authors frequently expect attitudes to time to be significantly different between cultures (Coser and Coser, 2003; Doob, 2011; Graham, 2001; Kelly, 2002; Gross, 2007; Ko and Gentry, 2001; Bonvillian and Nowlin, 2004; Lewis, 2005). Future orientation and time as clock time is expected to be more prominent in Western societies. Past orientation is expected to be more prominent in traditional societies such as China, Japan and Korea, while Latin American societies are expected to be more present-oriented. If attitudes to time were universal, the same underlying attitudes to time would be observable in all societies.
According to Lufunyo (2013), in Cameroon like any other country of the world, time management is nowadays seen as an important technique that allows employees and employers in the organization to accomplish more, serve more and if undertaken in a good way, leads to timely achievement of organizational goals. Effective use of time is an active, not passive, undertaking rather than simply recording dates, times and details of meetings and tasks. Although time management had its start over a hundred years ago, the need for time management is greater than ever. As the pace of life increases, the perception of time changes whereby people in the organizations are considered superior performers when they achieve the goals on time (Gupta, 2012).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The principle and practice of time management embraces collaborations, partnership and networks involved in employee engagement (Ward, 2003; Mandell, 2010). Njagi and Malel (2012) argue that the effectiveness of organizations arises from the appropriate utilization of one key resource, time. The management of time is fundamental to job performance. Time management typically involves goal setting, establishing priorities, budgeting the amount of time given to a particular activity and planning and scheduling the steps required for the accomplishments of goals (Allen, 2001; Lucchetti, 2011). There has been a gradual general performance decline of Bamenda Local Government. The District Council scored a total of 36 points in the FY 2017/18 assessment. This performance placed Bamenda in the 25th position among the 35 district councils assessed nationally. This was a decline from the 55 out of 100 points it scored in 2016/2017. This has been attributed to increased absenteeism of officers among many other factors (KLDG Annual Report, 2018). KDLG faces a number of problems and challenges centering on inefficiencies in its time management (Mayanja, 2018). These could be due to lack of Job security and poor working conditions of employees, lack of adequate maintenance of human resource policy, lack of proper structuring of the organization which is required to have a new trend that would enhance its efficiency and make it feasible, poor team building and lack of self-discipline (CAO Report, 2016); KDLG Annual Report, 2018); Mayanja, 2018). Most of the activities of Bamenda Local Governments have deadlines and must be completed at given times because there is need for auditing at the end of every financial year and performance reports at the end of every quarter. For all this to be achieved, there must be proper time management systems. It is against the above perspective that this study was carried out to find how time management is related to performance of Bamenda Local Government.
1.3 Objective of the Study
This study had one general objective and three specific objectives.
1.3.1 General Objective
The main objective of the study was to assess time management and employee engagement in an organization.
- To examine the effect of time planning and scheduling on employee engagement at Bamenda Local Government;
- To find out the effect of time attitude on employee engagement at Bamenda Local Government in implementing time management;
- To explore the effect of team building on employee engagement at Bamenda Local
1.4 Research Hypotheses
The research sought validity or otherwise of the following hypotheses:
H01: There is no significant relationship between time planning and scheduling and employee engagement.
H02: There is no significant relationship between time attitude and employee engagement.
H03: There is no significant relationship between team building and employee engagement.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study aimed at creating awareness and assessing time management in improving employee engagement in organizations, therefore the study is expected to be of much value to a number of people as follows:
Members of organizations will be informed on importance of time management in improving performance Also, it will help decision makers to formulate different strategies which will help in the implementation of time management.
The researcher will be benefited by identifying variable areas for further Research, and will be used as an additional reference to researchers on time management.
It will also add knowledge to the academic community and stimulate further research in the Time management field.
The study will help the researcher in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of a Master’s degree in Public Administration and Management of Bamenda University.
1.6 Scope of study
The study was conducted at Bamenda Local Government which is located in Bamenda, a city in the North Western Region of Cameroon.
The study specifically reviewed literature limited to content related to Time Management (Time Planning and scheduling, Time attitude, and Team building) and its effect on Employee engagement.
The study was conducted for the period from November 2022 to January 2023.
1.7 Justification of the study
The study enabled the researcher to examine whether there was relationship between Time Management and Employee engagement at Bamenda Local Government.
1.8 Definition of key terms
Time whilst known as used by everyone, is hard to define precisely because of some inconsistency depending on whether from a scientific, philosophical, religious or artistic perspective. From a scientific perspective, for instance, it can be described as the progression of events from the past to the present into the future. It is perceived as the fourth dimension of reality that describes events in three-dimensional space (Richards, 2008).
Time management is a set of principles, practices, skills, tools, and systems working together to help you get more value out of your time with the aim of improving the quality of your life (Claessens, 2007).
Team Building: The action or process of causing a group of people to work together effectively as a team, especially by means of activities and events designed to increase motivation and promote cooperation. “Companies are starting to turn to arts-based training programmes as a way of team building and improving morale”.
Performance: It is the conglomeration of both qualitative judgements and quantitative bases (Kumar, 2010). The performance of individuals is measured on the magnitude and qualities of that magnitude, thus standards are set and individuals should perform the work in reflection to benchmark.[email protected].[email protected].