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ABSTRACT

The Industrial development of a nation could be achieved through the
effective and efficient utilization of the available raw materials and Ceramic
Industries are some of the enterprises that rely heavily on such raw
materials. Kebbi State has been endowed with natural resources including
ceramic raw materials. Data from geological documents and information
received from respondents aided the identification of locations and
subsequent collection of the raw materials. These are kaolin, ball clay,
quartz, feldspar and limestone. Chemical analyses and physical property
tests were conducted. The triaxial blend method was adapted to study the
effect of the materials while slip casting technique was used to shape the
sample wares and the samples were fired in the kerosene kiln. Based on
the chemical analyses and physical tests performed, the study found that
Kaoje, Koko and Giro Kaolins; Birnin Kebbi and Felande ball clays; Aliero,
Dangamaji and Katanga limestones; Bena feldspar and Bena quartz are
suitable raw materials for the production of table ware.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE – – – – – – – – ii
DECLARATION – – – – – – – – – iii
CERTIFICATION – – – – – – – – iv
DEDICATION – – – – – – – – – v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT – – – – – – – vi
ABSTRACT – – – – – – – – – x
TABLE OF CONTENT – – – – – – – – xi
LIST OF TABLES – – – – – – – – xvii
LIST OF FIGURES – – – – – – – – xix
LIST OF PLATES – – – – – – – – xx
ABBREVIATIONS – – – – – – – – xxi
CHEMICAL SYMBOLS – – – – – – – xxii
DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS – – – – xxiii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION – – – – – 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem – – – – – 5
1.2 Aim and Objectives – – – – – – 5
1.3 Research Questions – – – – – – – 6
1.4 Basic Assumptions – – – – – – – 6
1.5 Limitation – – – – – – – – – 7
1.6 Delimitation – – – – – – – – 8
1.7 Justification for the Study – – – – – 8
xi
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW – – – – 12
2.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 12
2.1 Ceramic Raw Materials – – – – – – – 12
2.2 Plastic Raw Materials – – – – – – 14
2.2.1 Clay – – – – – – – – – 14
2.2.2 Kaolin – – – – – – – – 20
2.2.3 Ball Clay — – – – – – – – 25
2.3 Non-Plastic Material – – – – – – 26
2.3.1 Feldspar – – – – – – – – 26
2.3.2 Quartz – – – – – – – – 29
2.3.3 Limestone – – – – – – – – 31
2.4 Identification of Minerals (Ceramic Raw Materials) – – 32
2.4.1 Fracture – – – – – – – – 32
2.4.2 Lustre – – – – – – – – 33
2.4.3 Cleavage – – – – – – – – 33
2.4.4 Hardness – – – – – – – – 34
2.4.5 Steak – – – – – – – – – 35
2.4.6 Parting – – – – – – – – – 35
2.4.7 Tenacity– – – – – – – – – 35
2.4.8 Crystal Form – – – – – – – – 36
2.4.9 Specific Gravity – – – – – – – – 36
2.5 Tableware – – – – – – – 37
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2.5.1 Porcelain – – – – – – – – – 38
2.5.2 Body Formulation – – – – – – – 42
2.5.3 Slip Casting – – – – – – – 44
2.5.4 Mould – – – – – – – – – 47
2.5.5 Glaze – – – – – – – – – 48
2.5.6 Firing – – – – – – – – – 50
2.6 Small Scale Industry – – – – – – – 52
CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY – – – 57
3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 57
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 57
3.1.1 Population of the Study – – – – – – – 59
3.1.2 Sample – – – – – – – – – 59
3.1.3 Pilot Study – – – – – – – – – 60
3.2 Collection of Raw Materials – – – – – 70
3.2.1 Kaolin – – – – – – – – – 70
3.2.2 Feldspar – – – – – – – – – 70
3.2.3 Quartz – – – – – – – – – 70
3.2.4 Limstone – – – – – – – – 71
3.2.5 Ball Clay – – – – – – – – 71
3.3 Preliminary Physical Property Tests for Materials – – 71
3.3.1 Water of Plasticity Test – – – – – – – 72
3.3.2 Plastic Test – – – – – – – – 73
xiii
3.3.3 Visual Texture Test – – – – – – – 73
3.3.4 Linear Shrinkage Test – – – – – – – 73
3.3.5 Porosity Test – – – – – – – 74
3.4 Chemical Analysis – – – – – – – 75
3.5 Plaster Mould – – – – – – – 75
3.6 Sample Processing – – – – – – 77
3.6.1 Preparation of Plastic Materials- – – – – 78
3.6.2 Preparation of Non-Plastic Materials – – – – 79
3.7 Body Formulation – – – – – – – 80
3.7.1 Preliminary Body Composition – – – – – 81
3.7.2 Triaxial Blend – – – – – – – – 84
3.7.2.1 Four Selected Body Compositions- – – – – 89
3.7.2.2 Body Composition by Weight – – – – – 92
3.8 Casting Slip – – – – – – – – 94
3.8.1 Casting Procedure – – – – – – – 95
3.9 Test for Cast Selected Bodies — – – – – 95
3.9.1 Shrinkage Test – – – – – – – – 96
3.9.2 Porosity Test – – – – – – – 96
3.10 Glaze – – – – – – – – 97
3.11 Firing – – – – – – – – 100
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS – – – – – – 101
4.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 101
xiv
4.1 Samples Collection – – – – – – 101
4.1.1 Kaolin Samples – – – – – – – – 101
4.1.2 Feldspar Sample – – – – – – – 102
4.1.3 Quartz Sample – – – – – – – – 103
4.1.4 Limestone Samples – – – – – – 104
4.1.5 Ball Clay Samples – – – – – – 105
4.2 Raw Materials Processing – – – – – – 105
4.2.1 Kaolin and Ball Clay – – – – – – 105
4.2.2 Feldspar and Quartz – – – – – – 106
4.2.3 Limestone – – – – – – – – 107
4.3 Chemical and Physical Tests of the Raw
Materials Samples – – – – – – 108
4.3.1 Chemical Analysis Results – – – – – 108
4.3.2 Results of Physical Tests – – – – – 115
4.3.2.1 Plasticity Test – – – – – – – – 115
4.3.2.2 Shrinkage Test of Clay Samples – – – – 116
4.3.2.3 Porosity Test of Clay Samples – – – – 117
4.3.2.4 Preliminary Body Composition and Triaxial
Blend Test Results – – – – – – 120
4.4 Shaping of Wares – – – – – – – 127
4.4.1 Slip Casting Performance Result – – – – 127
4.5 Body Slip Compositions by Weight and Casting Procedure- 131
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4.6 Result of Shrinkage Rate of the Body Compositions – 143
4.7 Results of Porosity Rate of Cast Bodies – – – 145
4.8 Result of Glaze Test- – – – – – – 147
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION – – – – – – 152
5.1 Discussion – – – – – – – – 152
5.2 Findings – – – – – – – – 170
CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION – – – – 174
6.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 174
6.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 174
6.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 177
6.3 Recommendation – – – – – – 178
REFERENCES – – – – – – – – 179

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Industrial development is the keyword used to assess, evaluate and
measure the living standards of people of a particular country. Probably,
no nation or society can easily survive the prevailing hard and hash
economic climate without proper strategies and planning for its industrial
takeoff. The persistent economic recessions are sometimes attributed to
the low level of industrialization.
Ibrahim (2002) confirmed that the Federal Government of Nigeria is
doing everything within its powers to “strengthen and energize the
economy by promoting industrial development especially the small scale
sector.” Already the government has made effort towards stimulating the
Industrial growth by establishing the Federal Ministry of Industries and
Federal Ministry of Solid Minerals Development. Established for a similar
purpose are the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), Raw Materials
Research and Development Council (RMRDC), and Industrial
Development Centres located in different parts of the country. Others are
Project Development Agency (PRODA) Enugu, Federal Institute of
Industrial Research Oshodi (FIIRO) Lagos and other relevant agencies.
In another perspective, the central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) has
created Small and Medium Industries Equity scheme (SMIES) as part of
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the banking industry’s contribution to the industrial development of Nigeria.
The scheme requires all commercial banks to set aside 10 percent of their
profit before tax for small and medium scale industries development. In the
year, 2003, the Federal Government has established the Small and
Medium Enterprises Development Agency (SMEDA) to promote and
facilitate the development programme in the small and medium enterprises
sub-sector of the nation’s economy.
Seemingly, all these steps and actions taken by the government are
to ensure the smooth promotion of the small-scale industries for the simple
reason that they play significant and tremendous role in the economic
growth of Nigeria. Ibrahim (2002) described small-scale industries as
catalysts to the economic and industrial development of any nation.
It is pertinent at this point to note that nations like USA, Britain,
France, China, Japan became industrialized sequel to the development of
small scale industries. The newly industrialized countries like Pakistan,
Indonesia, Malaysia, South Africa and the likes attained their present
economic and industrial growth as a result of the activities of the smallscale
industries. Similarly, Randali (2003) revealed that over the years,
different regimes in Nigeria have created policies that are designed to
promote small-scale enterprises.
Mabawonku (1977) pointed out that small-scale industries could
reduce rural urban migration and poverty. To this end, they enhance
3
employment opportunities and encourage the use of locally sourced raw
materials. Also these industries accelerate the improvement of national
income better than the intensive large-scale sector. Ahuwan (1987)
confirmed that, small-scale industries can be reliable source of creating
employment to the ever increasing youths.
Essentially, industrial development of a nation could likely be
realized with effective and efficient utilization of the available natural
resources’. Indeed ceramic industries are the type of enterprises that
require the use of such natural resources like kaolin, quartz, feldspar and
limestone. Klien (2001) revealed that the main ingredients or components
used in the ceramic industries are kaolin, clay, talc, felspar, quartz,
limestone, dolomite and the likes. It is clear that one form of ceramic
product or the other is being used to serve human needs. For example,
Oliver (1997) explained that ceramic meets the need of almost every
community in the area of cooking, storage, preservation and construction.
Apart from its essential utility at home, builders employed structural
ceramic products such as bricks and tiles for execution of projects.
Interestingly, electrical engineers depend greatly on ceramic products such
as electrical insulators and sockets for their jobs. Based on this account,
industrial development as the basis for meaningful economic growth can
be promoted in Kebbi State by the establishment of industries especially
4
for small-scale sector. However, to accomplish effective industrial take off,
the presence of raw materials is of supreme importance.
Kebbi state is said to have been endowed with abundant natural
resources. Suraj (2004) disclosed that Kebbi has a fair share of the
Nigeria’s known natural resources. The state has vast raw materials
resources. In fact the size of the state, its strategic location and position in
the country places it at a great advantage. Perhaps the most vital of these
endowments as far as industrialization is concerned is the availability of
raw materials in various parts of the state. Suraj (2004) further stated that
there are records confirming the occurrence of variety of minerals in
commercial quantities in Kebbi State. They include kaolin, refractory clay,
gold, limestone, talc, phosphates, granite, marble and feldspar.
For this reason, the setting up of ceramic small-scale industries
might be possible in Kebbi State because of the availability of the raw
materials. Kebbi State may attain gradual industrial development if
emphasis is laid on small-scale sector. Umar (2000) found out that;
In the field of solid minerals resources, the state is well
blessed with a lot of deposits, which have either been
identified or expected to be present because of the geophysical
nature of our land. Such deposits are kaolin,
gold, limestone, iron-ore, bauxite, clays, salt, potash,
manganese, silica sand, mica and feldspar to mention
just a few of the endowments. These resources when
fully exploited will give Kebbi State a place of pride in
the nation’s economic system.
5
However, it is distressing to note that Kebbi State has no single
functional ceramic industry despite the abundant raw material deposits in
the state. Suraj (2004) observed that, Kebbi State remains among the least
industrially developed states in the federation, even though it has been
blessed with abundant mineral resources.
Against this background, the researcher is motivated to undertake a study
on the Evaluation of the Suitability of Ceramic Raw Materials in Kebbi
State for the Production of Tableware for to Small-Scale Industry.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
The problem of this study is the unidentification, unevaluation and
unutilization of ceramic raw materials in Kebbi State into suitable products
of porcelain as tableware.
1.2 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to critically examine some of the selected
ceramic raw materials in Kebbi State and to evaluate their suitability for the
production of tableware for small scale industry.
The objectives of the study are as follows:
1. To identify the locations of ceramic raw materials in Kebbi State.
2. To identify through experiments the suitability of some of the
selected ceramic raw materials.
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3. To formulate good working porcelain body for the production of
tableware.
1.3 Research Questions
1. What are the types of ceramic raw materials found in Kebbi
State?
2. What is the adequacy of the raw material found in Kebbi State for
ceramic Small-Scale Industry?
3. What are the Chemical and physical properties of the ceramic
raw materials found from different locations in Kebbi State?
4. What is the role of ball clay in enhancing the plastic state of the
slip produced from the ceramic raw materials found in Kebbi
State for casting?
5. Could the slip produced from the ceramic raw materials found in
Kebbi state be suitable for casting without the addition of
deflocculants?
6. Could the ceramic raw materials found in Kebbi State be used to
formulate glaze recipes for the study?
1.4 Basic Assumptions
The research is based on the following assumptions:
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1. That raw materials identified would be suitable for ceramic
production;
2. That adequate facilities to process the raw materials would be
available;
3. That Information obtained from respondents and geological
documents would facilitate identification of locations of the raw
materials;.
4. That there would be availability of facilities to conduct tests.
5. That the finished products would or would not display all the
characteristics of porcelains, particularly, translucency.
1.5 Limitation
1. There was lack of adequate facilities to process raw materials
in the Department of Industrial Design, Ahmadu Bello
University, Zaria. The study made contact with relevant
agencies and organizations where facilities were available for
the processing and testing of materials;
2. Consequent to the insufficient knowledge concerning the
locations of ceramic materials, the study treated information
obtained from geological documents and other respondents;
8
3. Only slip casting technique was used as shaping method for
the production of sample tableware (simple shape only) for
this study.
1.6 Delimitation
Kebbi State as earlier explained is naturally well endowed with
various and varied mineral resources. However, the study is delimited
both in scope and materials significantly to Kebbi State kaolin, quartz,
feldspar and limestone.
1.7 Justification for the Study
Ceramic is one of the first useful arts to be developed by man. It has
essentially maintained its usefulness Ahuwan (1987) revealed that ceramic
besides its tradition of practice still meets the daily needs of every
community or society. For example, people seek for the services of
ceramic products for cooking, storage as well as for aesthetic values.
Ceramics in the contemporary scene provides wide range of services.
Sullayman (1997) disclosed that there has been an increasing
demand for ceramic wares throughout West African sub-region particularly
in Nigeria. He re-iterated that the growing demand of ceramics in the
modern world, has covered the field of “architectural, sanitary, electrical
9
and even electronic”. For instance, in architecture and construction,
ceramic provides bricks, tiles and other structural clay products. Sanitary
wares of all sorts are enhanced and in electrical work ceramic provides
electrical insulators, sockets and other elements used in electrical
services.
On the other hand, ceramic contributes in the automobile industry by
providing spark plugs and cylindrical pipes for transporting water, sewage
wastes and other liquids. The use of ceramic products are numerous. Thus
the importance of ceramic in the industrialization of any nation cannot be
over-stressed.
Opoku (2003) opined that the development of raw materials has an
enormous role in the socio-economic life of the people of any nation. He
further emphasized that its development as a sub-sector of the economy
helps to advance the industrial growth and self-reliance through the
effective use of the local raw materials as inputs for the industries. Raw
materials that exist in Kebbi State are part of the wealth possession of the
people of Kebbi State and the country in general. In this connection, the
exploitation and utilization of the mineral resources are essential in the
improvement of the standard of living of some people of the state.
Similarly, clarion calls and campaigns on the importance of selfreliance
and industrialization have been vigorously pursued by the federal,
10
state and local governments. Alkali (2003) in support of the above
assertion stated that the problem of unemployment and poverty forced the
Federal Government to establish the National Directorate of Employment
(NDE) in 1986.
According to him, the organ is charged with the responsibility of
mapping out strategies to curb the menace of unemployment in the
country. Amongst the objectives of the National Directorate of Employment
is the need to develop and groom young entrepreneurs who are properly
equipped with technical and managerial skills to successful start and
manage enterprises such as small-scale industries.
When industries are put in place, employment opportunities will be
created for our teeming youths. As a result of this, the vital role of
industrialization will be inculcated in the minds of entrepreneurs. By
extension, it may encourage the entrepreneurs establish more industries in
their respective localities. Thus, eventually reduce rural urban migration.
Therefore, the need for research on the Evaluation of the Suitability
of Ceramic Raw Materials in Kebbi State for the Production of Tableware
for Small-Scale Industry is not only relevant at this time of industrialization
drive but quite significant in the development of ceramic in the country.
Furthermore, it is expected that the outcome of this study will contribute
towards the industrial and economic growth of Kebbi state. In addition, the
11
study is also expected to contribute meaningfully to the development of
ceramic literature in any higher institution of learning and research
institutes.
Finally, it is hoped that the study will offer useful suggestions to
manufacturers, entrepreneurs, investors and interested persons or
organizations about ceramic raw materials in Kebbi State.
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