AN EXAMINATION OF JOB CREATION AND ITS RELEVANCE TO THE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT (THE APOSTOLIC CHURCH NIGERIA IBADAN AREA)
This study investigates the relationship between job creation through Entrepreneurship Development and youth development and unemployment reduction in ibadan, Nigeria. The research focused on youths of Apostlic church of Nigeria. Data were collected using questionnaire from an infinite population of the selected churches. Samples of 30 youths were drawn from the population of each branch through a convenience sampling technique. A total of 150 youths were sample for the study. However, four hypotheses were tested; the first, second and third hypotheses were designed to investigate the relationship between Entrepreneurship training and unemployment reduction; the relationship between Entrepreneurship traits and unemployment reduction; and the relationship between Entrepreneurship empowerment and unemployment reduction respectively. The fourth hypothesis was on the examination of entrepreneurship challenges affecting unemployment reduction. The test conducted shows that the variables in Ho1, Ho2 and Ho3 were significantly and positively related and Ho4 was also significant. The study recommended that Government should strive to reduce the cost of doing business in Nigeria. Unemployed youths should also be strengthened to embrace entrepreneurship devoid the imitation and vocational inclinations.
1.1 Background of the study
Youth development and empowerment are vital stages in life for building the human capital that allows young people to avoid poverty and lead better, and possibly have a more fulfilling life. The human capital formed in youth is thus an important determinant of long term growth that a nation can invest on. Hence, making sure that youths are well prepared for their future is enor- mously important to the course of poverty reduction and growth. Africa is a continent with a massive population of young people. More than half of Africa’s population is aged less than 21years and two-thirds less than 30 years. In all African countries, the median age of the population is 20 years or less, that is, half or more of the population are under 21 years of age and up to one fifth between 15 and 24. Countries vary considerably in their definition of youth and childhood. The UN considers individuals under the age group of 15 – 24 as youths. In Uganda, for example, youth is from 12 to 30 years, while in Nigeria, it is between 18 and 35 years (ILO publication, 2005). In general, over 200 million Africans are now offi- cially designated as youths (that is, aged 15 to 24). This group makes up 40% of Africa’s working age population, unfortunately 60% are unemployed. Despite the yearly increase in the number of children attending school and those completing tertiary education (Longe Report, 1992), millions of the young people face bleak employment opportunities.
According to the ILO (ILO publication, 2007), the increase in the number of youths in secondary and tertiary education is a positive development; however, labour markets in many countries are presently unable to accommodate the expanding pool of the skilled young graduates. It is estimated that about 400 million new jobs would be needed to absorb today’s youths. Due to this decline in jobs and the rise in the number of those unemployed, young people are forced in the informal sector. Factors which readily come to mind when analysing the worsened unemployment crises in Nigeria are usually traced to the long period of instability in the socio-economic and political dimensions that led to the problems imposed on the economy, the nation and the workers.
1.2 Statement of problem
Unemployment as it is called has been an issue of discourse in Nigeria. This has grown large that the situation cannot be addressed by mere campaign or words of mouth (Nwankwo & Ifejiofor, 2014). It requires the combined efforts of both individuals and the government of the country in particular and the world at large to formulate a lasting strategy to curb this menace. Unemployment in Nigeria has affected the youth and the economic development of the country from a broad spectrum of socio-economic perspective. It is obvious that the situation especially that of youth unemployment affected Nigeria’s progress in several ways. Apart from the economic waste it brought to the nation, it also constitutes political unrest for the country (Ipaye, 1998). According to Ezie (2012), the unemployment situation in Nigeria is disturbing and even more disheartening that the country’s economic condition cannot absorb an optimal proportion of its labour force. This situation has resulted in the continuous increase in crimes and other social vices experienced in our society in recent time. To salvage this ugly situation, several strategies have been developed in all spares of human endeavours. These strategies are all found in entrepreneurship.
Taiwo (2014) observed that in any given economy, entrepreneurship development always give birth to job creation which will force people to do something that will better their lives and the country at large. He evaluated the relationship between job creation and entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. It was clear from his observation, job creation or employment opportunity in an economy can be traceable to entrepreneurship training and development. This is similar to the study of Nwachukwu & Ogbo (2012), Bandal (2010), Baba (2013), Okoye, Iloanya & Udunze (2014), Ebiringa (2012), Asad, Ali & Islam (2014), Snapps & Hamilton (2012) and Dandago & Muhammad, (2014). Therefore, many studies have been conducted on this area in many part of the world as well as in Nigeria, but none has been done in Apostlic Church of Nigeria. This study sought to investigate the extent of relationship between job creation through entrepreneurship development and unemployment reduction and youth development in Apostlic Church of Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the study
The broad objective of this study is an examination of job creation and its relevance to the youth development. Specifically, this study examines;
- the extent of relationship between entrepreneurship training and unemployment reduction in Nigeria.
- the extent of relationship between entrepreneurship traits and unemployment reduction in Nigeria.
- the extent of relationship between entrepreneurship empowerment and unemployment reduction in Nigeria.
- entrepreneurship challenges affecting unemployment reduction in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
However, this study is further hypothesized as follows;
Ho1: There is no relationship between entrepreneurship training and unemployment reduction in Nigeria.
Ho2: There is no relationship between entrepreneurship traits and unemployment reduction in Nigeria.
Ho3: There is no relationship between entrepreneurship empowerment and unemployment reduction in Nigeria.
Ho4: There is no entrepreneurship challenge affecting unemployment reduction in Nigeria.
1.5 Research Question
- what is relationship between entrepreneurship training and unemployment reduction in Nigeria ?
- What is relationship between entrepreneurship traits and unemployment reduction in Nigeria?
- what is the relationship between entrepreneurship empowerment and unemployment reduction in Nigeria ?
- what are entrepreneurship challenges affecting unemployment reduction in Nigeria?
1.6 Significance of the study
This study is significant in that it will help to identify possible factors that will reduce unemployment rate in Nigeria. This study is significant in the sense that it will:
Highlights the importance of entrepreneurship training and its impact on unemployment reduction in Nigeria. One of the SDG (Sustainable Development Goal) goals highlights education (training) as a critical factor to reducing poverty and dependency.
Allow the identification of the concept and framework of entrepreneurship development and its contribution to Nigeria’s economy.
Generate greater awareness among tertiary institutions on the importance of having proper and practical strategies for acquiring entrepreneurial skills.
Provide useful knowledge on factors that might have impact and contribute to the successful adoption of entrepreneurship training by all Nigerian youths.
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study
This study on the examination of job creation and its relevance to the youth development will be carried out in The Apostolic Church Nigeria Ibadan Area. It will seek to find out how job creation through entrepreneurial development impacts youth employment and youth development.
This study will be limited by Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition of terms
Youth development: Positive youth development programs are designed to optimize youth developmental progress. PYD differs from other approaches to youth in that it rejects an emphasis on trying to correct what is considered wrong with children’s behavior or development.
Entrepreneurship is the creation or extraction of value. With this definition, entrepreneurship is viewed as change, which may include other values than simply economic ones.