An Investigation Into the Causes and Effects of Teenage Pregnancy in Secondary School
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study is on an investigation into the causes and effects of teenage pregnancy in secondary school. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary school in Oredo local government of Edo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1Background of the study
The research exposes the cause and effect of teenage pregnancy in order to design effective solutions. The word teenage pregnancy cannot be further discussed without giving a brief detail of what it entails. Teenage pregnancy can be defined as when a teenage or underage girl between the ages of 13-19 becomes pregnant as a result of unprotected sexual intercourse. it can also be seen as the pregnancy of a young girl of 13-19 years mostly not married.
Every year thousands of teenagers become pregnant at a very large population to themselves, their children and the society. While the facts are clear, the issues of teenage pregnancy are complicated by our conflicting attitude and behaviour. The burdens of early childbirth on disadvantaged teens are undeniable. Trying to entangle the factors which contribute to teenage pregnancy from it consequences however, leads to which comes first “the chicken or the egg”? (Florida Statutes. Public education, general provisions, definitions. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State Board of Education, 1995). Said that educational failure has been understood to be a negative outcome of teenagers becoming pregnant and early child birth. But how can teens avoid becoming pregnant when talk of sex fills the air waves, younger and younger girls are portrayed as sex objects and sex is used to sell everything from clothes to news. Yet we are shocked at the rising number of teens who are sexually active.
If we are truly concerned about the welfare of babies, children, and adolescents then we must move beyond the moral panic and denial that so often distort the discussion to design an effective solution to these economic assumptions, wishful thinking and honest acknowledgement that is still yet not understood about the causes of this problem. The causes of teenage pregnancy include the following:
- In some places early pregnancy is seen as a blessing and a proof of the young woman’s fertility.
- Adolescent sexual behaviour for example, 29% of teens reported feeling pressure to have sex, 33% of sexually they didn’t really want to do.
- Lack of knowledge of contraceptives or access to it, fright and embarrassment to seek information about contraceptives also cause teenage pregnancy.
- Another cause is sexual abuse which studies have found that between 11-20% of pregnancy in teenagers is a direct result of rape while 60% of teenage mothers had unwanted sexual experience preceding their pregnancy.
5 Before age of 15, a majority of first intercourse experiences among, females are reported to be non-voluntary and 25% of women who did not give birth as teens were molested.
- Other causes of this problem includes, age discrepancies in relationship, dating, violence, social economic factors, poverty, childhood environment, greed, peer pressure etc.
Teenage pregnancy has become a public health issues because of its observed negative effects and cause on perinatal outcomes and long term morbidity. The association of young maternal age is usually confounded however, by the high prevalence of poverty, low level of education, which is our major and single marital status among teenage mothers. This research assesses the independent effect of teenage pregnancy on educational disabilities and educational problems in a total number of children and teens who are mothers. According to Angola, G. “Dilemma of African Child” the spokes man newspaper and printing cooperation, 1973), he said that the teenage is an important period of development in a females life, it spans from the pre-puberty stage to young adulthood. Girls (teens) have a questioning mind and want to know and be taught the right attitude (s) (Margaret, O. Childhood and adolescent studies for effective teaching, revised edition, 1999). Said that world wide range teenage pregnancy ranges from 143 per 1000 in some countries. In developed countries it is usually outside marriage and carries a social stigma in many communities and cultures, for these reasons, there have been many studies which attempt to uncover the causes and limit the number of teens who get pregnant.
Data supporting teenage pregnancy as a social issue in Nigeria includes low educational level, higher rates of poverty and other poorer life outcomes. In some part of this country teenage pregnancy is usually within marriage and does not involve peer stigma. Being a young mother in a developing country like ours can affect ones education. Teen mothers are more likely to drop out of school in prior to becoming pregnant. Factors that determine which mother is likely to have a closely spaced reported birth includes, marriage and education, the likelihood decreases with the level of education of the young woman or her parents and increases if she gets married. These circumstances also contribute to the likelihood of teenage pregnancy for example; recent studies suggested that most adolescent mothers have already dropped out of school before they became pregnant. In conclusion, knowledge is power so let us salvage our future by being wise and seek to obtain and achieve success through education.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
With the changes in our society, Teenagers who are supported to be called innocent now take part in sexual activities like adults. Unfortunately, the result now becomes the problem of herself, her parents, the society and even the unborn child. The problems of this study are:
– Does teenage pregnancy result in school dropout and constitute socio-economic menace?
– Are teenagers still shy and frightened to seek information about contraceptives?
– Do teenage mothers still see the need for further studies/education?
– Do parents and guidance fail to motivate and advice their teens?
PURPOSE OF THEN STUDY
Based on the background of this study and the stated problem above this research is set to achieve the following objectives.
– Make room for the improvement on the educational attainment of female in the society.
– To encourage teenage mothers of the chances of education after birth.
– Make employment opportunities for ladies attitude active.
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no improvement on the educational attainment of female in the society.
H1: there is improvement on the educational attainment of female in the society
H02: teenage mothers are not encouraged of the chances of education after birth.
H2: teenage mothers are encouraged of the chances of education after birth.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will help to educate on the consequences of early pregnancy, on educational attainment and also the significant negative emotional and social consequences of sexual activities leading to teenage pregnancy in order for the following persons/groups to benefit.
– Future mothers who would want to enjoy their family through this study would abstain from sex in order not to destroy their future.
– Parents of these teens would benefit by excluding shame or ridicule by friends.
– The society is also in the position to benefit due to the fact that the society would be made up of planned children who are needed and reduces population.
– The school authorities would have more students to educate with more zeal and seriousness
– Teenagers would escape unwanted pregnancy, STD, shame and safeguard their future.
– The future generation and unborn babies would be born into a planned, organized and prepared environment.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers an investigation into the causes and effects of teenage pregnancy in secondary school
The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Meaning of special words used in the context in relation to this research are stated below:
Teens: Year of a persons age from 13-19
Peers: Persons who are equal to one another in rank, age, status, or merit.
Fertility: State or condition of being fertile, being able to produce young ones.
Pregnancy: State or period of being pregnant (having baby developing in the womb).
Sexual intercourse: Insertion of a mans penis into a woman’s vagina.
Sexual abuse: Wrong use of sex mainly by a stronger person to a weaker one.
Consequences: Thins that results or effect of something else.
Contractive: Natural method and artificial method of preventing pregnancy.[email protected][email protected]