The research work focuses on the causes of Premarital Sex among Secondary School Girls and Its Impact on their Academic Achievements in Yagba East Local Government Area of Kogi State. One Hundred and Fifty Questionnaires were administered to female students in different schools. The data were analyzed and the following findings were discovered: Participation in Sex Education was at a low stage; Drop out cases were paramount in that vicinity; there is high rate of Media Exposure; Poverty level is also a causative factor; Peer Group Influence/Imitation; Single Parenting has its own implications; Home Environmental Factor; Early Marriage; Teenage Pregnancy; reading about Contraceptives as well as Watching/Reading Pornographic Films/Magazines has increased the negative appetite of these teenagers. The following recommendations were made: Premarital Sex should be discouraged among teenagers and school girls by Parents, Teachers, Guardians’, Religious Leaders, Counselors and Government. Parents/Guardians’ and Government should create awareness on the high risk involved in premarital sex such as contacting Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Early Marriage, Single Parenting, Academic Failure (Drop Out) and lots more, which are the negative impacts of Premarital Sex towards their life and Academic Success. Parents should discourage their children from watching pornographic films/Internet sites, reading pornographic magazines/write-ups and Family planning pamphlets. Government should provide adequate facilities to educate a Girl-Child at the early stage in life by emphasizing on Sex Education in their early Secondary School days and create an enabling environment that will improve life for the young ones. Empower Religious Leaders/Institutes in motivating the Children and distracting them from such negative vices to life. There should also be a proper service or facility that caters for Broken Homes, Pregnant Teenagers, Single/Separated Parents, Orphans and a proper investigation and monitoring of adopted children.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
. The Title Page – – – – – – – – i
- Certification Page- – – – – – – – ii
iii. Dedication- – – – – – – – – – iii
- Acknowledgement – – – – – – – iv
- Table of Contents- – – – – – – – v
- Abstract – – – – – – – – – viii
Introduction – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of Problem – – – – – – – 5
1.3 Purpose of Study – – – – – – – – 6
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – – 7
1.5 Research Hypotheses – – – – – – – 8
1.6 Significance of Study – – – – – – – 9
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of Study – – – – – 10
1.8 Definitions of Terms – – – – – – – 11
2.1 Literature Review – – – – – – – – 13
2.2 Concept of Premarital Sex – – – – – – 13
2.3 Attitude towards Premarital Sex – – – – – 14
2.4 Causes of Premarital Sex – – – – – – 15
2.5 Consequences of Premarital Sex – – – – – 21
2.6 Parents Role or Attitude to Academic Attainment of Children- 26
2.7 Factors That May Hinder Academic Achievement of Children- 27
2.8 Importance of Teaching Sex Education – – – – 28
2.9 Implications of Not Teaching Sex Education – – – 29
2.10 Need for Female Education – – – – – – 30
2.11 Need for Parent Children Communication – – – – 31
3.1 Methodology – – – – – – – – 36
3.2 Research Design – – – – – – – – 36
3.3 Area Studied – – – – – – – – – 36
3.4 Population Studied – – – – – – – 37
3.5 Sample of the Study – – – – – – – 37
3.6 Description of Research Instrument – – – – – 38
3.7 Validation of the Instrument – – – – – – 39
3.8 Administration of Instrument – – – – – – 39
3.9 Reliability of the Instrument – – – – – – 39
3.10 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 40
Data Presentation and Analysis of Result
4.1 Analysis and Presentation of Result – – – – – 41
4.2 Test of Hypotheses – – – – – – – 41
4.3 Discussion of Major Findings – – – – – – 42
Discussion, Summary, Conclusion, Implication and Recommendation
5.1 Discussions and Findings – – – – – – 50
5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – – 53
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 53
5.4 Recommendation Arising from the Study – – – – 54
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies – – – – – 56
References – – – – – – – – – 57
Appendix – – – – – – – – – 60
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of others, but may also be autodidactic. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational.
A right to education has been recognized by some governments. At the global level, Article 13 of the United Nations‘ 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recognizes the right of everyone to an education. Education is to help an individual learn to perform better what they already know. Exposure to sex education to the school students should help them become better controller of their sexual activities.
Systems of schooling involve institutionalized teaching and learning in relation to a curriculum, which itself is established according to a predetermined purpose of the schools in the system. Schools systems are sometimes also based on religions, giving them different curricula. (UNESCO, NYSC Anti AIDS/HIV Awareness Programme; 2011 Handbook).
As an academic field, philosophy of education is “the philosophical study of education and its problems and its central subject matter is education, and its methods are those of philosophy“. “The philosophy of education may be either the philosophy of the process of education or the philosophy of the discipline of education. That is, it may be part of the discipline in the sense of being concerned with the aims, forms, methods, or results of the process of educating or being educated; or it may be metadisciplinary in the sense of being concerned with the concepts, aims, and methods of the discipline.”
Premarital sex is a sexual activity that happens before someone gets married. In our society today, people believe or reject the teaching that premarital sex is immoral. Premarital sex is a serious problem in the society today: the numbers are staggering. In Yagba East Local Government Area, a ranging ninety-three percent of men, and eighty percent women (between ages eighteen and fifty four) have lost their virginity. Most Teenagers are not waiting until they get married before having sex, whereas, the growth and advancement of the nation depend totally on them.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are fast spreading among teenagers, leading to the Sixth leading cause of death. It has also led to a high rate of Secondary School Drop-out, due to lack of Academic fulfillment. Teenage Pregnancy, Early Marriage, Single Parenting, Home or Environmental factors and Low/Improper Sex Education have deprived a lot from reaching their desired academic achievement and destiny in life.
It is hard to believe that teenagers are still engaging in premarital sex, despite their awareness of these fighting statistics. For example in a study of reproduction and tract infection among adolescents, 80% of Women aged 15-19 interviewed are sexually active and 29% have had abortion and 40% have reproductive infection after physical examination, according to the Demographic Health Survey 2012.
Teens need to open their eyes and see the harmful effects of premarital sex, although many believe in the use of contraceptive such as condoms and pills. Safe sex is a misleading contraceptive. Despite the awareness of high statistics of sexually transmitted disease teenagers are still engaging in premarital sex. The use of contraceptives may only lessen the chances of contraction of infections and unwanted pregnancy which is not always dependable.
Many of the teenagers have fallen victims of some premarital crises such as:
- Contraction of HIV/AIDs and other STDs which are incurable.
- Untimely Death.
- Unwanted pregnancy and Drug abuse.
- Early Marriage
- Single Parenting
- Teenage Pregnancy
- School Drop-Out
- Poor or Lack of Parental teachings on Sex Education
- Hampered Educational plans
- Emotional Problems such as Depression and Regrets
- Destruction of reproductive organs and causing Infertility in future due to Abortion.
- Home/Environmental Factors (Unhealthy family Living Conditions)
- Poverty and Drug Addiction.
Despite all the crises resulting from premarital sex, the campaign against it has not gained a full social support up till date in Africa. In other to get solution to some of the crises, the researcher finds it necessary to investigate into the causes of premarital sex among girls in secondary schools in Yagba East L.G.A. of Kogi State.
The Physical, Emotional and Spiritual consequences of premarital sex cannot be overemphasized. According to statistics, one-fourth of the people with STDs are adolescents, who receive their disease through premarital sex. Causes of AIDS among teens have grown sixty two percent in the past two years, and the number of teens with AIDS double every year. Premarital sex is one of the reasons why AIDS is the sixth leading cause of death among 15-25 year olds, Santrock (1996).
Due to the observable rate at which the students in Yagba East L.G.A of Kogi State are falling victims of premarital sex and the widespread of under aged or unmarried mothers STDs and HIV/AIDS in the society today is alarming. It has become imperative for the Government and the generality of Nigerians to look for solutions to the causes of premarital sex among secondary school girls.
Premarital Sex dose not really affect performance at school; however, the consequences of premarital sex are likely to. Missing school days due to pregnancy or doctor’s appointments from contracted diseases will obviously cause deterioration in a student’s performance.
The maternity level of the student also has a lot of weight. There’s a huge difference between two older students in a committed relationship having responsible sex, and two irresponsible students having promiscuous sex. The effect of premarital sex on academic performance is too vague because the effect will differ from student to student and how said students deal with being sexually active. I have found friends who are married now, that were sexually active in high school and were great students. I also know students that became pregnant in high school and dropped out.
If you are allowed to choose your report topic, I would consider changing it to “The effect of the consequences of Premarital Sex on the Academic Performance of Teenagers”. That would allow me to speak of pregnancy and STD’s with a strong foundation.
Teenage Pregnancy has effect on both Boys and Girls, bringing about the following:
- Depression and Sadness.
- Low self esteem and Stigmatization.
- Drop out of school and eventually Poverty.
- Possibility of contracting STI’s and HIV.
- Worry may lead to failure in examination.
- Too young to be a Father/Mother and take responsibilities.
- Due to the fragile body of the girl, labour may be obstructed, baby and mother may die.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The problem which has motivated this research is as a result of premarital sex which has tributaries of negative impacts such as early marriage or single parenthood which is now too common among young school girls. This has also made the researcher to look into the issue of single parenting that is causing nuisance to the sacred family institution and society at large. This should be looked into for academic and psychological stability of the child in our contemporary society.
It is not clear whether Parents and Teachers have imparted any knowledge as it relates to sex education before students develop to adolescence. The inadequate knowledge of importance of sex education could affect the Idea, Attitudes and Standard of living of an average adolescent. Lack of proper sex education has created a lot of problem; therefore this makes it important for the researcher to carry out this study with special reference to Yagba East L.G.A of Kogi State.
1.3 THE PURPOSE OF STUDY
The main purpose of this research is to investigate into the causes of premarital sex among girls in the secondary schools and the role of Parents, Counselors, Teachers, Government in educating the students to be patient until they are emotionally, physically, socially, and financially prepared before engaging in sex with rightful partner.
Below are the specific purposes for the study.
- Problems leading to premarital sex.
- Causes of Teenage pregnancy.
- The type of Home/Environment the student comes from.
- The effects of early Marriage.
- Causes of Single Parenting.
- Find out what parents and teenagers understand by Sex Education.
- Find out whether Sex Education is taught in schools.
- The principal causes or problems of female students’ dropout in secondary schools.
- Problems posed by dropout to the society.
- Find out the extent to which it may affect their academic achievement.
- Find out what efforts the Government and Non-governmental agencies have put in place to solve the problem.
- Offer useful and necessary suggestions to reduce the problems to the bearest minimum.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For thorough study, the following questions were asked:
- What are the possible causes of premarital sex?
- What are the negative impacts on the child academically?
- Is poverty a major cause of premarital sex among girls in secondary school?
- What are the effects of early marriage on the female child?
- Do parents know what sex education is all about and how to impact their children on its importance positively and the negative demise involved?
- At what level is Sex Education taught in Schools and Homes?
- Do the present advancement of visual internet and satellites constitute the major causes of premarital sex among girls in secondary school?
- Is premarital counseling capable of reducing premarital sex among secondary school girls?
- What are the effects of Home Environment on the academic performance secondary school students?
- What are the Government and Non-government bodies doing to eliminate or reduce to bearest minimum the issue of premarital sex drive and its effect on the academic performance of the child?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis is based on the information and data collected from the research questions.
- Poor Home Environment leads to premarital sex and affects their academic performance.
- Poor or large family size leads to premarital sex at the expense of education.
- Single Parenting is also a factor that increases premarital sex.
- That they crave for money and materialism is yet another factor.
- The influx of pornographic Internet sites/films/materials leads some school girls into premarital sex.
- Disregard to cultural norms due to western education.
- Broken Homes contributes a high rate of premarital sex.
- Desire to belong to a peer group influences rampart involvement into premarital sex.
- Parental attitude towards the knowledge of sex education and teaching it is not encouraging in Yagba East L.G.A of Kogi State.
- The Government and Non-government agencies attitude or contributions towards a better life is no encouraging.
1.6 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The research work, when completed will be of great value to the girls and their parents. The study will among other things expose some striking points about the consequences of premarital sex among the teenage girls in secondary schools.
The study will equally contribute tremendously in creating awareness and enlightening the nation on the dangers imbedded on premarital sex and how to curb it.
The research will be of vital importance to the Ministry of Education and Women Affairs on policy making, Counselors in secondary schools, Church leaders, Parents and Teachers in schools.
Importance of sex education is essentially a positive force in life. The young ones would be lead to appreciate what is Good, Fine and Healthy about sex. They need to understand how their sex powers can be directed to bring them fulfillment and satisfaction. Parents should understand that sex education is not a matter to be misused or exploited; they should also know its power may have negative as well as positive results, but dominant emphasis should be on human nature as positive forces.
Lastly, the study is hoped to provoke further research work, it will afford the parents, especially mothers the opportunity to know and appreciate the need to discourage premarital sex among the youths.
1.7 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The investigation was carried out in selected secondary schools located in each of the political wards of the Local Government Area. Though the research work is on the Causes, Impact and Solutions to the premarital sex problem amongst Secondary School Girls, Yagba East is the extent to which the generalization of the result is limited.
The researcher relies mostly on answers from respondents to the questionnaires and personnel experiences. The researcher encountered some challenges as a result of:
(i) Time: During the process of the research, the constraint was as a result of ongoing lectures which affected his dedication to work.
(ii) Source of Information: There are no ways to test the validity of the Interviews conducted and Questionnaires shared; because most people want their identity hidden.
(iii) Financial Constraints: Finance is one of the factors that facilitate sources of the information in many endeavors. However, finance was not readily available for the smoothness of the research.
1.8 DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS
- Premarital Sex: Premarital Sex is the act of having sexual intercourse before marriage.
- STDs: Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
- HIV: Human Immune Deficiency Virus.
- AIDS: Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome.
- Crises: stressful situation which approaches or exceeds adaptive capacities of individual or group of people.
- Abortion: Use of drug or manual extraction to terminate foetus. In most cases it affects health, occupational and social adjustment.
- Drug Addiction: continual use of drug even outside physician’s prescription, which in turn causes physiological dependence habit on drug.
- Peer Group: This constitutes a group of persons who are of the same age or who have the same social status.
- Dropout: This is someone who has left school or college before they have finished their studies, due to a defect or another other than death or transfer.
- Graduate: A graduate is a person who has successfully completed a degree or programme at the University or College and has received a certificate that shows this.
- Sex: Sex is the physical activity by which people can reproduce young.
- Early Marriage: This is the conception of a family life or institution at a very tender age. That is, the person must be below the age of 25 years.
- Teenage Pregnancy: This is when a child between ages thirteen (13) and Nineteen (19) years is pregnant.
- Sex Education: This is education in schools or homes on the subject of sexual activity, sexual relationships and its positive and negative impacts to life.
- Home Environment: this is also referred to as House, Town or Community/Country where someone lives now or where they were born, often to emphasize that they feel they belong to that place.
- Single Parent: This is someone who is bringing up a child or children on his/her own, because the other parent is not living with them due to death, divorce, separation or other circumstances.
- Broken Home: Families that are separated divorced or have lost ones.