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ABSTRACT

This study historically, overviewed the subject and development of painting from the primordial time, to the postmodern period, bringing into focus the computer as a new medium for artistic inquiry. The background similarly overviewed the influence of the machine on various artistic forms like textile and graphic design. The problem of the study was the seeming apathy by Nigerian painters to apply computer to painting. Objectives were set as follows; i. to record the historical developments of the computer in Nigeria. ii. Investigate the dimensions of computer application to painting in Nigeria. iii. Analyze computer paintings by Nigerian painters and state their biographies. iv. Make a comparative analysis of conventional and computer paintings by Nigerian artists. v. State the advantages and disadvantages of computer painting in Nigeria. The review of literature was structured on; i. Historical overview of persons, products and ideas that have influenced painting. ii. The computer and its influence and, iii. Computer influenced paintings. Some authors reviewed were McMorran (2007), Azi (2006) Ogene (2009) among others. Methodology was based on art historical paradigms of inquiry which were essentially qualitative. However, quantitative values in the objectives made it pertinent to combine quantitative statistical results. The population was 42 computer paintings by Nigerian painters and 13 Nigerian computer painters based on purposive/judgmental sampling. Data was variously collected through the following instruments; questionnaire, interview schedules, observation,, and the internet. Books, exhibition catalogues and social media like facebook, provided secondary sources of data gathering. Field work benefitted from a pilot study with validated questionnaires and interview schedules. A total of 139 questionnaires were turned in and 13 artists with computer paintings were interviewed and analyzed respectively based on prescriptions by Eyo (1977) and Stokstad (2005). Major findings
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from available literatures were that the computer had made inroads into Nigeria since 1963 at the University of Ibadan and 1967 at the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria with developments leading to the application of computer to painting around the early 1990s. It was also found that Nigerian painters had applied the computer to panting in various dimensions like image manipulation, enhancement, illustration, and painting with software like Photoshop, CorelDraw among other software and hardware. Another finding was that few Nigerian painters were actually interested and had created paintings with the computer. Furthermore, because the paintings shared certain commonalities, they could be grouped and analyzed like the conventional ones. However, differences, advantages and disadvantages existed. The major challenge was posed by the frequent disruption in electricity supply in Nigeria and lack of acceptance of the computer as a conventional tool. The research theoretically found support from Friedberg (2006), theoretical polemics that asserts the metaphor of the windows as a frame that encloses a painting. The researcher therefore, suggested that computer painting be included in the painting curriculum to give the desired clout and to enhance painting and complement the examples analyzed and discussed in this research.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page…… ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. i
Declaration…… …………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii
Certification…… ………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii
Dedication…… …………………………………………………………………………………………………. iv
Acknowledgments ……………………………………………………………………………………………… v
Abstract……… …………………………………………………………………………………………………. vi
Contents……… ………………………………………………………………………………………………. viii
List of Tables…… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… x
List of Figures…… ……………………………………………………………………………………………. xi
List of Plates…… …………………………………………………………………………………………….. xii
List of Appendices …………………………………………………………………………………………… xiii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Introduction…… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
Background to the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Statement of Problem ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
Aim and Objectives of the Study ………………………………………………………………………….. 8
Research Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Justification…… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………… 11
Scope of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Limitations…… ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction…… ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
Historical Overview of Persons, Ideas and Products, that Influenced Painting …………. 15
Historical Development of the computer in Nigeria ………………………………………………. 23
The Computer and its influence ………………………………………………………………………….. 24
Computer influenced paintings …………………………………………………………………………… 30
Dimension of computer application to painting in Nigeria. ……………………………………. 52
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CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Introduction…… ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
Survey Method …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
Descriptive Method …………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
Comparative Method ………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
Population…… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59
Sampling…….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59
Research Instruments ………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
Validation of Instruments ………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
Pilot Study…… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
Field Work …… ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65
Data Analysis …… …………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
CHAPTER FOUR
ANALYSES AND DISCUSSIONS
Introduction …… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 72
Analysis of Quantitative Data …………………………………………………………………………….. 72
Discussion …… ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
Historical Development of the computer in Nigeria ………………………………………………. 82
Dimension of computer application to painting in Nigeria. ……………………………………. 83
Analysis of Paintings ………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
Comparative analysis of computer and conventional Painting ………………………………. 139
Process, Software and Outputting ……………………………………………………………………… 151
Advantages and Disadvantages ………………………………………………………………………… 159
Interviews and Responses ………………………………………………………………………………… 161
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Introduction …… ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 180
Findings …..… ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 181
Conclusion …… …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 185
Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………………… 186
Notes ………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188
References …… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
Appendices……. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 195
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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Introduction
The philosophy of mimesis1 as propounded by Plato made painting look like an aspect of human activity that did not demand any serious intellectual input, but mere copying or imitation of nature. From a historical search, one may see that most paintings in Egypt and the Renaissance period were usual representations of observed objects. Sayre (2005) states that “while the liberal arts were understood to involve inspiration and creative invention, painting was considered merely a mechanical skill, involving, at most, the ability to copy.” It was the ability to copy and copy well, that made Picasso‟s father to hang his brushes for Picasso who painted a bird, with strong realism2.
Historically, it was on the cave walls, that painting was first experimented. According to Kleiner and Mamiya (2005), “The first examples of cave paintings were found accidentally by an amateur archeologist in 1879 at Altamira, Spain.” The authors further explain that “Don Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola was exploring his estate”, a cave, where he had already found specimens of flint and carved bone. His little daughter, Maria, was with him. They reached a chamber, about 85ft debris-filled cavern, which was only a few inches above the father‟s head, then Maria, was the first to discern, from her vantage point; the shadow forms of painted beasts on the cave roof, details of a much larger painting approximately 60 feet long. Sanz de Sautuola was certain that the bison painted on the Altamira ceiling dated back to prehistoric times.
Again, some of the earliest paintings later discovered were from Africa. The oldest African paintings were portable objects. Between 1969 and 1972, scientists working in the Apollo II cave in Namibia found seven fragments of stone plaques with paint on them, including four or five recognizable images of animals, (Kleiner and
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Mamiya, 2005). The charcoal from the archeological layer in which the Namibian plaques were found has been dated to around 23,000 BCE. “The Bulls of Lascaux” – near Montignac, France (15,000-13,000 BCE), “Horses and Rhinoceros”, which is a wall painting in Chauvet cave, Vallinpont-d‟Arc, Ardeche, France, ( 30,000-28,000) or (15,000-13,000 BCE), are few examples that attest to the historicity of painting. Also, Catall Hoyuk, in Turkey, Ca. 5750 BCE, records a rock painting of Deer hunt in a schematic manner, (Kleiner and Mamiya, 2005).
Furthermore, Kleiner and Mamiya (2005) observe that, Pre-dynastic or prehistoric Egypt also had records of wall paintings as well as works from other civilizations. These included paintings on tomb walls dating Ca. 35000-3200 BCE, of fowling scenes, from the tomb of Nebamun. In Thebes, Egypt, is a fresco painting – Ca. 1400-1350 BCE, and a painted limestone of Queen Nefertiti – 1353 – 1335 BCE. Similarly, the Minoan civilization presents palace frescoes. Mural paintings liberally adorn the palace at Knossos; an example is Bull-leaping, from the palace at Knossos (Crete, Greece) 1450-1400 BCE. Figure painting on vases (Krater) 740 BCE, are also seen. Further developments in painting across cultures as captured by Kleiner and Mamiya (ibid) are, „The Thirteen Emperors‟, Tang dynasty, Ca. 650, which is a hand scroll, rendered in ink and colours on silk, from China; Diving and Fishing, mural in the Tomb of Hunting and Fishing, Tarquira, Italy Ca. 530-520 BCE. Around 60-5 BCE, in Pompeii, Italy, a number of Friezes depicting the human figures also abound. 70-79 CE, records a “portrait of a husband and wife”, on a wall from the house of Pompeii, Italy.
Christian Art also presents painting in history, depicting biblical experiences in the catacombs. Sayre (2005) affirms that, once Christians achieved imperial sponsorship under Constantine, an instant need suddenly arose to construct churches. The new
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buildings had to meet the requirements of Christian liturgy. As a result, mosaics of Christian experiences were used to embellish the walls of worship such as the painting of „Lot and Abraham,‟ mosaic in the nave of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome Italy. The Christian painting influence, otherwise known as Byzantine art, was also expressed in Eastern Europe like Turkey. Stained glass was also a medium that was borne out of Christian art.
From the religious works emerged the Renaissance. According to Kleiner and Mamiya (2005), “…although religion continued to occupy a primary position in the lives of Europeans, a growing concern with the natural world, the individual, and humanity‟s worldly existence characterized the Renaissance period”. In the Renaissance, individual and recognizable actors like Giotto di Bondone emerged, chronicling the lives of the Virgin and Christ in frescoes. Duccio Di Buoninsegne also produced similar themes in Italy like the „Betrayal of Jesus‟ (1309-1311).
The experiences of the chronicle of paintings so far, had become consolidated in the Renaissance period. This could be seen in the light of the establishment of political power in Europe, and the attendant emergence of capitalism, that brought to fore the powerful Medici family, who patronized such artists like Michelangelo and Raphael. Political upheavals also helped to create an avenue for expression, for the engineering works of da Vinci, and Michelangelo. The approach to painting however remained the traditional application of pigment to a surface as can be seen, in Leonardo da Vinci‟s, „Mona Lisa‟, and Michelangelo‟s „Sistine Chapel‟.
From the period of Picasso‟s Cubism through several artistic revolutions, the usual approach to painting had been the manual application of pigment on surface, paper for collages, beads or tiles for mosaic and such related approaches. Painting had however, evolved into a more serious intellectual pursuit, exposing the dynamism of the
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painter. Painting or the painter particularly, possessed so much dynamism that there were no formulae to solving painterly problems. For example, Sporre (2000) presents installations of Judy Pfaff (b. 1946) which employs “a variety of materials, including those of painting, in order to change and shape architectural space.‟‟ The art historian H.W Jenson, likens her work to an exotic landscape, and finds her spontaneous energy similar to that of Jackson Pollock‟s action painting. Again, the present writer in 2008, painted on discarded mechanical objects and wooden chairs. There are also no limitations to the choice of medium. Traditionally or conventionally, the canvas had been used, but the trend is evolving fast, bringing into focus new media prompted by technological advancement and digital relevance.
Artists over time had explored many unimaginable media to render paintings which were largely seen in the light of postmodernism, not as an art movement, but as an era of artistic practice. Paintings in this era included installations, transient art on water, sand or paintings on body, performances with paint and so on. More profoundly, the discovery of the computer had largely transformed the way many professionals and researchers sought for solutions to problems. For example, the medical practitioners, architects, engineers, visual artists and performing artists had all benefited immensely from the revolution of the computer. In that sense, painting as a profession had not been left out in the computer revolution.
Background to the Study
A computer is a machine that acts like a human brain, and Processes data or information fed into it to be displayed on a screen or monitor like a television. The result of the processed data is retrieved by printing out on paper or canvas, using a coloured or black and white printer. According to Snyder (2008), a computer is a “machine that performs tasks, such as calculations or electronic communication under
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the control of a set of instructions called a programme. Programmes usually reside within the computer and are retrieved and processed by the computer electronic”. He further states that, “the results are stored or routed to output devices, such as video display monitors or printers. Computers perform a wide variety of activities reliably, accurately and quickly.” The digital creations of paintings by artists are among these many tasks that the computer performs.
Historically, computers began as analog machines. According to Snyder (2008), “in 1623 German scientist Wilhelm Schikard invented a machine that … could add with the aid of logarithm tables, multiply and divide.” Blaise Pascal, in 1642 made additional development. Joseph-Marie Jacquard devised a specialized type of computer: a silk loom. “Jacquard‟s loom used punched cards to program patterns that helped the loom create woven fabrics.”3 Joseph-Marie was said to be “rewarded and admired by French Emperor Napoleon I for his work‟‟. Several people have contributed immensely in bringing the computer to its present state. In the seventeenth century, German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz also made additional development on the computer. Furthermore, in the 19th century, Sporre (2000) records more developments by German engineer named Konrad Zuse in 1930, American mathematician, George R. Stibitz in 1939, and Iowa State University professor, John Atanasoff also in 1939. It is worthy of note that
Graphical user interfaces were first designed by the Xerox Corporation, and then later used successfully by Apple Inc… Today the development of sophisticated operating systems such as Windows, the Mac OS, and Linux enables computer users to run programs and manipulate data in ways that were unimaginable in the mid-20th century4.
The computer possesses a number of tools with which the artist could pick from, to create images or paintings. These tools are programmed to create tasks similar to the artist‟s real life or studio environment. These tools include cutting tools, drawing tools,
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Bezier tools, brushes, palette and colours. The software which may be a CorelDraw or Adobe Photoshop has the possibility of allowing the artist to mix colours to such tints and shades as the artist may desire. As a result, graphic designs popularly referred to as „Computer Aided Graphic Designs‟, „animations‟ and „paintings‟, have been produced. The computer has also been used by photographers to manipulate and enhance the visual qualities of a photograph which is also an important form of art. Importantly, the computer has been used by artists to recreate history. This is seen in the computer generated paintings of Ray Downing, in which the lifelike images of former American president, Abraham Lincoln and Jesus Christ were recreated. The ability to create paintings with the computer is largely dependent upon the appropriate software. Historically, the first theory about software was proposed by Alan Turing5 in his 1935 essay; Computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungs problem (Decision problem). In print, the term “software” was first used by John W. Turkey in 19586. Colloquially, the term is often used to mean application software. In the fields of computer science and that of software engineering, software is all information processed by computer science, programmes and data. Within the academic fields studying software, are computer science and software engineering.
The history of computer software is most often traced back to the first software bug in 1946, since then artistic software has continued to develop. In painting and drawing to be specific, Chastain (2011) outlines a number of art-oriented software programs which,
are designed especially for painting, drawing, colouring, and creating original artwork. Although some of them also offer tools for working with pre-existing images, the emphasis is on art and the creation process. Most of them have tools to mimic traditional artistic media such as oils, watercolors, acrylics, pencils, markers, crayons, chalk,
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pastels, and felt pens. Many of them also offer a variety of unusual, non-traditional tools. Among the software is Corel Painter, Artrage, Alien Skin Snap Art, Sketchbook Pro, Gliftex Random Image Generator, Corel Painter essentials, Art Weaver, Drawing for Children, Studio Artist and Pixarra Twisted Brush.
Statement of Problem
The Department of Fine Arts, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, is the premier art Department in Nigerian universities. Every other university‟s art Department in the country was created by students who graduated from it. Despite being the biggest art department in the country, from which other art departments in the country developed, there is no formal entrenchment of computer painting in the school‟s curriculum, even though some students like Hilarion Faison,7 explored this art form out of sheer interest, in practice. Computer paintings are also not common features at Painting exhibitions in Nigeria as observed in many exhibitions. Moreover, in a seminar at the faculty of Environmental Design, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Professor Olorukooba B. K., an Art Education Professor in the faculty maintained that computer painting lacked creativity in view of the mechanical process as against the manual traditional approach. Therefore, the seeming apathy, in the application of computer to painting, by Nigerian painters is the thrust of this research. The traditional media of painting on walls, canvas, paper, and board have continued to engage the focus of many artists and painters, particularly in Nigeria. While it is common knowledge that artists in the developed countries are extending their practice of Painting beyond these traditional media, the trend seems to be slow in Nigeria.
The revolution of the computer is visible in many fields of academic and professional practice. Graphics has become very much enhanced by the computer. Architecture, Textile, Medicine, Journalism, Engineering, Nuclear Science and others,
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too numerous to mention, have advanced with the aid of the computer around the world and even here in Nigeria.
With the apathy in the application of the computer in painting in Nigeria, it thus appears that a gap exists. More so, art historians seem not to have shown interest in this area, especially in Nigeria. According to Kleiner and Mamiya (2005), „the range of objects art historians study is constantly expanding and now includes, for example, computer-generated images, whereas in the past almost anything produced using a machine would not have been regarded as art”. While in Nigeria, the practice of painting seems to be restricted to the dictates of traditional media, the new media can be investigated, not as a superior or inferior media, but as an aspect that is capable of extending the borders of painting in Nigeria. Therefore, the problem of this study is the investigation of the influence, dimensions and documentation of paintings done by Nigerian artists using the computer.
Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study was to undertake a study of computer-generated paintings. The specific objectives were to:
i. record the historical development of the computer in Nigeria,
ii. investigate the dimensions of computer application, by Nigerian artists in painting.
iii. Describe, analyse and interpret the computer-generated paintings and also identify and state a brief biography of the artists.
iv. compare computer-generated paintings to some conventional paintings produced in Nigeria.
v. state the advantages and disadvantages of computer painting medium.
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Research Questions
In an attempt to achieve the objectives of this research and proffer solution to the stated research problem, the following questions are asked?
i. is it possible to establish the beginning of computer painting in Nigeria?
ii. can computer application by Nigerian artists be investigated and their identities established?
iii. is an art historical description, analysis and interpretation of computer paintings possible?
iv. is there a basis for comparing computer-generated paintings to conventional ones produced in Nigeria?
v. what are the reasons encouraging or discouraging computer painting practiced in Nigeria?
Justification
The rest of the world has continued to advance within the concept of globalization with the aid of the computer. It is therefore, worth the while to investigate Nigeria‟s position and the dimensions, in the application of computer to painting and how this rubs off on general human development indices like the educational system, health delivery, social infrastructure, politics and industrialization. These constitute part of the reason for the failure to breakthrough technologically in this contemporary world. As a result, there is a need to confront the challenges of this age, with the tools of this age. Achebe (1958) states that “wisdom is like a goatskin bag, everyman carries his own”. Artists may need to also apply the tools of the 21st century to solve the hydra headed problems of the present age. According to Turner and Edmond (2003), “the creative environment should allow the breaking of its own convention…” The computer-generated paintings provide this perspective, hence, the justification for this
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study. The mouse of the computer has become a drawing tool, leading to the realization of a new medium fueled by softwares like Corel Draw, Instant Artist, Adobe Photoshop and more. The traditional or conventional approaches in painting have been greatly substituted by a mere electronic act, where colours, brushes and other painting tools are selected by mere pressing of buttons or keys.
In addition to the above, this research will expose the techniques; analyze the process as well as, create a database of digital paintings and painters in Nigeria. Godfrey (2010) states that, as far back as 1979, Jean Francois Lyotard wrote that; „Data banks are the encyclopaedias of tomorrow. They transcend the capacity of each of their users.‟ This research is capable of providing such needed information in the future. This means that access to the history of computer paintings in Nigeria will be easy, as databanks or documented results will be readily available. Similarly, the work is justified by Benjamin‟s (nd) “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (or Reproducibility)”. Benjamin‟s theory “argues that the art that was developed in the past differs from that of the present time and hence our understanding and treatment of it must develop in order to understand it in a modern context and develop new techniques”. Computer paintings are characterized by a tendency to be reproduced considering their mechanical inclination, thereby questioning its authenticity. Benjamin (nd) further discusses the concept of authenticity, particularly in application to reproduction. He states that,
Even the most perfect reproduction of a work of art is lacking in one element: its presence in time and space, its unique existence at the place where it happens to be. He argues that the „sphere of authenticity is outside the technical‟ so that the original artwork is independent of the copy, yet through the act of reproduction something is taken from the original by changing its context. He thus introduces the idea of the “aura” of a work and its absence in a reproduction.
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Benjamin‟s theory also considers the changing values of exhibition. While the traditional works of art are limited in viewership, the mechanically produced ones tend to enjoy wider audience and viewership, the internet in this case attests to this.
Significance of the Study
Felix Adakuno was a student in the Department of Fine Arts, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, he graduated in 2014. Obviously, he would have to draw, which is basic to all artists, in addition, the student will have to paint and carry out other practical assignments requiring the use of his hands. Unfortunately this student is physically challenged, as a result of an accident that snapped off his fingers, leaving him with about two stumps. Further investigation into what caused his predicament revealed that it was a fire incident while he was still crawling as a baby.
As the young man walked into the departmental library the researcher wondered how he would be able to practise art using his fingers. With his two burnt hands he carefully held his bag and manipulated his stumps and unzipped his bag and brought out his lap top computer. Again, with the same stumps, he opened up the computer and powered it on and began to punch keys. The fear of how this student would handle the brush and pencil were diminished considering the computer option. When the researcher interviewed and asked him how he fared in art, he painted a painful challenge in the manipulation of materials and tools. He also narrated how he avoided certain tasks that proved too challenging to his condition. At present, he still groans in pains, whenever he works with some conventional tools and materials.
The story recounted above significantly paints the picture of the fact that, the physically challenged also have an option to paint without difficulty. Similarly, automatic transmission cars have been driven by physically challenged people who may
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not have had the opportunity to drive, if such cars were not made. Another development is the elevator on building walls, invented in 1853 by an American, Otis Elisha Graves (1811-1861). The ease of life which this has brought to many lives shows how significant technology can be, when appropriately applied for human development. This research significantly adds to the numerous subjects that art historians studied in Nigeria.
Scope of the Study
The scope of this study was on paintings which were computer aided. Artists had used different media to produce paintings, however, with the aid of technology, the computer added to the many media available to the painter to create paintings. The paintings in this group were produced primarily with the computer which may be a desktop or laptop computer. However, the artist is today inundated with a wide range of gadgets generally classified as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) which also have capacity to execute paintings. iphones, ipads and Android phones, all have inbuilt applications to create drawings and paintings. This study was however, delimited to paintings produced using the laptop and desktop computers and similar gadgets. This was so because, they were easily accessible in terms of cost, durability and capacity to store large memory data and the size of the monitor allowed for large viewing of images and data.
For the purpose of clarity, the paintings referred to in this study were those that could be situated within the Fine Art practice of Painting. It is known that graphic artists have been using similar software in the rendition of paintings to create graphic designs, but those were not within the scope of this study which was dedicated to paintings and dictated by the principles and elements of art. However, related literature was used. Furthermore, because the research is situated within Nigeria, and Nigeria is a vast area,
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the primary study location was Lagos and Kaduna where questionnaires were used as an exploratory tool to locate the artists who used the computer to paint in Nigeria. Art galleries, art studios, painters, and art institutions were considered and sampled.
The research was art historical, as a result scientific details and conjectures as applied to computer science were not the concern of this research, rather the aesthetics and need of the painter in advancing his or her practice for national and human development were considered.
Limitations
The study was limited by the inability of the researcher to access a copy of the computer painting programme which Professor Rom Kalilu stated in a discussion that he was the first to develop and teach at the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho in Nigeria. The provision of such document would have made it possible to debunk the position of all respondents who believed that it was not taught in any Nigerian institution and help to establish part of the historical development of the medium. In addition, the erratic electricity supply in Nigeria made it difficult for some of the artists to demonstrate their methods. Observations could not be carried out in many instances even when the artists were willing to demonstrate. Another limitation was that most of the paintings could not be seen in hard copies. The artists simply created them and stored them up in the computers‟ virtual memory, so the final dimensions were not stated for some of the paintings.
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