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ABSTRACT

ecurinega virosa (SV) is a widely used plant in traditional medicine. The root is used as an aphrodisiac in north western Nigeria. The aim of the study was to provide pharmacological rationale for the ethnomedical use of the root of Securinega virosa as aphrodisiac as wel l as to
establish its general male reproductive effects. A total of twenty four male wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each (n=6), and used to assess the aphrodisiac potential of the extract which includes; mounting, intromission, ejaculation frequencies and latencies. Female Wistar rats used for pairing were brought to estrus phase of their reproductive cycle using oral suspension of ethinyl oestradiol (100 μ/ml/ animal), 48 hours prior to the pairing plus progesterone at a dose of I mg/animal injected subcutaneously, 6 hour prior to the experiment. For the assessment of male reproductive functions, a total of sixty (60) male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C, D) each consisting of fifteen (n=15) rats. Groups B, C and D were administered with the extract of Securinega virosa once daily at 24 hours interval at different graded doses of (31.25 mg/kg, 62.5mg/kg, and 125 mg/kg) respectively for 21 days. The rats in group A served as control and received 1ml/kg of distilled water for the same number of days. The extract significantly (P< 0.05) improved mating behavior, increased intromission frequency (IF) at 125 mg/kg, and significantly decreased (P< 0.05) ejaculatory latency (EL) at 31.20 mg/kg. Serum testosterone (ng/ml) level was significantly increased (P< 0.05) following first week of administration at doses of SV 62.50 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg; and also at third week of administration at dosage of SV 62.50 mg/kg. Serum LH (ng/ml) also increased at dose of 62.50 mg/kg following both first and the third week, while serum FSH (ng/ml) increased at 62.50mg/kg after the third week of administration. The extract caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in sperm motility, sperm count, sperm morphology and viability. There was a significant (p< 0.05) decrease in body weight at all the doses tested. The extract caused a significant increase (p< 0.05) in the weight of testes, epididymis and vas deferens weight (g). Histology of the rats treated with the highest dose showed normal seminiferous tubules with a markedly increased concentration of mature spermatozoa relative to the control. It is concluded that the methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa possesses aphrodisiac activity with concurrent beneficial effects on sperm parameters.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….i
Certification…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….ii
Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………………………………………………iii
Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..v
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….vi
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………xi
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………………..xii
List of Plates…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………xiii
Abbreviations………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..xiv
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction……….……………………………………………………………………….…..1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem…….……………………………………………………………2
1.3 Justification of the study………..………………………………………………………………3
1.4 Aim of the Study………………………………………………………………….………………3
1.5 Objectives of the Study………………………………………………………….………………4
1.6 Research Hypothesis…………………………………………………………….……………..4
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………………5
2.1 Male Reproductive system…………………………………………………………………..5
2.1.1 Anatomy of the Penis…………………………………………………………………………..5
2.1.2 Blood Supply to the Penis……..……………………………………………………..……….5
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2.1.3 Nerve Supply ……………………………….…………………………………………………7
2.1.4 Physiology of Erection……………………………..……………………………………………7
2.2 Physiology of penile erection………………………………………………………………………………………8
2.2.1 The interactions between autonomic and somatic innervations in the control of
male sexual cycle ………………………………………………………………………………………..8
2.2.2 Libido or Sexual Desire……………………………………………………..……..………..11
2.2.3 Erection………………………………….………………………………..………..………..12
2.2.4 Ejaculation…………………………………………………………………………………13
2.2.5 Orgasm………………………………………………………………………….………….14
2.2.6 Detumescence………………………………………………………………………………14
2.3 Male Sexual Dysfunction……………………………………………………………………15
2.4 Classification of Male Sexual Dysfunction………………………………………………….16
2.4.1 Disorders of Desire…………………………………………………………………………17
2.4.2 Erectile Dysfunction…………………………………………………………..……………17
2.4.3 Disorders of Ejaculation…………………………………………………….………………18
2.4.4 Disorders of Orgasm………………………………………………………………………..20
2.4.5 Failure of Detumescence…………………………………………………….……………..20
2.4.6 Management of Male sexual dysfunction…………………………………………………..21
2.4.7 Some drugs used to manage male sexual dysfunction………………………………………21
2.5 Aphrodisiac……………………………………………………………………….………….23
2.5.1 Some Mechanisms Involved in Aphrodisiac potentials………………………..……………24
2.5.2 Some Medicinal Plants with Aphrodisiac Potentials………………….……………………..25
2.6 Securinega Virosa…………………………………………………………..………………25
2.6.1 Distribution………………………………………………………………..….…………….26
2.6.2 Ethnomedical Uses…………………………………………………………………………..27
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2.6.3 Ethnobotanical Uses……………………………………………………………..………….28
2.6.2 Previous Pharmacological studies……………………………………………..……………28
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Material and Methods……………………………………………….………..……………30
3.1 Material….. ……………..…………………………………………..…………..……………30
3.1.1 Equipment and Apparatus………………………………………….……..………………..30
3.1.2 Animals…………………………………………………………….……………………….30
3.1.3. Drugs Chemicals and Extracts…………………………………………….………………31
3.2 Plant Matetrial……………………………………………………….……………………..31
3.2.1 Collection and Identification of Plant Material……………………….……………………31
3.2.2 Preparation of Extract………………………………………………..…………………….31
3.3 Phytochemical study…………………………………………………………………………32
3.3.1 Test for carbohydrates………………………………………………………………………32
3.3.2 Test for flavonoids…………………………………………………….…….………………32
3.3.3 Test for cardiac glycosides………………………………………………………….…………33
3.3.4 Test for cyanogenetic glycosides……………………………………..…………………….33
3.3.5 Test for saponins…………………………………………………………………………….34
3.3.6 Test for tannin………………………………………………………………….……………34
3.3.7 Test for steroids and terpenoids…………………………………………………………….34
3.3.8 Test for alkaloids……………………………………………………………..…………….35
3.3.9 Test for anthraquinones and their derivatives…………………………….………..………35
3.4 Toxicological Studies……………………………………………………….………………36
3.4.1 Acute toxicity study (Estimation of mean lethal dose, LD50)………………………..……..36
3.5 Evaluation of Aphrodisiac potentials of methanolic root bark extract of
Securinega virosa………………..………………………………………………….……………36
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3.5.1. Mating performance test and Mounting behavioural test (Test for lipido)…………….…..36
3.5.2. Effect on sexual and vital organ weight……………………………………………….…..39
3.5.3 Histopathological examination……………………………………………………………..39
3.6 Evaluation of effects of Securinega virosa on male sex hormones and
sperm parameters………………………………………………………………….……………40
3.6.1 Effects of Securinega virosa on male sex hormones (Hormonal estimation)……………..40
3.6.2 Evaluation of sperm motility and morphology……………………………………….……43
3.6.3 Assessment of sperm production………………………………………………..……..…..44
3.7 Statistical Analysis………………………………………………………………………….44
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS……………………………………………………………………………………45
4.1 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening………………………………………………………..45
4.2 Acute toxicity Studies………………………………………………………….…………….46
4.3 Effect of Methanolic Root Bark Extract of Securinega virosa (SV) on Mating Behaviour in
Adult Male Wistar Rats Treated for Twenty-one (21) days………………………..……….. 47
4.4 Effect of Methanolic Root Bark Extract of Securinega virosa (SV) on Computed Mating
Behaviour in Adult Male Wistar Rats Treated for 21 days………………………………… 49
4.5 Effect of Methanolic Root Bark Extract of Securinega virosa (SV) on Sexual Orientation
Activity in Adult Male Wistar Rats Treated for 21 days…………………………………… 51
4.6 Effect of Methanolic Root Bark Extract of Securinega virosa (SV) on Serum Testosterone
Hormone level in Adult Male Wistar Rats Treated for 21 days………………….………… 53
4.7 Effect of Methanolic Root Bark Extract of Securinega virosa (SV) on Serum Luteinizing
Hormone (LH) Level in Adult Male Wistar Rats Treated for 21 days………….…………. 55
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4.8 Effect of Methanolic Root Bark Extract of Securinega virosa (SV) on Serum Follicle
Stimulating hormone (Level in Adult Male Wistar Rats Treated for 21 days….………….. 57
4.9 Effect of Methanolic Root Bark Extract of Securinega virosa (SV) on Sperm
Motility in Adult Male Wistar Rats Treated for 21 days……….……………………………….. 59
4.10 Effect of methanol root bark extract of Securinega Virosa (SV) on Sperm
count in adult male wistar rats treated for 21 days………………………………….…………….61
4.11 Effect of methanol root bark extract of Securinega Virosa (SV) on Sperm
Morphology In adult male wistar rats treated for 21 days………………………….…………….63
4.12 Effect of methanol root bark extract of Securinega Virosa (SV) on Sperm
viability in adult male wistar rats treated for 21 days……………………….…..……………….65
4.13 Effect of methanol root bark extract of Securinega Virosa (SV) on weight of vital
organs of adult male wistar rats treated for twenty one (21) days………….…………………….67
4.14 Effect of methanol root bark extract of Securinega Virosa (SV) on weight of
Reproductive organs of adult male wistar rats treated for twenty one (21) days …………….….69
4.15 Effect of methanol root bark extract of Securinega Virosa (SV) on testicular
tissue in adult male wistar rats treated for 21 days……………………………………..…………71
5.0 DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………..……….…..76
6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION…………………………………………….82
6.1 Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………… …..82
6.2 Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………….82
6.3 Contributions to knowledge…………………………………………………………………..83
References ……………………………………………………………………………………..84

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1 Introduction
The main aim of marriage is the procreation (reproduction) of the organism and for the sexual fulfillment of both partners. In order to prevent extinction of an organism, the organism must be able to reproduce itself before it dies. In human beings, reproduction is initiated when a male and female are involved in a sexual intercourse, which allows the fusion between the sperm from the male and egg from the female to form a zygote, which develops into a fetus (Fullick, 1994).
Normal sexual intercourse and fulfillment can only occur in males when the male sexual organs (the copulatory organ, the penis) and factors relating to erection are functioning normally. Inability to perform this function effectively is known as sexual dysfunction, and it is a problem of the reproductive process (Guay et al., 2003). The increasing incidence of male sexual dysfunction has necessitated an increase in the patronage of aphrodisiacs; this has invariably resulted in an increase research into the beneficial effects of these medicinal plants, as well as their general effects on male reproductive function. Some of the medicinal plants that have been proven to have aphrodisiac potentials in male rats includes: Terminalia catappa seeds (almond fruit), Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (clove), Fadogia agrestis stem (Black aphrodisiac) (Ratnasooriya et al., 2000; Yakubu et al., 2005).
Erectile dysfunction is best defined as persistent failure to generate sufficient penile body pressure to achieve vaginal penetration and/or the inability to maintain penile rigidity until ejaculation. Many commonly prescribed pharmacological agents can adversely influence sexual function of the male. Mechanisms by which some medications can induce erectile dysfunction may include central and/or peripheral neurological blockade or stimulation of prolactin (PRL)
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secretion. Hyperprolactinemia may reduce testosterone concentration and action through a variety of mechanisms including disruption of the anatomic integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, decreased GnRH expression, interference with GnRH action on the pituitary, inhibition of gonadotropin secretion, and reduction of testosterone conversion to the more active metabolite dihydrotestosterone. Hypogonadism has recently been shown to be associated with decreased nitrogen oxide (NO) formation and action in the penis, thus reducing erectile capacity (Lugg et al., 1995; Fouad et al., 2001).
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Male sexual dysfunction is one of the most common health problems affecting men and is more common with increasing age. It can be caused by physical or psychological problems. Sexual dysfunction can lead to infertility, which is the inability of a sexually active non-contracepting couple to achieve pregnancy in one year of unprotected, regular intercourse(WHO, 2000). This has led to the end of several marriages. About 15% of couples do not achieve pregnancy within 1year; almost 50% of them do so spontaneously in the second year of unprotected intercourse, and another 14% in the third year. Ultimately, less than 5% remain childless (Te Velde and Pearson, 2002). Throughout all ages, men and women have incessantly pursued every means to increase, preserve and recapture their sexual capacity, or to stimulate the sexual desire of selected members of the opposite or same sex. One of the most recurrent methods has been the use of aphrodisiacs. Herbal medicines are a major source of aphrodisiacs and have been used worldwide for thousands of years by different cultures and civilizations. However, a deeper understanding of phytochemistry, pharmacognosy and ethnopharmacology is fairly available to support the production of new and safe pharmacologically active compounds with minimal undesired toxic effects. In infertile couple, there is often a coincidence of male and female
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factors. With routine medical investigations for infertility, no cause can be found in about 10-15% of infertile couple. In the cases of infertility recorded, the male factor contributes 45-50% of cases (WHO, 2000).
1.3 Justification of Study
Sexual dysfunction is a major medical and social issue that affects the general populace. It has led to the end of several homes and increasing challenges to the nation at large. Several orthodox medications such as Sildenafil citrate (Viagra), Vardenafil (Levitra), Tadalafil (Cialis), Apomorphine (Uprima) have been used in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. However, with increasing side effects, high cost of obtaining synthetic drugs and failure of treatment, there has been renewed vigorous interest in the medicinal herbs with folkloric use for sexual dysfunction.
Medicinal plants are extensively used as aphrodisiac to manage sexual dysfunction (Yakubu et al., 2007). One of such plants claimed to have aphrodisiac potentials is Securinega virosa; however, there is paucity of data on its effectiveness in sexual dysfunction as well as it reproductive safety. This study is therefore directed at the investigation of the methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa for aphrodisiac properties and its effects on male reproductive functions.
1.4 Aim and Objectives
1.4.1 Aim of study
The aim of the study was to provide pharmacological rationale for the ethnomedical use of the root of Securinega virosa as aphrodisiac as well as its generalwell as its general effects on maleeffects on male reproductive reproductive functionfunction..
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1.4.2 Specific objectives.
The objectives of the study were to:
i. To establish the acute toxicity profile of the methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa.
ii. To establish the preliminary phytochemical profile of the methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa.
iii. Establish the effect of the methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa on male reproductive functions viz; serum Testosterone, Luteinizing hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone, sperm motility, count, viability, morphology and testicular histology.
iv. Establish the aphrodisiac potential of the methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa on male Wistar rats
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa possesses significant aphrodisiac activity and significantly enhances serum testosterone, FSH, LH and sperm parameters

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