1.1 Background to the Study
In Nigeria, the main instrument for social change is western education. Education is the surest and greatest investment which a nation can depend on for the rapid development of its economic and human resources. Education is a long term measure and must be pursued when the nation is in dire need of immediate restoration of balanced economy. Nigeria like other nations of the world wants people who should contribute to the development of the nation through education. Such education should be structured to produce knowledge and skills to pursue cultural values and develop technologically (Akinlami, 2013).
Children are special link between the present and future generation, they are a pride of every parent. Childhood is a stage; every child goes through in life, where they are generally regarded as not being able to make serious decisions, and legally must always be under the care of a responsible adult.
According to Denga and Denga (2007) childhood is a phase of life when a child is free from all tension, is fun-loving, plays and learns new things, and is also the sweetheart of the family. From the researcher’s observation, not all children go through the beautiful stage of childhood; most children went through this period in full tension and burden, made to work to help in providing for their families, this is called child labor.
Child labor is not a new phenomenon in the history of man. It has been going on right from time immemorial. Child labor is work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to a child and deprives the child of opportunities for schooling and development (UNICEF). Child labor is a complex phenomenon, mostly common in rural areas of African and Asian countries. According to Chalk, Gibbons and Scarupa (2002) child labor constituted street hawking, farm work and domestic chores such as taking care of babies, fetching water and firewood, preparing and cooking food, individual cleanliness and washing
The philosophy of most culture in Nigeria encourages children to work with their families learning skills they would need as adults. But today, children are forced to work for their own and their family’s survival. The money earned by a child has become a significant part of poor families’ income.
Shonk and Cicchetti (2001) affirmed that education is an important dimension of children’s life. People usually associate education with schools; however, education also occurs in contexts other than school. Children learn from their parents, their siblings, their peers, books, watching television and from the computers. Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. It is preceded by pre-school or nursery education and is followed by secondary education. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education. The major goals of primary education are achieving basic literacy and numeracy abilities by pupils, as well as establishing foundations in science, geography, history and other social science.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It has been alleged that there are cases of child labour, or the working child, which affects punctuality and study habits of pupils in primary schools. The researcher observed that a number of the population is involved in trading and other domestic jobs with a few earning their living through other business. It is necessary to ascertain whether some parents/guardians engage their children in their trade at the detriment of children’s education. In addition the failure of children to complete their primary school education is due to their inability to combine school attendance with income generation activities to finance their education.
Alokan and Olatunji (2014) explained that children are engaged in child labour because of new technology, household dynamics, culture, market, and political failure which determine the labour force participation rate and educational attainment of young children. Poverty and lack of employment or partial employment and illiteracy among parents/guardians have given birth to majority of child labour problems.
Child labor results to the failure of children to attend school and perform better academically. It is against this background that the researcher embarked on this study which deals with investigating the impact of child labour on punctuality and study habits of pupils in primary schools.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to examine the appraisal of child labour on the punctuality and study habits among selected Primary Schools in Eti-Osa, Lagos State. This study specifically seeks to:
- Examine the extent to which child labor will affect study habits among selected Primary School pupils.
- Determine if the rate of punctuality have effect on children exposed to child labor among selected Primary School pupils.
- The find out the adverse effect of child labor on classroom participation among selected Primary School pupils.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were raised to guide the study:
- To what extent will child labor affect study habits among selected Primary School pupils?
- How will the rate of punctuality affect children exposed to child labor among selected Primary School pupils?
- What adverse effect does child labor have on classroom participation among selected Primary School pupils?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were tested in the course of the study:
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between child labor and children study habit.
H1: There is significant relationship between child labor and children study habit.
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between rate of punctuality and child labor.
H1: There is significant relationship between rate of punctuality and child labor.
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between child labor and classroom participation among selected Primary School pupils.
H1: There is significant relationship between child labor and classroom participation among selected Primary School pupils.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Based on the findings of this study, it is hoped that:
Children will be enlightened on the importance of education through regular school attendance and punctuality, which would make them appreciate the value of their academic performance.
Parents and community will develop positive interest towards their children’s educational, punctuality to school and study habits.
Ministry of Education and curriculum planners will develop strategies that will reduce or eradicate child labor.
Curriculum planners will be encouraged to introduce appropriate curricula to suit each season of the year.
Educators will henceforth appreciate and encourage pupils through awards of certificate of regular attendance and punctuality to pupils who deserved it.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study examines appraisal of Child Labour on the punctualitiy and study habits among selected Primary Schools in Eti-Osa, Lagos State. The scope of this study includes pupils from five (5) primary schools selected in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State. The schools are evenly picked across Eti-Osa Local Government Area.
1.8 Operation Definition of Terms
Child labour: Child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful.
Primary School: A primary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to eleven, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school.
Study: Study is the devotion of time and attention to gaining knowledge of an academic subject, especially by means of books.
Habit: an acquired behavioral pattern regularly followed until it has become almost involuntary.
Punctuality: Punctuality is the characteristic of being able to complete a required task or fulfill an obligation before or at a previously designated time. “Punctual” is often used synonymously with “on time”.
Education: Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research.
Teaching: This is a process of imparting knowledge or the transfer of knowledge from somebody who knows (the teacher) to an individual who does not know (the pupils).
Learning: Method and process of acquiring knowledge through formal, informal or non-formal method of education.[email protected].
IF YOU CAN'T FIND YOUR TOPIC, CLICK HERE TO HIRE A WRITER»