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Download this complete Project material titled; Assesment Of Groundwater Quality From Boreholes And Hand-Dug Wells Around Obajana Cement Factory And Its Environs In Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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The groundwater (hand dug wells and boreholes) qualities of Obajana in Kogi State were
determined. The study consisted of the determination of some heavy metals and
physicochemical properties in drinking water samples. Ten (10) samples each of
groundwater were collected from the four sampling sites The samples were analysed for
the following parameters iron, copper, manganese, zinc, lead, nitrates, sulphate, phosphate,
colour, dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen( DO), biological
oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), temperature, turbidity, total
hardness and total alkalinity using standard method. The data showed the variation of the
investigated parameters in samples as follows: temperature 26-30oC, pH 5.53-7.89,
electrical conductivity (EC) 6.210-339.670 μS/cm, total hardness 50.00- 424.20 mg/l,
alkalinity 1.10-145.67mg/l, turbidity 0.00-34 FTU, colour 5-15TCU, phosphate 0.02-0.760
mg/l, nitrate 10.24-48.20mg/l, sulphate 24.70-222.13mg/l, dissolved oxygen 0.2-1.8 mg/l,
BOD 0.2-1.0mg/l, COD 1.1-3.2mg/l, Cu 0.00.1-0.10mg/l , Fe 0.01-0.060mg/l, Zn
0.029-5.046mg/l, Mn 0.0-0.44mg/l and Pb 0.0348-1.046mg/l. The concentrations of some
of the investigated parameters in the drinking water samples from the research region were
above the permissible limits of the World Health Organization standard for drinking water
quality guidelines. lead was found to exceed 0.01mg/l which is the WHO maximum limit,
also zinc and manganese were found to exceed the WHO maximum limit of 4.0mg/l and





Title page iii
Declaration iv
Certification v
Dedication vi
Acknowledgement vii
Abstract viii
Table of contents ix
List of figures xiii
List of tables xiv
Abbreviations xvi
Chapter One 1
Introduction 1
1.1 Water 1
1.2 Portland Cement 4
1.3 Justification 5
1.4 Aim of Study 5
1.6 Objectives 5
1.7 Scope of Work 6
Chapter Two 7
Literature Review 7
2.1 Water 7
2.2 Cement 7
2.3 Sources of Water 8
2.4 Wells 8
2.5 Wells Contamination 9
2.6 Groundwater Pollution 12
2.7 Physicochemical Properties of Water 13
2.7.1 pH of water 13
2.7.2 Standard of pH 13
2.7.3 Potential health effect of pH 14
2.7.4 Treatment 14
2.7.5 Dissolved solid (DS) 14
2.7.6 Sources of DS 15
2.7.7 Potential health effect of DS 15
2.7.8 Standard of DS 15
2.7.9 Turbidity 15
2.7.10 Sources of turbidity 16
2.7.11 Potential effect of turbidity 16
2.7.12 Standard of turbidity 16
2.7.13 Electrical conductivity 17
2.7.14 Hardness of water 17
2.7.15 Potential health effect of hardness of water 18
2.7.16 Nitrates in water 18
2.7.17 Sources of nitrates in water 19
2.7.18 Potential health effect of nitrate 19
2.7.19 Standard of nitrate 20
2.7.20 Sulphates in water 20
2.7.21 Sources of sulphate 20
2.7.22 Potential health effect of sulphate 21
2.7.23 Standards of sulphate 21
2.7.24 Colour 21
2.7.25 Alkalinity 22
2.7.26 Chemical oxygen demand 22
2.7.27 Biological oxygen demand 23
2.7.28 Dissolved oxygen 23
2.8 Metallic Pollutant 23
2.8.1 Heavy metals effect 23
2.8.2 Lead 24
2.8.3 Manganese 25
2.8.4 Copper 26
2.8.5 Zinc 26
2.8.6 Iron 27
2.9 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Analysis 27
2.9.1 Theory of AAS 28
Chapter Three 29
Methodology 29
3.1 Study Area 29
3.2 Sampling Site 30
3.3 Sample Collection 30
3.4 Preparation of Aqueous Stock Solution 42
3.4.1 Sodium nitrate solution 42
3.4.2 Iron solution 42
3.4.3 Copper solution 42
3.4.4 Lead solution 42
3.4.5 Zinc solution 42
3.4.6 Manganese solution 43
3.5 Measurement of Physiochemical Parameters 43
3.5.1 Determination of temperature 43
3.5.2 Determination of pH 43
3.5.3 Determination of colour 43
3.5.4 Determination of conductivity 44
3.5.5 Determination of turbidity 44
3.5.6 Determination of total hardness 45
3.5.7 Determination of dissolved solid 45
3.5.8 Determination of chemical oxygen demand 46
3.5.9 Determination of dissolved oxygen 46
3.5.10 Determination of biological oxygen demand 47
3.5.11 Determination of nitrate 47
3.5.12 Determination of total alkalinity 48
3.6 Digestion of Water Sample 48
3.7 Procedure for Water Digestion 49
3.8 Statistical Analysis 49
Chapter Four 50
Results 50
4.1 Physicochemical Parameters 50
4.2 Correlation Matrix for Physicochemical Parameters 50
4.3 Heavy Metals Comparison in Water Samples 50
4.4 WHO Standard for Heavy Metals 50
4.5 Mean values of Compounds and Heavy Metals 50
4.6 Cluster Analysis 50
4.7 Analysis for Turbidity,Nitrate, Zinc, Manganese and Lead 50
Chapter five 74
Discussion 74
5.1 Temperature and pH 74
5.2 Conductivity and Dissolved Solids 75
5.3 Turbidity 75
5.4 Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biological Oxygen
Demand 76
5.5 Total Hardness 77
5.6 Colour 77
5.7 Total Alkalinity 77
5.8 Ions and Nutrients 78
5.9 A Comparison of Concentration of Metal ions in Water and WHO
Standard 79
5.9.1 Copper 79
5.9.2 Iron 80
5.9.3 Manganese 80
5.9.4 Zinc 80
5.9.5 Lead. 81
Chapter Six 83
Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations 83
6.1 Summary 83
6.2 Conclusions 83
6.3 Recommendations 84
References 86
List of Figures
Figure 3.1 Picture of a well in site 1 43
Figure 3.2
Picture of a well in site 3
Figure 3.3 Picture of a well in site 4 45
Figure 3.4
Picture of a borehole in site 2
Figure 3.5
Map of lokoja showing Obajana and its surrounding communities
Figure 3.6
Map of Obajana showing the cement factory location and sampling
Figure 4.1
Comparison of copper concentration in water samples (mg/L) and
the maximum limit set by WHO for sites 1 – 4
Figure 4.2
Comparison of iron concentration in water samples (mg/L) and the
maximum limit set by WHO for sites 1 – 4
Figure 4.3
Comparison of manganese concentration in water samples (mg/L)
and the maximum limit set by WHO for sites 1 – 4
Figure 4.4
Comparison of lead concentration in water samples (mg/L) and the
maximum limit set by WHO for sites 1 – 4
Figure 4.5
Comparison of zinc concentration in water samples (mg/L) and the
maximum limit set by WHO for sites 1 – 4

Project Topics



1.1 Water
Water is essential to maintain and sustain human life, animals and plants (Patil and
Patil, 2010), this is because it constitutes to a large extent, the major solvent in which
many of the body’s proteins and other substances are dissolved. It enables many
metabolic activities of the body to take place (Davis, 2005).Water is essential for
growing food, for domestic uses and as a critical factor in industries, tourism and
cultural purpose as it helps in sustaining the earth’s ecosystem (Mark et al. 2002).
Water covers 70.9% of the earth’s surface, and is vital for all known forms of life. On
earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of
water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor and precipitation.
Oceans hold 97% of surface water, 2.4% for glaciers and polar ice caps, and 0.6%
for other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds. A very small amount of
the earth’s water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products
(Wikipedia, 2010). Water is precious and necessary for a sustainable economic
development of an area as it is the next major support to life after air. In the urban areas
where pipe-borne water, bore-hole water and hand-dug wells are available is an
indication that water is a vital component of human existence. Groundwater is of
major importance and is intensively exploited for private, domestic and industrial uses.
According to Ajibade et al. (2011) 90% of the population in Nigeria depends largely on
handdug wells and boreholes. Rapid growth in urban populations, industrial
activities, commercial and agricultural developments result in increase in the
search of potable water. The preference of groundwater as a source of drinking water
in rural areas is because of its relatively better quality than river water
(Obiri- Danso et al., 2009). Historically, point of rural settlement was being determined
by water source such as stream, river and spring (Okeola et al., 2010). The inhabitants
of rural settlements relied on groundwater often within a few meters of the
surface which they exploited by digging wells. Access to safe drinking water is a basic
human need and a fundamental human right that is crucial for poverty reduction.
According to a report (United Nation, 2003) this situation forces people to consume
untreated water from rivers and ponds and represents a high risk to their health. About
1.1 billion people in the world lack access to good quality drinking water.
Globally, 4 billion cases of diarrhoea are reported every year causing 1.8 million
deaths, out of which about 90% are children under five years of age (UNESCO, 2007).
Pollution of groundwater is an impairment of water quality by chemicals, heat or
bacteria to a degree that does not necessarily create public health hazards but does
adversely affect such water for domestic, farm, municipal or industrial use (Akhilesh et
al., 2009; Weiss, 1974 and Ogbonna et al., 2006). Water related diseases are
responsible for 80% of all illness or death in the developing countries and kill more
than 5 million people every year (UNESCO, 2007). The use of groundwater as a
source of potable water supply is increasing worldwide. Although it can be
contaminated due to pollution (Obiri- Danso et al., 2009). In the United States,
90-95% of rural and sub-urban water come from these sources.
Irrespective of the form in which water occurs, it can still be contaminated with
impurities. Hence, water quality analysis is a very important issue which should be
taken seriously. The presence of these wastes (pollutants) tampers with the natural
quality of the environmental media (air, water, and land) thus, affecting plant, animal
and human lives. The water pollution by heavy metals has become a question of
considerable public and scientific concern in the light of the evidence of their toxicity
to human health and biological systems (Anazawa et al., 2004).
Dust emissions from the factory have not only affected the environment, but the
water from open-wells has visibly suffered surface contaminations from cement
dust deposition. These wells are the main source of drinking water and other
domestic chores for inhabitants of the area surrounding the cement factory. This
should elicit a concern since the water quality may experience undesirable changes
as the result of cement dust intrusion. The quality of water influences the health
status of any populace, hence, analysis of water for physical, biological and chemical
properties including trace element contents are very important for public health studies
(Chinedu et al., 2011). Furthermore, Amira (2002) had indicated that cement dust
is capable of changing salt content of water leading to serious disruption of
aquatic communities and also decrease quality of water used for drinking. Thus,
the current situation of the wells within the vicinity of the cement factory necessitate
a study aimed at evaluating the health risk of the people who depends on water
from hand-dug wells for drinking and other domestic useage.
Each pollutant has its own health risk profile, summarizing all relevant information
into a short chapter will be difficult as it will focus on the problems caused by air and
water pollution at the community, country, and global levels. Estimates indicate that the
proportion of the global burden of disease associated with environmental pollution
hazards range from 23 – 30% (Smith et al., 1999) and (WHO, 1997). As the World
Health Organization points out, outdoor air pollution contributes as much as 0.6 – 1.4 %
of the burden of disease in developing regions especially Nigeria, and other pollution,
such as lead in water, air and soil, may contribute 0.9 %. These percentages may
appear small, but the contribution from most risk factors other than the “top 10” is
within the 0.5 to 1.0% range (WHO 2002). Pollution of surface water can create health
risks, because such waterways are often used directly as drinking water sources or flow
into shallow wells used for drinking water. In addition, waterways have important roles
for washing and cleaning, for fishing and fish farming and for recreation. . The purpose
of this study is to ascertain the quality of water from these sources and to verify if there
is adverse effect of the cement factory on the surrounding communities.
1.2 Portland Cement
Cements used in construction can be either being hydraulic or non-hydraulic. Portland
cement which is produced in Obajana cement factory consists of limestone (CaCO3),
Clay (2SiO2. Al2O3 ), Iron oxide (Fe2O3 )and Silica sand (SiO2). If all of these are put in
a rotary klin and heated at 1450°c, cement is formed (CaO.SO3.2H2O ).
Since the primary constituents of Portland cement are calcium silicate, Portland cement
can be defined as a material which combines CaO and SiO2 in a proportion that the
resulting calcium silicate will react with water at room temperature and under normal
pressure. Cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently and can
bind other materials together. Hydraulic cement (e.g. Portland cement) hardens because
of hydration, a chemical reaction between the anhydrous cement powder and water.
2C3S + 7H = C3S2H4 + 3CH ΔH = -500j/g ……………………… 1.1
The chemical reaction results in hydrates that are not very water soluble and so are
quite durable in water. This product is not a well defined compound as the formular
C3S2H4 is only an approximate description. It has an amorphous structure making up of
poorly organized layers and its called glue gel binder.
1.3 Justification
The quality of drinking water in the Obajana town has become a major concern to the
community. In addition, inhabitants are becoming increasingly dependent on wells,
which have doubtful water quality, especially during the dry season. The town has no
standard treated pipe borne water supply system causing most people to depend on
other alternative sources of water such as rainwater and hand-dug wells and boreholes
constructed in many households with doubtful water quality in the area. These
alternative sources, are to a large extent exposed to contaminants such as metals,
nitrates and other salts which have resulted in polluting the water.
The relationship between pollution levels from the cement factory will be established
and mapped which will help pollution monitoring and remedial efforts. The study will
determine if true there is pollution of water resources in the area.
1.4 Aim of Study
The assessment of groundwater in Obajana and its environs will be done to verify if
there are adverse effects on the groundwater around the area as a result of the activities.
1.5 Objectives
The above aim will be achieved through the following objectives:
i. Determination of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Mn) concentrations in the
groundwater from hand-dug wells and boreholes.
ii. Determination of physicochemical properties of groundwater such as
(electrical conductivity, alkalinity, turbidity, pH, phosphate, sulphate, colour,
dissolved oxygen, hardness, nitrate, temperature, biological oxygen demand
and chemical oxygen demand);
iii. Statistically correlating the data in the water samples; and comparing pollution
level in the groundwater with that of WHO standards for water quality.
1.6 Scope of the work
i. Collection of groundwater samples from Obajana community and its environs
from hand-dug wells and boreholes.
ii Determination of the physicochemical properties of groundwater.
iii Determination of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Mn) concentration in the
sampled groundwater using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

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