Yoghurt is a fermented dairy product obtained from the lactic acid fermentation of milk. It is one of the most popular fermented milk products in the world and produced commercially at home. (Willey et al., 2008). In its commercial production, non fat or low fat milk is pasteurized cooled to 43°c and are inoculated with known cultures of microorganisms referred to as starter cultures. The starter cultures may be a pure culture of a particular species of Lactobacillus or a mixed culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in a 1: 1 ratio. The coccus which is theStreptococcus thermophilus grows faster than the Rod which is the Lactobacillus bulgaricus and is primarily responsible for acid production while the rod adds flavor and aroma. The growth of these Microorganisms causes the transformation of milk’s sugar, lactose into lactic acid. This process gives yoghurt it’s texture. The associative growth of the two organisms results in acid production at a rate greater than that produced by them individually.
Yoghurt is generally made from a standardized mixture containing whole milk, partially defatted milk, condensed skim milk cream and non fat dry milk. Alternatively milk may be partly concentrated by removal of 15- 20% water in a vacuum pan or by heating. While the microorganisms fermenting milk confers on it certain health benefits inadequate pasteurized milk may contain microorganism of special importance to man. (Boor and Murphy, 2002).
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