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Assessment of Environmental Practice Among Citizens of Konduga Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria

Abstract

This study evaluated the assessment of environmental practice among citizens of Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state, Nigeria. Data used for the study were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary data collection was through questionnaire administration and observations made by the researcher. To achieve this purpose, an ex-post-facto research design was used. A total number of 810 households were selected through multi-stage sampling technique. Cronbach’s alpha of .82, .84 and .86 were obtained for reliability on knowledge, attitude and practice of household towards environmental sanitation practices respectively. Out of 810 copies of a questionnaire distributed, only data from 780 were valid for analysis. Inferential statistics of one sample t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) were used to test the hypotheses. The result revealed that households in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state are knowledgeable about environmental sanitation practices (t-cal = 197.876; p = 0.00) and households have positive attitude and good practice of environmental sanitation practices (tcal = 204.617; p = 0.000 and t-cal = 189.110; p = 0.00 respectively). Knowledge of environmental sanitation practices significantly influences the attitude among citizens in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state (r = 0.685; p = 0.00). Moreover, the study shows that knowledge of environmental sanitation practices significantly influences the practice among citizens in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state with (r = 0.714; p =0.00). Based on the findings, it was concluded that households in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state are knowledgeable about environmental sanitation practices, their attitude of environmental sanitation practices was positive, environmental sanitation practices practice was good among citizens of Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state, Nigeria. Existing knowledge influences the attitude towards environmental sanitation practices among citizens in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state and existing knowledge influences the practice of environmental sanitation practices among citizens in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state. Based on the conclusion made, it was recommended among others that policymakers in government and non-governmental organizations should redesign a plan of action on how to maintain the knowledge, attitude and practice of environmental sanitation practices among citizens in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

A healthy living environment is sine-qua-non to national growth and development. Such condition can be achieved through an effective environmental sanitation practices practice.

Roland et al. (2004) noted that environmental sanitation practices ‘comprises the proper collection, transportation, disposal and treatment of human excreta, solid waste and waste water, control of disease vectors and provision of washing facilities for personal and domestic hygiene.’

Bindeshwar (1999) also viewed sanitation as ‘a basic condition for development.’ It is aimed at improving the quality of life of the individuals; contributes to social development and abatement of diseases. Sadalla et al (2001) noted that the environmental problems may be caused by inadequate provision of facilities and residents’ behaviour in communities

Despite its importance in human life, Mosleh Uddin and Sudhir (2005) observed that the provision of sanitation facilities and services is poor in developing countries. Roland et al (2004) added that a significant number of people in these countries ‘lack access to adequate water supply, environmental sanitation practices services and food security’. This, according to Bindeshwar (1999), contributes to the ‘death of millions of children below the age of five every year; and about 50 diseases are linked with poor sanitation’.

The negative environmental practices of individuals are also contributory to this menace. In fact, the provision of adequate sanitation facilities could at best be referred to as means to an end since the attitude and behavioural practices of the stakeholders determine the end. Public perception of the need for proper sanitation goes a long way in providing desired solutions that would mitigate the consequences. Generally, poor sanitation practices could result from overcrowding, inadequate facilities and amenities, low level of education and awareness on sanitation practices, low income level, unplanned housing development, among others.

Several studies have shown that problems of environmental sanitation practices are not limited to a particular residential zone. Such studies reveal that such problems occur in the traditional core areas, urban centres and peri- urban areas or suburbs. Studies based on the sanitation problems in the core areas include for example those on Borno (Adedibu and Okekunle, 1989; Kenneth et al, 2003; and Afon, 2006); Ibadan (Egunjobi, 1989) in Nigeria. Such studies also exist outside Nigeria. These include those on Addis Ababa in Ethiopia, and India (Bindeshwar, 1999 and Sabur, 2006); Bangladesh (Musleh Uddin and Sudhir, 2000); and Nakhon Pathon in Thailand (Lagho, 2001). None of these studies examined the relationship existing between the provisions of environmental sanitation practices facilities and the responses or behaviour due to the adequacy of facilities in core areas Konduga in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state.

             

1.2       Statement of the Problem

The core area of any settlement is the point of reception, the hub of activities and distribution of internal and external goods and services (Tanimowo, 2001). It is the point of major commercial and residential land uses. Consequently, core areas often have more facilities compared to other parts of their respective settlements. These facilities and services do attract people from other parts of the settlement. This results in overcrowding with the diverse negative effects. Olayiwola and Omisore (2001) and Nwaka (2005) observed that such effects include poor accessibility, high occupancy ratio, lack of proper drainage, inadequate infrastructure and social amenities, environmental pollution and poor sanitation.

Nwaka (2005) noted that residential neighbourhoods in the core areas are being developed without effective planning and adequate provision of basic services and facilities including transportation, health, employment, security and sanitation facilities. Other problems identified with these areas include overcrowding, inadequate provision of basic services and poor network of public transport modes. These features of the core areas aggravate the unwholesome living condition of the residents. Consequently, there are growing cases of water- borne and filth related diseases especially diarrhea, cholera and malaria (Roland et al, 2004). These contribute to loss of lives and man-hour which results to colossal loss to economic growth and development. The problems are worsened in developing countries like Nigeria, where there is inadequate health facilities to alleviate the problems (Nwaka, 2005). Of interest to the study is to provide answers to questions like: what are the sanitation facilities in the core areas? How do the residents respond to inadequacies in the provision of these facilities? What is the health implication of non-provision of these facilities?

1.3        Purpose of the Study

This study is aimed at evaluating the assessment of environmental practice among citizens of Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state, Nigeria with a view to identifying the different environmental sanitation practices behaviours emanating from the level of adequacies of these amenities. The study will specifically seek to assess:

  1. Knowledge of environmental sanitation practices among citizens in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state.
  2. Attitude towards environmental sanitation practices among citizens in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state.
  3. Practice of environmental sanitation practices among citizens in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state.
  4. Relationship between knowledge and attitude towards environmental sanitation practices among citizens in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state.
  5. Relationship between knowledge and practice of environmental sanitation among

households in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state.

1.4      Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  1. Do households have knowledge of environmental sanitation practices in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state?
  2. What is the attitude of households towards environmental sanitation practices in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state?
  3. What are the practices of environmental sanitation practices among citizens in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state?
  4. Is there any relationship between knowledge and attitude of households towards environmental sanitation practices in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state?
  5. Is there any relationship between knowledge and practice of environmental sanitation among citizens in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state?

1.5       Justification of the Study

The importance of clean environment to a healthy living condition for man cannot be over-emphasized. This has necessitated the need for effective and regular sanitation activities the world over. The provision of adequate sanitation facilities, urban infrastructure and enabling environmental sanitation practices policies influence the achievement of a high quality living condition for man and his environment.

There is already a growing concern by the government and the public on the environmental conditions and provision of sanitation facilities in the major cities of the world. This has necessitated the huge finances concentrated on the provision and improvement of sanitation facilities in these cities. This is not the case in core areas of the developing countries. The fact that these areas offer employment opportunities and offer cheapest housing especially to new migrants (Adedibu and Okekunle, 1989) has made them most overcrowded in the cities. Consequently, various environmental sanitation practices problems are often encountered in these areas (Egunjobi, 1989).

1.6        Basic Assumptions

The following basic assumptions were formulated by the researcher:

  1. It is assumed that if households in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state have adequate knowledge of environmental sanitation practices it will improve the environment.
  2. It is assumed that households in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state have a positive attitude towards environmental sanitation practices.
  3. It is assumed that households in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state have a good practice of environmental sanitation practices.
  4. It is assumed that there is significant relationship between knowledge and attitude towards environmental sanitation practices among citizens in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state.
  5. It is assumed thatthere is significant relationship between knowledge and practiceof environmental sanitation practices amonghouseholds in Konduga Local Government Area, Borno state.

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