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Download this complete Project material titled; Assessment Of The Quality Of Soaps Produced From Blends Of Butyrospermum Parkii Fruit Oil (Shea Butter), Sesamum Indicum (Sesame) Seed Oil And Tallow with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to determine the characteristics of soap produced from different fats and oils. Three different blends of Sesamum indicum seed oil, Butyrospermum parkii fruit oil and Tallow were used; nine blends each of Sesamum indicum seed oil and Butyrospermum parkii fruit oil, Sesamum indicum seed oil and Tallow, Butyrospermum parkii fruit oil and Tallow. Cold method of soap making was employed for this research. A total of 30 blends were carried out. Each of these blends were used in producing soap as well as individual oil samples. Palm oil was used as control as well as two commercial soaps; Giv and B-29 soap. The soap samples SHS8 (Shea butter 80% – sesame 20%), SHS9 (Shea butter 90% – sesame 10%) SHT9 (Shea butter 90% – Tallow 10%) and G (Shea butter 60% – sesame 20% – Tallow 20%) with total fatty matter (75.60±0.35), (75.10±0.35), (75.80±0.28) and (75.30±0.28) respectively, gave the best soap judging by % Total Fatty Matter (TFM) while blends E (Shea butter 20% – sesame 60% – Tallow 20%) and F (Shea butter 20% – sesame 60% – Tallow 20%) with foam height (cm3) (91.50±0.71) and (80.00±2.83) respectively gave a better soap in terms of foaming ability. The pH values observed for blended samples at 10% soap solutions were ranged from 10.50±0.14 to 11.20±0.14, while pH values for the commercial soaps used as standard at 10% soap solutions were 10.90±0.14 to 10.95±0.07. Soap sample C (100%Tallow) had the highest pH value of 12.00±0.30 which makes it harsh for the body. Thus, from the results obtained in the present study it can be concluded that due to the favorable physicochemical properties (high %TFM, high pH and high Foam height) of soap samples, some should be recommended for bathing (G, SHS8, SHS9 and SHT9) and some for laundry (D, ST8, ST7, ST9, SHS1, SHS2 and SHS3) judging by % TFM and pH values as well as from the comparison with the commercial soaps used as control.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Tittle page
Declaration………………………………………………………………………………………….i
Certification…………………………………………………..…………………………………….ii
Dedication………………………………………………………………..……………………….iii
Acknowledgment……………………………………………………………………………..…..iv
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………….…v
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………………….vi
List of Figures………………………………………………………………………………………….x
List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………………xi
Nomenclature……………..………………………………………………………………………xii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 Statement of research problem………………………………………………………….…….2
1.2 Aim and Objectives……………………………………………………………………….………2
1.3 Justification…………………………………………………………………………………..3
1.4 Scope of research work……………………………………………………………………3
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………………….4
2.1 Saponification………………………………………………………………………………5
2.2 Raw materials used in soap making ……………………………………………………………………….6
2.2.1 Fats and oil……………………………………………………………………………………………………..6
2.2.1.1 Olive oil……………………………………………………………………………………7
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2.2.1.2 Palm oil……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7
2.2.1.3 Coconut oil….……………………………………………………………………………..7
2.2.1.4 Jajoba………………………………………………………………………………………7
2.2.1.5 Shea butter……………………………………………………………………….………..8
2.2.1.6 Mango butter………………………………………………………………………………..9
2.2.1.7 Aloe Vera butter…………………………………………………………………………….9
2.2.1.8 Cocoa butter………………………………………………………………………………10
2.2.1.9 Calendula flower ………………………………………………………………..……….10
2.2.1.10 Castor oil…………………………………………………………….………………….10
2.2.1.11 Sweet Almond oil……………………………………………………………….………10
2.2.1.12 Sun flower………………………………………………………………………………11
2.2.2 Alkali……………………………………………………………………………………..11
2.2.3 Other soap ingredients……………………………………………………………………11
2.3 Fatty acids and soap making………………………………………………………………12
2.3.1 Some Fatty Acids and their Resulting Soap Characteristics……………………………….12
2.4 Types of soaps based on processes, properties and composition…………………………13
2.4.1 Hard and soft soaps………………………………………………………………………13
2.4.2 Transparent Soap…………………………………………………………………………13
2.4.3 Liquid Soaps……………………………………………………………………………..13
2.4.4 Tablet or Bar Soaps………………………………………………………………………14
2.5 Types of soaps based on usage……………………………………………………………14
2.5.1 Antiseptic Soaps and Bathing Soaps……………………………………………………..14
2.6 Soap making processes …………………………………………………………………..15
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2.6.1 Cold process soap making……………………………………………………………….15
2.6.2 Hot process soap making…………………………………………………………………17
2.6.3 Hand milled soap making method……………………………………..…………………18
2.6.4 Melt and pour soap making method………………………………….………..…………18
2.7 Physicochemical characteristics of fats/oil……………………………………………….19
2.8 Physicochemical characteristics of soap…………………………………………………20
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIAL AND METHOD……..……………………………………………..………22
3.1 Sample collection…………………………………………………………………….…..22
3.2 Methodology …………………………………………………………………………….22
3.2.1 Sample collection ………………….…………………………………………..…..…….22
3.2.2 Preparation of tallow from animal fat……………………………………………………23
3.3 Blending of the oil/fats……………………………………………………………………23
3.4 Physicochemical properties of oil blends………………………………………….……..28
3.4.1 Saponification value………………………………………………………………………28
3.4.2 Iodine value……………………………………………………………..………………..29
3.4.3 Acid value…………………………………………………………………………..……30
3.4.4 Specific gravity…………………………………………………………………….…….30
3.5 Preparation of soap samples (saponification)……………………………………………30
3.6 GC-MS analysis of oils/fat ………………………………………………………………31
3.7 Analysis of the physicochemical properties of soap……………………………………..31
3.7.1 PH determination…………………………………………………………………..……..31
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3.7.2 Percent moisture content…………………………………………………….……………31
3.7.3 Free caustic alkali………………………………………………………….…………….32
3.7.4 Total alkali ………………………………………………………………….…………….32
3.7.5 Percent total fatty matter (TFM)………………………………………….………………33
3.7.6 Foam ability test………………………………………………………………………….33
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS……………..………………………………………………………………….34
4.1 Physicochemical properties of oil and soap………………………………………………35
4.2 Physicochemical properties of the manufactured soaps from the oil blends……………42
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION………..…………………………….…………………………………………50
5.1 Physicochemical properties of oil…………………………………………………………….50
5.2 Physicochemical properties of soaps ……………………………………………….…..55
CHAPTER SIX
6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION…………………………………………..65
6.1 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….65
6.2 Recommendation…………………………………………………………………………66
References………………………………………………………………………………………..68
Appendix …………………………………………………………………………………………75
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CHAPTER ONE

Project Topics

1.0: INTRODUCTION
Soap may be defined as a chemical compound or mixture of chemical compounds resulting from the interaction of fatty acids or fatty glycerides with a metal radical or organic base (Kirk-Othman, 1963). Soaps are mainly used as surfactants for washing, bathing, and cleaning, but they are also used in textile spinning and are important components of lubricants. Soaps for cleansing are obtained by treating vegetable or animal oils and fats with a strongly alkaline solution. Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides; three molecules of fatty acids are attached to a single molecule of glycerol (Cavitch and Miller, 1994).
The alkaline solution, which is often called lye (although the term “lye soap” refers almost exclusively to soaps made with sodium hydroxide), brings about a chemical reaction known as saponification. The metals commonly used in soap making are sodium and potassium, which produce water-soluble soaps that are used for laundry and cleaning purposes (Kuntom et al., 1994). The qualities of soap are usually determined by the amount and composition of the component fatty acids in the starting oil.
Blends of oils can be used in both the hot and cold soap production methods. Vegetable oil blends could be obtained by mixing different vegetable oils such as the mixture of coconut oil, palm kernel oil, groundnut oil and shea butter in different proportions (Kuntom et al., 1996) and soaps of desirable quality can be produced by blending butyrospermum parkii fruit oil, tallow and sesamum indicum seed oil.
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The quality of soap produced is usually comparable to the quality of commercially available soaps. This research work involves using various blends of Butyrospermum parkii fruit oil, tallow and Sesamum indicum seed oil for the production of various soaps reported.
1.1 Statements of Research Problem
There is heavy dependence on palm oil as source of fatty acids for the production of soaps by soap producers. Exploring other type of oils/fats would go a long way in reducing this total dependence on palm oil. Blending various vegetable oils of different qualities could go a long way in the production of quality soaps for laundry, bathing and general cleaning purpose.
1.2 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research work is to study the quality of soap produced from blended oils. The specific objectives of this work are to:
I. Blend oil/fats from Butyrospermum parkii fruit oil, tallow and Sesamum indicum seed oil;
II. determine the physicochemical parameters of the blended fat/oils;
III. produce soaps from the individual blends (saponification) and
IV. determine the quality parameters of the produced soap.
1.3 Justification
Two major sources of oil for soap making are available in nature, which includes vegetable oil (from plants) and Tallow (animal fat). Vegetable oil has a unique quality of being able to form lather water but its short coming is its inability to harden properly. Animal fat on the other hand harden properly but does not readily form lather. Hence the need to blend two or more of these
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oils with a view to producing a soap which lathers properly in both soft and hard water as well as hardens properly.
1.4 Scope of Research Work
This work covered the procurement of some selected vegetable oils which include Shea butter oil, sesame seed oil and Tallow (animal fat) and other essential soap materials from Samaru Market and Zango in Zaria. These oils were blended together and each blend was used to produce soap. Each soap produced from these various oils were analyzed for their physicochemical parameters. Although other fat/oils exist but this work is only limited to just these three oils.
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