Liberalization of the establishment of tertiary educational institutions across Nigeria in recent times has created new growth poles as places or settlements where the institutions are located have benefitted from several associated social and economic benefits. However, the establishment of several of these new tertiary institutions have not been accompanied with the required investment in the building of on-campus student housing or hostel accommodation.
This study therefore, analyzed the impact of the establishment of Kogi State University (KSU), Anyigba on slum development in the town. Amongst others the study examines the pattern of housing development and level of adherence to physical development regulations in the study area and the characteristics of neighbourhoods around the KSU campus where most of the off- campus student hostels are situated.
As part of the study a total of 364 copies the questionnaire were administered on heads of households and landlords of the houses where students resided using a systematic random sampling. The focus of the questionnaire administration was to determine factors that influence housing development in neighbourhoods around the campus of KSU and the level of adherence to extant physical planning regulations in the development of these off-campus student hostels.
Personal observation was also used to obtain data on the visual quality of the study area. Descriptive and inferential analytical techniques were adopted for the analysis of data obtained with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Among others, the study revealed that 68% of housing used for off-campus student hostels did not observe the required plot ratio of 45 to 60% and setbacks of 6m in the front, 3m at the sides and back respectively while 26% of the houses did not have toilets and other required conveniences such as kitchens and bathrooms. The study further established that toilets are inadequate in 61.6% of the houses that had such facility, 28.3% had poor quality softscape elements, 46.7% had fair hardscape quality, 72% of the access roads are in poor condition. Amongst others, the study recommends a more rigorous physical development control in the area to stem the ugly scenario of unwholesome housing development and poor environmental quality.
1.1 Background to the Study
The environment is the unit in which the resources needed for man’s sustenance and development are obtained. One can also say that the environment plays a vital role in human development. World Bank (1998) gave a view of the environment as the “National and Social conditions surrounding all Mankind, and including future generations”. Common to the definition given above is the fact that the environment is a medium of sustenance for life and non-life form.
Slum on the other hand can be said to be an area of a city where living conditions are very bad and where the houses are in bad condition, Lagos metropolis with Yaba as one of the local government area within, is a fast growing area with attending problems of housing and the environment in terms of quality and quantity. This shortage is due to the inability of housing production to meet the demand and the ever-increasing influx of people into the city. As Lagos grows it has become a center of gravity for all professionals, semi-professionals, skilled and unskilled labor throughout its catchment‘s area. With the rapid population growth of Lagos metropolis, physical expansion became inevitable. The result is shortage of housing and rampant proliferation of urban decay and slums which are unplanned and underserved neighborhoods. They lack the most basic municipal services, such as water supply, sanitation, waste collection and thus are exposed to diseases, crime and natural disaster. They also lack schools, clinics as well as places for the community to meet and socialize.
In recent years, the Federal government of Nigeria has indicated enormous enthusiasm to the growth of tertiary education sector thereby establishing more institutions, especially universities and the liberalization of its ownership. While liberalizing the ownership of higher institutions, inadequate attention has been accorded to the provision of housing in the Institutions to provide for the influx of students and staff. In view of this inadequacy in complimentary housing provision, higher percentage of the students take succour in the off-campus as an alternative to on-campus accommodation. Owing to the inadequacy of on-campus student housing facilities in Nigerian tertiary institutions, Housing developers have identified a blooming off-campus student housing as a viable investment. However, off-campus student housing is associated with plethora of problems. For instance, Umaru et al. (2012) reported that off-campus student residence is characterised by hostilities and poor housing maintenance. Furthermore, although Amole (2009) noted that some students choose to live off-campus on their own preference, Olabisi, (2011) maintained that students‘ access to on-campus housing facilities is often limited.
The creation of Kogi State University (KSU) Anyigba in 1999 has exacerbated the rate of immigration of people to Anyigba Town at high rate (Ifatimehin & Ufuah, 2006). It has equally engendered unprecedented rate of immigration to the town, which has resulted in unparalleled land use change in the entire University‘s host community through massive residential and rental housing development and renovation of existing housing stock to attract prospective users. More so, there is proliferation of physical development without approval from Kogi State Town Planning and Development Board. This has lead to the proliferation of unapproved and haphazard housing development. The institution has become a growth pole and a pull factor that attracts and creates substantial impact on the economic base of the host community and its environs. It has created ample job prospects to both indigenes and non-indigenes of the town.
Before the establishment of KSU, Anyigba town experienced relatively low population growth. However, the establishment of KSU has led to unprecedented increase in population of the town alongside housing development (Ifatimehin et al., 2009). The effects of the institution on the town include but not limited to employment generation, socio-cultural development and the establishment of human resource and research training centre. Apart from the population growth occasioned by high fecundity in Anyigba, the influx of students, employees of the university, businessmen and women and informal artisanal workers owing to the presence of the University, has led to an increasing rate of housing development in Anyigba which inadvertently affects the environmental quality.
The increasing housing demand in Anyigba has resulted in rapid and haphazard housing development with resultant impacts on the quality of the environment of the area.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
According to Makinde, (1994) slum indicators include poor housing, lack of access by motor able road, no pipe borne water, no drainage channels leading to incessant flooding and lack of electricity. Also included are overcrowding, inadequate toilet facilities, and lack of waste management facilities. There is no organized solid waste collection and disposal system in the study area. Also no mobile refuse collection centers or purpose built waste collection sites anywhere in the study area.
Refuse is either dump directly on the floor, or on the road side. As well as open dumpsite. In fact the whole of Erejuwa Street is likely to be turned to dumpsite. This will result to a perennial flooding of the study area; even the existing sewage systems are sub-standard. In summary Anyigba is a settlement of high population density with over tasked, inadequate, (that is if available) facilities and services, causing the residents to live in sub human conditions.
Previous studies focused primarily on the economic, social and land use implications of location of tertiary institutions on the host communities with little or no emphasis to analyse the effects of tertiary institutions on slum development and environmental quality. This is a major gap in knowledge that this study seeks to cover with a view to aiding decision-making and policies on tertiary education institutions‘ students and staff housing development for the purpose of achieving coordinated and non-conflicting physical development of the host communities of tertiary educational institutions.
1.3 Research Questions
- How has the physical development in anyigba town evolved between 1999 and 2019?
- What is the nature of housing development in Anyigba town between 1999 and 2019?
- How has the establishment of KSU impacted on slum development in anyigba?
- In what ways has the establishment of KSU and the demand for off-campus housing accommodation amongst its students influenced the pattern of physical development in anyigba?
1.4 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to examine the impact of Kogi State University (KSU) on slum development and the environmental quality of Anyigba town with a view to determining emerging physical development challenges in the area.
Pursuant to this aim, the evolved objectives of the study are to:
- Assess the trend of housing development in Anyigba town between 1999 to 2019
- Examine the relationship between the establishment of KSU and housing development in the study
- Determine the influence of off campus student housing choice on the environmental quality of Anyigba
- Identify emerging physical development challenges arising from the pattern of housing development for off-campus students‘ accommodation in Anyigba town.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The subject scope of this study covered the determination of the impact or influence of the establishment of KSU on slum development in anyigba town of Kogi State between 1999 and 2019. The choice of this period is informed by the fact that KSU was established in the year 1999. Particular emphasis were paid to the influence of the pattern of housing development and associated infrastructure such as roads, drainages and sanitary conditions of Anyigba amongst others since the establishment of KSU. The study focused on off-campus students‘ and staff housing development and how these affect the environmental quality of the study area. The study also investigated the extent of the provision of environmental amenities such as pipe- borne water, electricity, playgrounds, schools and health centres in the study area since the establishment of KSU.
This study covered the geographic boundaries of Anyigba town. However, the point of emphasis of the study was the location of KSU in the town. Therefore, for the purpose of comprehensiveness, the study was confined to 2km radius from the location of KSU.
1.6 Justification of the Study
Numerous researchers who had worked on effects of tertiary institutions focused on the economic, political, social and cultural impacts on the communities (DiNapoli, 2010). While doing these, emphasis on the impacts that tertiary institutions have on the housing development and environmental quality has been minimal. This triggers idea for this research so as to fill in the gap.
More so, the findings of this research will prove extremely valuable in explaining the real factors underlying slum development in Anyigba. This study will demonstrate the environmental importance and information about housing development for residents of Anyigba. It will also indicate how Kogi State Government through Town Planning and Development Board and other interested parties can assist in determining the effects and trends of housing development. Finally, this study will be useful for tertiary institutions, stakeholders and government in housing development. Particularly, the study will provide useful insight into the need to provide more on- campus accommodation. The study will reveal the haphazard nature of off-campus housing development and the negative impacts of such uncontrolled housing development on the physical and social environment of the host communities. Therefore, it will be useful for the regulatory agencies in controlling the haphazard development of off-campus housing for staff and students of tertiary education institutions in Nigeria.[email protected].[email protected].