ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF TEACHERS IN CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS INN NIGERIA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Concept of Classroom
Concept of Management
Concept of Classroom Management
Concept of Classroom Management Skills
Human Relations Theory
Behavioural Science Theory
Review of Empirical Studies
Summary of Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Design of the Study
Area of the Study
Population for the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Instrument for Data Collection
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
Summary of Major Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSIONS OF RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY
Limitations of the Study
Suggestions for Further Study
Summary of the Study
This study was carried out to assess of the role of teachers in classroom management in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone. Five research questions and two hull hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey designed for employed for the study. A sample of 353 respondents, comprising 8 Education officers, 35 principals and 310 teachers, was used for the study. A 30-itme questionnaire was administered to the 353 respondents. Real limit of numbers were used to interpreter the data while mean scores and standard deviations were used to answer the research questions. The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using the t-test statistics. The study revealed that classroom management skills are essential qualities are supposed to have; that quality performance ensure that products of educational institutions are of high quality; that classroom management skills teachers need for quality performance include command of authority through their appearance/personality, and being knowledgeable; that teachers classroom to some extent promote quality performance. Some of the strategies to be adopted to teachers’ classroom management skills include workshops, conferences, and seminars, others are acquainting teachers with the latest approaches to classroom management; and identifying and correcting areas of weakness in classroom management among teachers. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that teacher education institutions should pay more attention to imparting classroom management skills on teacher-trainees, that workshops, conferences and seminars should be regularly organized for teachers; and that school principals should supervise teachers classroom activities more effectively.
Background of the Study
Classroom Management is about creation of positive learning environments. But the concept of positive learning environment is both broad and vague. Despite educator’s concerns with the nature of classroom learning environments, few recent studies have investigated either teachers’ knowledge or practices of classroom management in positive learning environments. As such there is inadequate understanding of how teachers support both engaged learning and positive social interaction (Oakes, 2009). In this regard, so many writers and researchers have urged educators to move toward broader and more comprehensive positions on issues of classroom management in (Jones, 2006). As Jones advocates, “at its best, classroom management is not only a means to effective instruction, it has also becomes a vehicle for providing students with a sense of community and increased skills in interpersonal communication, conflict management and self control.
The most essential activity in a typical school environment is the ability to organize classroom activities and manage the behaviours of students. Teachers have the responsibility of organizing classroom activities and managing students’ behaviours in schools (Eze, 2009). As individuals or group of individuals, teachers hold a very important position in educational sector (Modebelu, 2008). They need certain classroom management skills to enable them manage students’ behaviour and ensure the maintenance of high standard in schools, since effective teaching and learning cannot be achieved in a mismanaged classroom. For instance, teachers do not use the first few days of the start of the school year to communicate rules and procedures to class members and solicit their support and cooperation, and at the same time impress on the students to be productively engaged in all learning activities. This is one of the reasons why students break rules; either because they do not know or because time is not taken to establish expectations for behaviour, rules and routine in the classroom at the beginning of the school year (Eze, 2009).
Classroom represents the environment where teaching and learning takes place. Classroom is the power-house in which the success or failure of the teaching and learning processes is generated and sustained (Wigwe, 2003). The classroom is a learning environment where all the factors conducive for learning is put in place, such as physical-sensory elements, that is lighting, colour, sound, space, furniture, among other. It does not necessarily man an empty room, it includes laboratories, workshops, open-area situations, among other (Kanu, 2002). The anticipation and objectives of formal education are normally accomplished in the classroom using a well planned curriculum through effective classroom management. Disciplinary problems occur in the classroom because, among others, teachers do not focus on controlling behaviour problems through developing and maintaining positive classroom environment that support learning, instead they emphasize their disciplinary roles.
Management is an important aspect of every organization. Ogbonnaya (2004) defined management as the co-ordination of the resources of an organization through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling all energies aimed at recording achievement of the organizational goals. Management in the classroom refers to issues of supervision, the act of handling or controlling the classroom activities successfully. Teachers take actions to create an environment that supports and facilitates both academic and non-academic learning. The ability of the classroom teachers to exercise a reasonable degree of control over students’ behaviours in the classrooms depends on the teachers’ knowledge and level of classroom management. Yet the government does not sponsor teachers to in-service training such as conferences, workshops and seminars in order to upgrade their knowledge.
Classroom management is well-informed actions taken by teachers to utilize any available resources in schools. Classroom management is the action teachers take to create an environment that supports and facilitates both academic and social emotional learning (Everton and Weinstein, 2006). Teachers’ involvement and cooperation in classroom activities help to foster and establish a productive class environment. It is based on this that Oboegbulem (2011) defined classroom management as the arrangement of students and grouping of activities into units to make for effective teaching and learning. To achieve effective teaching and learning, teachers have to exercise a high degree of control and employ strategic classroom management skills. Productive class outcome cannot be achieved in an unfavourable class environment.
Classroom management skill is an intellectual ability possessed by the teacher based on knowledge about action-situation relationships in the classrooms. Classroom management skill is an essential quality for classroom management, packaged to enhance the minimum standards required for effective classroom management (Beginningtoteach, 2012). The teacher must have quality classroom management skills in order to be an effective educator. Classroom management skill enables teachers to organize, interpret and control what is happening in the classroom. This informed why Kotter (1992) defined classroom management skills as the body of skills and competences that a teacher manifests in directing the affairs of the classroom organization. Similarly, Lewis (1995) described classroom management skill as the competences and strategies through which a teacher plans, controls and directs the activities of the classroom organization.
Classroom management skill is one of the most special skills needed by a teacher for effective teaching and classroom organization. It takes a great deal of effort and ability to handle a classroom full of students. The teacher has to be thoroughly knowledgeable in the subject he/she is handling, needs to know how to control a class and maintain discipline and order in the classroom. Oboegbulem (2011) declared that the teachers’ management tasks include control of the educational, social and physical environmental components. According to Soyouwanttoteach (2012) a teacher needs the following classroom management skills such as authority, knowledge, individualization, time-management and patience, to become a good teacher.
Classroom management skills consist of many interrelated and complex activities taken by the teacher to create a proper learning environment. According to Stronge and Hindman (2003) effective teachers monitor learning and use their findings to adjust instruction so that all students in the classroom will understand the lesson regardless of the range of the students’ abilities. Motivating students and monitoring the progress of daily work or home work is part of classroom management skills. Class environment affects the quality of teacher-student relations because such environment determines the activities that go on there and the degree of comfort under which the teacher teaches and the learners learn. The teacher, as the class manager, is expected to use his informed skills to arrange the class environment. Fry (1995) maintained that a well-arranged classroom motivates students, enhances learning and assists in recalling what is learnt.
Harris (1991) observed that one of the main concerns in setting the sitting arrangement of students in the classroom is to enable every student to see and hear properly and avoid anyone from blocking the views of others from the chalkboard. On preparation of classroom, Kemal (2009) stated that a dull, unaired, noisy and ill-prepared classroom environment negatively effects participation in activities and learning. Certain conditions and skills are therefore needed by the teacher to create a well conducive class environment. Punishment can be one of these conditions. Rich (1991) upholds that punishment should be tactically employed by the teacher to prevent adverse behaviours and to establish order in the classroom. Similarly, Brophy (1998) supported that teachers giving punishment to students whenever it is obligatory is effective in creating suitable class environment.
Giving punishment to students is one of the measures the teacher employs which aimed at curbing students’ unwanted behaviour in order to create suitable learning environment. A teacher with the knowledge of classroom management skills will always know how to curb and prevent students’ undesirable behaviour. In the opinion of Okutan (2006) teachers use skills such as posing questions, eye contact to prevent students’ undesirable behaviour. In the same vein, Basar (1999) agreed that teachers, praising and locating students when necessary as well as responding to their questions help in building up students’ interest in the lesson and creating desirable class environment. Class management skills entail many things. For Edwards (2000) managing time in the classroom to keep students on task is an important skill in maintaining good discipline.
Teachers’ knowledge of classroom management skills is inevitable in responding to the varying needs of the students. Browers and Tomic (2000) submitted that teachers who have problems with behaviour management and classroom discipline are frequently ineffective in the classroom and often report of high levels of stress and symptoms of burnout. The ability of teachers to organize classrooms and manage the behaviour of their students is critical to achieving positive educational outcomes. According to Donovan and Cross (2002) the inability of teachers to effectively manage classroom behaviours often contribute to students’ low academic achievement. The rationale behind this assertion is that teachers’ inability to effectively manage classroom behaviours makes it imperative for quality to be assured in teachers’ classroom management skills. This is because the quality of learning, among others, depends on the skills exhibited by the teachers in the classroom.
Quality performance is the process of ensuring that good standard is upheld. Mbaji, Ebirim and Akwali (2012) maintain that quality performance is the establishment of standard in various processes and activities that lead to the attainment of quality result. Quality performance is an organized way of encouraging the achievement of good and high standard. Quality performance in teachers’ classroom management skills is the practice to ensure that teachers maintain good standard in the classrooms to achieve the educational goals. Nwite (2012) maintains that quality performance in teachers’ classroom management involves a systematic management, monitoring, and evaluation of procedures adopted to measure the performance of students to ensure that best practices in instructional input and output are maintained in schools.
Quality performance involves processes of monitoring, assessing and evaluating according to agreed standard, and communicating judgment obtained to all concerned in order to ensure quality with integrity, public accountability and consistent improvement. There are several dimensions of educational standards such as infrastructural standard, curriculum or content standards, teaching and learning standards, quality including management and leadership standards, care, guidance support standards and professional standards (2004). All these dimensions of standards are the concern of quality performance.
The rationale for quality performance is to ensure that stated or pre-determined goals or targets are achieved optimally. Quality performance ensures that programme strategies are aligned with programme goals and objectives thereby assuring the quality of the outcomes.
Among the indicators of quality performance are infrastructural standards, curriculum and content standards, teaching and learning standards and management and leadership standards.
Infrastructural standards refer to the minimum physical conductions in which a recognized school should operate. These include minimum size of a classroom, minimum lighting conditions, minimum facilities in the laboratories, among others. Curriculum and content standards connote the minimum content area to be covered and the minimum facilities required for teaching and contents. The teaching and leaning standards refer to the minimum qualification and competence a teacher should possess to teach in a particular level. For instance, a junior secondary school class should be taught by a teacher who has a minimum of Nigerian certificate in Education (NCE), while a minimum of first degree in relevant subjects(s) is the minimum qualification for a teacher in senior secondary school. The leadership standards stipulates the minimum leadership practices expected of school administrators such as chanelling efforts towards improving learners’ achievements, actively engaging in school self-evaluation, having School Development Plan, (SDP) and having in place School Based Management Committee (SBMC).
Secondary school is one of the levels of Nigerian education system. Secondary education is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage (Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN), (2004). The underlining principle as articulated in the document is that secondary schools should prepare the individuals for useful living within the society and for higher education. The expectations and objectives of secondary education are normally accomplished in the classroom using a well planned curriculum through effective classroom management skills. However, according to Nwanna (2000) secondary schools are not living up to expectation in discharging its obligations. No wonder Ajayi (2002) lamented that secondary education in Nigeria is riddled with crises of various dimensions and magnitude such as overcrowding and indiscipline among students in the classrooms, all of which combine to suggest that the system is at crossroad. This being the case, one may ask whether the expectations and objectives of secondary education in Nigeria are guided by unskilled teachers and mismanaged classrooms. These abnormalities therefore, aroused the interest of the researcher to investigate the role of teachers in classroom management in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu State.
Statement of the Problem
It appears that in secondary school, the administrators, teachers, students and even the governments are not living up to expectations in discharging their obligations. Secondary schools in Nigeria are riddled with various problems such as overcrowding and indiscipline among students in the classrooms. As observed by existing situations, students’ participation in classroom’ activities seem to be negatively affected by dull, unaired, noisy and ill-prepared classroom environment. As a result of the situation, the inability of teachers to effectively manage classroom behaviours often contributes to students’ low academic achievement. Teachers whose most essential activity in a typical school environment is to organize classrooms’ activities and manage students’ unacceptable behaviours seem to be incapable of taking care of these classroom activities. Teachers’ inability to effectively manage classroom behaviours often contribute to students’ low academic achievement. Against these backdrops, it becomes questionable on the capability of teachers, using classroom management skills in promoting quality performance in secondary schools. Hence, the problem of this study seeks to investigate the the role of teachers in classroom management in secondary schools in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State. Put in question form, to what extent do teachers’ classroom management skills promote quality performance in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state?
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of teachers in classroom management in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state. Specifically, the study intends to:
- Find out the perception of teachers on classroom management skills in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state.
- Ascertain teachers’ perception of quality performance in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state.
- Identify the various classroom management skills needed by teachers for quality performance in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state.
- Examine the extent teachers’ classroom management skills promote quality performance in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state.
- Suggest measures for improving the role of teachers in classroom management in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state.
Significance of the Study
This study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the study will be anchored on the Systems theory and Human Relations theory. The study will build a theoretical framework that can be depended upon to improve teachers’ classroom management skills for quality performance in senior secondary schools. The system theory emphasizes contributions of different parts of a system to the effective functioning of the system. The study will enlighten the principals, the teachers, students and other stakeholder on the need for each to contribute effectively for the effective function of the classroom. This theory will also enlighten principals and classroom teachers to allow the students have a shared understanding about the aims of the classrooms activities.
Human Relations theory emphasizes that individuals will be encouraged to participate actively in the organization’s activities, when they are humanely treated. This theory will enlighten principals and classroom teachers to treat their students humanely to encourage them participate actively in the achievement of the schools’ objectives in particular and goals of education in general.
Practically, this study if successfully completed will benefit the school administrators, teachers, secondary school students and future researchers. The findings of this study will help school administrators in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State and beyond to gain clearer insight into the management skills especially, classroom management skills and measures for improving teachers’ classroom management skills for quality performance in schools. This will be achieved, if the ministry of education through the educational managers organize workshops and seminars for school administrators or recommend school administrators for training programmes.
Teachers will also benefit from the findings of the study because; it will help them to understand better classroom management skills that promote quality performance in schools. This will be achieved through workshops and seminars organized for teachers by the school administrators to upgrade teachers perception of classroom management skills and quality performance. The result of this study will benefit the secondary school students because; when teachers are aware of the various classroom management skills needed for assuring quality teaching and learning in schools, they will utilize these skills to enhance teaching and learning, thereby helping students to learning more and their aspirations realized. Lastly, the result of this study will be of importance to future researchers who may wish to carry out studies relating to the problem under study. Future researchers will benefit from this work, when they consult this study as a source of literature review.
Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is delimited to Enugu Education zone of Enugu state involving all principals and teachers of the thirty five public secondary schools in the zone. The content scope of this study focuses on the perception of teachers on classroom management skills and quality performance, teachers’ classroom management skills needed for quality performance, extent of teachers’ classroom management skills in promoting quality performance and measures for improving the role of teachers in classroom management in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state.
To guide this study, the following research questions was addressed.
- What are the perceptions of teachers on classroom management skills in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state?
- What are teachers’ perception of quality performance in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state?
- What are the various classroom management skills teachers need for quality performance in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state?
- To what extent do teachers’ classroom management skills promote quality performance in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state?
- What are the measures for improving the role of teachers in classroom management in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state?
The following null hypotheses are formulated to guide the study and was tested at 0.05 level of significance.
H01: There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and teachers on the one hand, and education officers on the other hand, on the extent teachers’ classroom management skills promote quality performance in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state.
H02. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and teachers on the one hand, and education officers on the other hand, on the measures for improving the role of teachers in classroom management in secondary schools in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state.
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