Attitude of University Students Towards Examination Malpractice and Its Implication on Effective Learning.
The study investigated the attitude of university students towards examination malpractice and its implication on effective learning, with special reference to Lagos state University. Three (3) research questions were used for the study with descriptive survey design adopted. Purposive sample technique and sample size of 200 respondents composed of fifty (50) lecturers and hundred and fifty (150) students were used for the study. The responses were analyzed using arithmetic mean (X). The study was reported, among other things, that population explosion, corruption, fear of examination failure, parents’ pressure, laziness on the part of the students, bring about examination fraud. It was further reported that parents’ withdrawal of their children from the affected universities, emergence of bad reputation, employers’ loss of confidence on the educational system, inadequate performance of graduates at work places and cancellation of examinations constitute the effects of examination fraud. It was recommended that adequate funding of schools, adequate re-orientation of all parties to examination fraud, safe keeping of examination question papers and answered scripts, adequate sitting arrangement of students during examinations would help to solve the menace of examination misconduct in our school system.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3 STUDY OBJECTIVES
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.5 STUDY QUESTIONS/HYPOTHESES
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
REVIEW OF RELATED AND RELEVANT LITERATURE
2.2 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS
2.3 THEORETICAL STUDIES
2.4 EMPIRICAL STUDIES
2.5 RELATED LITERATURES
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 SOURCES OF DATA
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4 SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION
3.6 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
DATA PRESENATATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 DATA PRESENTATION
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS
4.3 DATA INTERPRETATION
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.1 Background of the study
Examination is the assessment of a person’s performance when confronted with series of questions, problems or tasks set for him/her in order to ascertain the amount of knowledge that he/she has acquired, extent to which he/she is able to utilize it or the quality and effectiveness of the skills he/she has developed (Asuru, 2010). Examinations are used for various purposes in teaching and learning, prominent among which are monitoring students’ progress, promotion and certification. It also serves a formative function for diagnosis of students learning problems, for motivation and improvement of student academic performance as well as summative functions for administrative purposes.
Examination malpractice has been defined differently by educators, authors, researchers, administrators and supervisors. Onuoha (2009) defined examination malpractice as unfair practices or irregularities or infringement or irregularities during the conduct of examination. He posited that examination malpractice in recent times has become a threat to the integrity of the nation. As a cankerworm, it has eaten deep into the fabric of the education industry, thus becoming a global issue which has caused some sleepless nights to many genuine academics and scholars. In spite of the crusade made against it by the government and other lovers of education, it still grows speedily more than ever. To Ahmed (2010), examination malpractice is any act of wrongdoing or neglect that contravenes the rules and regulations of acceptable practice before, during and after an examination by any reason. Nowadays, it is not uncommon to hear people discuss examination malpractice as if it is a custom. Perpetrators of this social menace view it as an act which everybody partakes in, hence it is generally acceptable. Therefore, it is not impossible these days to see students with distinction in the west African Examination Certificate (WAEC) Senior School certificate Examination (SSCE), General certificate in Education (GCE) or the equivalent or even first class and second class upper in the universities who cannot defend the certificate. The reason behind it is nothing but examination malpractice which has sucked deep into virtually all levels of the education system. These acts are unbecoming and need to be curtailed. It is a disease; it calls for the attention of all and sundry.
Nwahunanye (2004) posited that some years back, the decision to attend secondary school was in itself a crucial vocational choice. Secondary school education has as one of its objectives; to provide education of higher level, irrespective of sex, social status, religious or ethnic background. National Policy on Education (2004) section 5 sub – section 22 (a) lamented „the extent to which these objectives are being achieved in teaching and learning in secondary schools as in every other level of education is usually appraised or evaluated through examination‟. It is also impossible for one to obtain an academic certificate after passing through an institution without being evaluated. The reverse is also the case due to the way some of our undergraduates see the pursuit of good academic certificate as a do or die affaire.
During examination periods, students prepare for the examination in different ways. Some read a month before the examination. Some still prefer using the night before the examination to write down points which they would take into the examination hall. These are mostly the category of students who do not see any reason to prepare for the exercise but rely on “expo” to succeed. In the examination halls, the perpetrators of this unwholesome act operate in divergent ways as they want to make good grades and reap where they did not sow. Examination misconduct in the hall can take the form of giraffing / peeping from another person‟s examination papers, writing on the palms, desks and piece of papers, smuggling of examination halls and so on and so forth. Outside the halls, the misconduct can take the shape of sorting of the already written examinations either through the teachers or their agents. This cankerworm has eaten deep into the fabrics of the Nigerian educational system; thereby, rending our educational institutions hopeless. They are so unbecoming that if nothing is done and no time too, our secondary school education and other levels of education will be mess.
Commenting on the issue of examination misconduct, Sumnoh (2010), remarks that government is the major cause of examination malpractice. He went further to describe the government salary system as just staving wages cities an example with the secondary school teachers. He said that if teachers were well paid, they would see no reason to aid or be involved in examination malpractice. One is not saying here that high salary and allowances will totally stop examination malpractice, it will help to curb it. However, it is pointless dragging the argument as to who is responsible for the cases of examination malpractice in our secondary schools. It is equally illogical to think that one particular group, whether students, teachers, government or the society can solve the problem of examination misconduct in our secondary schools. Those who are concerned, directly or indirectly with the educational system should share the responsibility of curbing the menace of examination misconduct in our secondary schools and other levels of education. It is not that nothing has been done on the issue of examination malpractice. The history of examination misconduct in Nigeria is quite old. The problem assumed a national character in 1967. Then a committee was set up to carry out an investigation into the explosion of examination malpractice that year. Also decree No. 25 of 1993 on examination leakage imposes a penalty of five (5) years imprisonment or an option of two thousand naira fine on any person found guilty in connection with examination leakage. Despite this, examination malpractice is still being witnessed and practiced. Its fruits are educated illiterate undergraduates.
In order to ameliorate the incidence of examination misconduct, and in fact, improve the standard of our secondary school education, it is necessary to unveil the modus operandi and multifarious strategies adopted by the perpetrators of this unwholesome and un-academic act and alert students of the ugly effects, academically and other wise. The awareness will help the authorities to check the current pervasiveness of examination malpractice in our secondary schools and other institutions of higher learning.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem which this project work is set to investigate as envisaged by the researchers is on the causes and effects of examination malpractices among students in higher institutions, especially in Lagos State University. This is important as questions have been raised concerning the issue of examination malpractice. Such questions include:
- Are there causes and effects of examination malpractice hindering our education system?
- What are those factors and in what ways have they hampered examination?
- Are these other factors hindering the educational system?
The aim of the research is to find out the answers to those questions during the research work and make efforts to examine the causes and effects of the menace called examination malpractice.
This is important because according to Umaru (2005), researches showed that more than 60% of university graduate in our society today and many undergraduates perpetrate the acts examination misconduct which has simultaneously ravaged the system and made students handicapped towards reading and ardent study. It is therefore, imperative to checkmate this ugly development in our educational industry before it rubbishes it completely.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the attitude of university students towards examination malpractice and its implication on effective learning. It also seeks to find out various methods employed by students as well as the roles by lecturers, parents, tertiary education authorities and the society at large. Basically, the study seeks to:
- Ascertain the factors that brings about examination malpractice in higher institutions;
- Ascertain the effects of examination malpractice on the performance of undergraduates;
- Ascertain appropriate control measures towards curbing examination malpractice in higher institutions.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions served as guides to the study:
- What are the factors that bring about examination malpractices?
- What are the effects of examination malpractice on the performance of undergraduates?
- What arte the control measure towards bringing about a lasting solution to examination malpractices?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The imperativeness of this study cannot be underrated. The study will be of high significance in that it will help the following categories of people in the following ways:
- The students: This study will serve as an eye opener to the students in knowing the negative effects / consequences of involving oneself the act of examination malpractice.
- The lecturers: This research work will serve as information to the lecturers on existing forms of examination malpractice / misconduct practiced by students as well as ways of controlling them. Some lecturers are no longer dedicated to their school time table. Some deliver half baked lessons. They leave their notes for students to copy. Such students copy whatever and hand it back to the lecturer who does not care whether students understand the content of the lesson or not. No students want to fail. They therefore seek for means to succeed. These students therefore engage themselves in various forms of examination malpractice.
- Education Authorities: The lecturers, the authorities will benefit immensely from this study as it will help keep them informed on the recent techniques involved in examination malpractice causes and at the same time open their eyes to the need to. School authorities on their own part do not help matters. Inability of the school authority to provide adequate facilities such as seats, electricity etc., hinder learning. A situation whereby six cluster on a seat meant for three students is just unhealthy for smooth examination.
- The government: Our government would not be left out in the list of the beneficiaries of this study. The research work will help the government to see reasons why trained and qualified lecturers should be recruited into our tertiary education, why seminars and workshops should be organized by the government for the lecturers to enable update their knowledge.
- The society / parents: This study will in no small measure assist parents and the society at large in knowing what their children and wards do in school and thus, see ways of assisting them to learn and concentrate more on their studies and depend less on external studies help during examination. Most parents and guardians do not provide the basic materials needed by their wards. Many students in our secondary schools do not have textbooks, writing materials etc. It is a well known fact that lack of needed necessary educational materials, make learning difficult let alone examination preparation.
It is of great importance to note that at the completion of this research work various secondary schools, communities, towns, states and Nigeria in general will find the result of this research work to be beneficial to great extent. It would play an essential role in the standard of education and in the task of economic growth and development. The significance of this study is to reveal the depth into which examination malpractice has plunged in higher institutions, most especially in Lagos State. It is also to discover the forms, causes, consequences and permanent cure or permanent solution to the problem.
1.6 Scope of the study
This study was carried out in order to assess the attitude of university students towards examination malpractice and its implication on effective learning. Additionally, this study is on the causes, effects and solutions of examination malpractice on the academic performance among higher institutions. It was conducted in Lagos State University.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
There is no doubt that every project work encounters on problem or the other. The researchers in the course of this work encountered the challenges. These challenges include;
- Respondents’ attitudes: this was the first problem encountered by the researchers. It was not easy to get the respondents to respond to the instrument on the ground that their school may be tagged “examination malpractice centre‟
- Time availability: The researchers found it a little cumbersome meeting together in the course of carrying out this investigation. This could be attributed to their final examination papers which rarely allow them time for sitting and discussing together.
- Finance: Finance was another factor that posed a serious challenge to the realization of this project work. Huge some of money was involved in the acquisition of materials needed for this work. Money was also spent on transportation to the place where the investigation was carried out. Photocopying, typing and retyping of the work all involved money.
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