WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Welcome! My name is Damaris I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.

Download this complete Project material titled; Balance And Stability In The Exploration Of Equestrian Forms With Charcoal In Sculpture with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

  • Format: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • pages = 65

 3,000

ABSTRACT

This study “Balance and Stability in the exploration of Equestrian Forms with Charcoal in Sculpture” seek to use charcoal to project solid balance and stability in equestrian forms with minimum contacts with the pedestals. The problem of the study is the weight of media and procedural challenges which have caused sculptors to use several points of contacts between the base and the forms for support and consequently restraining the dynamic actions of the equestrian forms. Therefore this study aimed at projecting a seeming delicate but permanent balance and stability of the equestrian form so as to grab hold of the natural qualities of its movements and actions. The research started by looking at the works of artists who had attempted to solve the problems of balance and stability in the equestrian form in their own ways which led to the evaluation of their works. However, the review indicates that the weights and complicacies of media like concrete, stone, bronze, metal, etc. could not allow the artists to express the forms with sufficient independence on the pedestals hence the use of charcoal to resolve the issue. The methodology used for this research was practice-led. The researcher made use of photographs of the mounted and free horses from different sources. Some of the photographs were taken at Zaria polo club while images and information from books, the internet, theses, journals, the magazines and motion pictures were also used. The instruments that were used for the collection of data included camera, pens, and sketch pads while the commercially available charcoal was used as the medium of expression. Data collected were analyzed in different stages i.e.; Representational Studies: this stage saw the production of sculptures that captured the equestrian forms in naturalistic manner. Transition Studies: sculptures from this category are a shift from the natural form into a simple dissection of some particular portions of the equestrian forms. Abstract Studies: this stage saw the production of
vii
sculptures that grow out from the perceived reality of the equestrian forms and metamorphose into a simple imposition of charcoal forms on one another to communicate. Different sizes of individual charcoal lumps were carefully set up until the envisaged forms were

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…………………………………………………………………………………….i Declaration…………………………………………………………………………………..ii Certification…………………………………………………………………………………iii Dedication……………………………………………………………………………………iv Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………………v Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………vi Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………….vii List of Plates…………………………………………………………………………………viii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………..1 1.1 Background to the study………………………………………………………………….1 1.2 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………………..10 1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study………………………………………………………..11 1.4 Research Question………………………………………………………………………11 1.5 Justification of the Study………………………………………………………………..12 1.6 Significance of the Study……………………………………………………………….12 1.7 Scope of the Study………………………………………………………………………12 1.8 Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………………………13 1.9 Definition of Special Terms…………………………………………………………….13 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………..15
2.1 Literature Review……………………………………………………………………….15
ix
2.2 The Analysis of the Equestrian Forms in Relationship with Balance and Stability…….15 2.3 Review of Related Works……………………………………………………………….17 Realistic Equestrian Forms………………………………………………………………….18 2.4 Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius…………………………………………………..18 2.5 The Equestrian Statue of Condottiere Gattamelatta…………………………………….19 2.6 Equestrian Statue of Alessandro Farnese………………………………………………..21 2.7 Striding Horse……………………………………………………………………………22 2.8 The Equestrian Monument of Peter the Great…………………………………………..23 2.9 Statue of Queen Amina…………………………………………………………………24 2.10 St. George and the Dragon…………………………………………………………….25 2.11 Standing Horse…………………………………………………………………………26 Stylized Equestrian Forms…………………………………………………………………..27 2.12 The Hittite Horseman…………………………………………………………………..27 2.13 Plaque with a Horse and Rider…………………………………………………………29 2.14 Assyrian Art: King Assurbanipal‟s Lion Hunt…………………………………………30 2.15 Chinggish Khaan Statue Complex…………………………………………………….. 31 2.16 Equestrian Figure on Fly-Whisk……………………………………………………….33 2.17 Horse and Jockey……………………………………………………………………….34 Charcoal Explorations……………………………………………………………………….35 2.18 Emptied Gesture………………………………………………………………………..35 2.19 Cascading Flower Vase…………………………………………………………………36 2.20 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………38
x
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………..39 3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………..39 3.2 Instruments of Data Collection…………………………………………………………39 3.3 Data Collection…………………………………………………………………………40 Images from Primary Source of Data………………………………………………………40 Images from Primary Source of Data………………………………………………………41 3.4 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………………42 Sketches…………………………………………………………………………………….42 Sketches…………………………………………………………………………………….43 3.5 Procedure……………………………………………………………………………….43 3.6 Preliminary Studio Exploration…………………………………………………………45 Process and Procedure………………………………………………………………………47 3.7 Representational Studies of the Equestrian Forms……………………………………..47 3.8 Transition Studies of the Equestrian Forms……………………………………………47 3.9 Abstract Studies of the Equestrian Forms ………………………………………………48 3.10 Finishing………………………………………………………………………………48 3.11 Limitation……………………………………………………………………………..48 3.12 Summary………………………………………………………………………………49 CHAPTER FOUR: CATALOGUE AND ANALYSES OF WORKS…………………50 4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….50 4.2 Representational Stage………………………………………………………………….50 4.3 Sword Play……………………………………………………………………………..50
xi
4.4 The Raid………………………………………………………………………………..53 4.5 Confrontation…………………………………………………………………………..55 4.6 Accusation………………………………………………………………………………57 4.7 Transition Stage…………………………………………………………………………59 4.8 Head Way………………………………………………………………………………59 4.9 The Banquet…………………………………………………………………………….61 4.10 Vigilance………………………………………………………………………………63 4.11 The Emissary…………………………………………………………………………..65 4.12 Abstract Stage………………………………………………………………………….67 4.13 Sidesaddle……………………………………………………………………………..67 4.14 The Cavalry Soldier……………………………………………………………………69 4.15 The Horseman…………………………………………………………………………71 4.16 Affinity………………………………………………………………………………..73 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION………………………………..75 5.1 Summary……………………………………………………………………………….75 5.2 Findings………………………………………………………………………………..75 5.3 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………..75 5.4 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………..76 5.5 Contributions to Knowledge ………………………………………………………….76 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………………………….77
xii
LIST OF FIGURES Figure I: The Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius……………………………………….19 Figure II: The Equestrian Statue of Condottiere Gattamelatta by Donatello ………………20 Figure III: Equestrian Statue of Alessandro by Farnese Mocchi………………………….22 Figure IV: The Striding Horse………………………………………………………………23 Figure V: Equestrian Monument of Peter the Great by Etienne Maurice Falconet………..24 Figure VI: Statue of Queen Amina by Ben Ekanem……………………………………….25 Figure VII: St. George and the Dragon……………………………………………………..26 Figure VIII: Standing Horse…………………………………………………………………27 Figure IX: The Hittite Horseman ……………………………………………………………28 Figure X: Plaque with a Horse and Rider…………………………………………………..30 Figure XI: Assyrian Art (King Assurbanipal‟s Lion Hunt)…………………………………31 Figure XII: Chinggish Khaan Statue Complex……………………………………………..33 Figure XIII: Equestrian Figure on Fly-whisk……………………………………………….34 Figure XIV: Horse and Jockey……………………………………………………………..35 Figure XV: Emptied Gesture by Heather Hansen…………………………………………..36 Figure XVI Cascading Flower Vase by Seon Ghi Bhak……………………………………37

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study The words “equus” and “eques” are Latin expressions for a horse and a knight respectively. These are the two terms from which the word “equestrian” is formed (Houghton, 2011). The term is generally used to describe an expert horse rider or any activity having to do with horseback riding, (Turnbull, 2010). On the other hand, the equestrian form is distinctively described within the sculptural field to mean a statue of a rider mounted on horse (Moore, 2011). There is a psychological unity involved in equitation which has broadened it beyond an ordinary physically mounted horse into a devoted union between man and horse. In support of this, Blake (1975), Summerhays (1952) and Collins (2012) all together establish that harmonious association and understanding between the rider and the horse are highly essential elements of the horsemanship. Therefore, the horsemanship probably implies the general exercise of a full control over the horse including an excellent knowledge and care of the horse and the riding equipments, along with a good understanding of its physical, emotional and social behaviours.
From the outset, the equestrian components had remarkably been a creative voice through which communication with the supernatural was exchanged. This is why Janson and Kerman (1968) reveal that the cave art comprises largely of animals which were beyond the physical and also regard the pre-historic artists as „‟artist-magician‟‟. In line with this theory, Ogumor (2007) specifically identifies the artistic representations of the human figures and horses along with other animals such as camels, elephants, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, giraffes, antelopes and bisons as the major archeological findings of Tassili, Algeria in North Africa. Apart from the Pre-historic era, the equestrian form could have also been of mystical significance in the ancient Greek and Roman mythologies in which there were beings that had the integrations of human
2
and animal forms, viz., centaur, satyr, medusa, siren etc. These foremost characters in the ancient Greek and Roman mythological narrations were often represented with the fusions of human and animals‟ forms. Dember and Steven (1977) further give a suitable instance with the “Centaur” who was a Greek mythical creature mentioned frequently in the Greek mythology, he was partly man and partly horse used as a fleet-footed carrier of the gods. Centaur, the female of whom was Centaurettes usually bore the form of human from the head to the waist with horse‟s form from the withers down to the hooves. These forms were in one way or the other correlated with the equestrian forms because of the similarities in components. Thus, the connection between man, horse and art appears to be a continuous development which has been transforming with time. Equestrianism is a venture whose origin is still debatable as different scholars have different perceptions about its inception. As stated by Levine (2013), horse domestication dates back to the end of the third millennium BC in the Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Eastern Europe, Western Europe or Near East. Hirst (2013), on the other hand hints the possible earliest domestication of horse to 5000 BC in Kazakhstan and later in Mesopotamia at about 2000 BC. However, the varying concepts about the beginning of the equitation have not thwarted its significant contributions to the human civilization as the earliest effective means of land transportation as well as instrument of warfare. For this reasons, equitation is possibly the initial footprint and the ancient counterpart of the modern-day automobile and even the aeronautic devices. The equestrian activity could be seen as a special blend of a resourceful relationship between human and the horse. This is why Clark (1977) opines that: Men and animals lived in harmony right from the old myths of the Golden Age, ancient Egypt and the Homeric Greece.
In the same vein, Summerhays (1952), Blake (1975), Kauffman (1978) and Daumas (1968), concurrently emphasize the cordial partnership between man and the horse which has been an
3
inspiring source of artistic expression since the ancient time to the present. The equestrian comradeship could also be compare with the linking power which Oche (2012), noted that: There is a bond that exists between persons and groups in small or large societies which results in the formation and sustenance of families, cliques, peers, community and nation. Sher et‟al (2012) further highlights the relationship between man and the equid by picturing how horses were mentioned by name in a motion picture. On the words of Blake (1975), Alexander the Great‟s closeness to his mount is shown by the fact that his horse (Bucephalus) is one of the first horses to be mentioned by name in history. Thus horse is a close partner to man and horsemanship surpasses an ordinary sport or recreational performance but a highly affectionate activity with in-depth intimacy between the partakers. Apart from the visual representation of the human form seated on horse‟s form, the equestrian form is also a metaphoric symbol of majestic grandeur, (Held and Posner 1988). Owing to this fact, most traditional and modern sculptors have used it to elevate, commemorate and immortalized heroes as seen on “Olowe of Ise‟s Veranda Post”, Kleiner and Mamiya (2005), the equestrian statue of “Queen Amina” and the “Durbar Horsemen” by Ben Ekanem, Banjoko (2005), Falconet‟s “Equestrian Statue of Peter The Great‟‟, Francesco Mocchi‟s “Equestrian Statue of Alessandro Farnese‟‟ (Held and Posner 1988). Therefore equestrian form seems to be an appropriate language of expression which most artists have found acceptable for eulogizing and the presentation of monumental commendations to icons whose lives have affected humanity in one way or the other. Consequently, Banjoko (2009) describes it as a form which best draws out a strong character and an assuring dignitary sense of a hero.
Undoubtedly, the horse had served as an instrument of combat and domination; and because of this, it is generally tagged as “the beast of oppression”. Notwithstanding this, the steed‟s outstanding abilities have now been sensibly and positively converted into the intensification of
4
the quality of the sociocultural and religious aspects of human life. For example, horse riding is now a well celebrated profession of high repute and a vital tool of unique athleticism as observed in polo, horse race, dressage, obstacle jumping, bull roping etc. In some cultures, horse riding is used for the celebrations of highly esteemed festivities such as the dubar; a highly rated traditional festival that is annually celebrated in Northern Nigeria usually at the culmination of Muslim Eid al-Fetr and Eid al-Adha. It is the Emirate procession led by the Emir after prayers with dancers and singers, (Anon. 2013). Another significance of dubar is to mark holidays or the entertainment of important visiting dignitaries and the demonstration of military strength, (Adoga 2011). The Puus Kaat cultural festival of the Mangu people of Plateau State is another festival in which the equestrian activities are spectacularly displayed. Although people also mount other animals such as the camel, donkey, cow and the elephant, but the high preference for the horse is possibly prompted by its intelligence, gracefulness, strength and agility that could effectively proffer the needed solution to man in meeting his imperative engagements and traditional happenings. These characteristics have inspired some nations, states and organizations into adopting the horse solely as a component of their symbol, especially Nigeria and New Jersey in the United States of America, (Amie 2013).
Physical balance plays a vital role in sustaining the solidity and elegant posture of the equestrian form. In line with this, Gatto (1978) broadly describes balance as an optical condition that is fundamental for the unification of a composition and it is impossible to deal with the problems of form and organization without considering it. In addition to the physical balance, the equestrian form also contains the psychological balance since Hobbs‟ (1985) lays emphasis on the importance of equalizing the visual and psychological weights of entity in art. Therefore, the psychological balance in the equestrian forms may be playing the important role of describing
5
the relative significance of the basic components of the equestrianism in sculpture, viz., man and the horse, the physical balance on the other hand deals with the issues of stability and firmness. Badaru (1990), postulates that balance is the feeling of equality in weight, attention and attraction of the various visual elements within the visual field as a means of accomplishing unity. This idea is applicable within the context of the mounted steed form due to its openness to different forms of balance in its remarkable formation. In addition to the fascinating senses of equilibrium and stability that are achieved in the equestrian form when all the visual forces of art are efficiently resolved. Reid (1964) elaborates more on balance as a process of continuous adjustment by counter balancing visual weights in a composition. While Banjoko (2009) adds that balance is the distribution of elements in art such that equal weight is given to all parts as much as visually possible. It may therefore be considered that artists have used different types of balance to achieve steadiness, harmony, excellent composition etc. The formal (symmetrical) balance, radial balance and approximate symmetry affect the essence of equestrian form in some way. However, from Brommer and Horn (1977) as well as Gilbert and McCarter, (1988) lines of reasoning which point out the informal balance as a composition that has two unequaled sides but the impression of balance is achieved through the similarities of visual weights, informal (asymmetrical) balance can be reckoned to be the most paramount balance in the equestrian form, owing to the individual volume of the equestrian elements and its dynamic actions.
Equestrian form also requires the attention of the physical and actual stability in addition to balance for self-sustainability, strength and durability. This is because stability is an important property to architecture as well as sculpture which deals majorly with free standing forms. The vital role of stability is also observed in physics and engineering because of their dealings with
6
the fabrication of hovering objects in form of flying machines. The mechanism of stability is also evident in nature since the birds and the insects seem to instinctively disperse body weights properly for stability in flight. Therefore, the impression of the actual swiftness of the equestrian form would be obstructed and rendered vulnerable to the pull of gravity without the presence of physical and actual stability. Some common ways of applying stability into a free-standing piece as suggested by Leon (2015) include the kinetics, weight regulation and the choice of media, perhaps a systematic manipulation of materials could also work out stability in the equestrian form. The proper consideration of these factors in the equestrian form usually strengthens its resistance to stress, failure, and the enablement of weight and size uniformity. Ragans (1988) observes that stable forms are motionless and static, however, stability is not actually meant to undermine or deter the vivacious actions and movements in the equestrian form since Mifflin (2011) has redressed the contention by recommending its significance in facilitating resistance to change of position, condition and gravitational mischance. Therefore, movement and action can be implied in the equestrian form while the presence of stability can serve as the factor that ensures the unchangeable permanency of the apparently delicate but firmly connecting-points of the pedestals and the equestrian forms. Adherence to the tenets of stability also aid the equestrian forms to retain their original positions. Some exceptional qualities such as weightlessness, colour, form and texture in some media are highly influential in enhancing balance, stability and illustrating the subject matter of a form. Furthermore, there is also a fascinating beauty that always stems forth from any ingenious recreation of an identifiable or an ordinary media into an innovative form. For instance, Anon. (2014), Puts forward that:
El Anatsui is an artist who transforms simple materials into complex assemblages that create distinctive visual impact. He uses resources typically
7
discarded such as liquor bottle caps and cassava graters to create sculpture that defies categorization. His use of these materials reflects his interest in reuse, transformation, and an intrinsic desire to connect to his continent while transcending the limitations of place. In the same way, Ndidi Dike also works in a variety of media to produce outstanding installations, paintings and sculptures. She is well-known for her three dimensional installations combining painting and sculpture, as well as for her wood sculpted totem poles and hanging wood reliefs (Tajudeen, 2011). In a similar manner, charcoal which is the byproduct of combusted wood is weightless with vibrant forms which can suggest solidity and strength, hence its utilization in this study as the medium of expression. The dramatic, rich markings left by charcoal which appeared in the earliest primitive cave paintings of the early humans are believed to have been drawn with the charcoal created from burnt stick, (Harris 1999). As the oldest drawing medium and one of the oldest art medium, charcoal has inspired artists from the pre-historic age down to the contemporary period. But then, other than the crude burnt sticks used in the primitive era, charcoal now comes in different forms, which according to Anaekwe (2010), includes the lump charcoal, briquettes, extruded charcoal, the compressed charcoal, vine charcoal and the powdered charcoal. The diverse explorations of the charcoal in art have made it possible for the Cave Artists, Michelangelo, Albrecht Durer, Rembrandt, Degas, Matisse, Picasso, Heather Hansen etc. to expressed gestures, lines, tones, forms and different textural qualities in brilliant and appealing ways.
The type of wood and the charcoal making methods are strong determinant factors on the quality and functions of the charcoal. The amount of oxygen and heat that is applied for the combustion of the organic matter (wood) which is expected to become charcoal in the direct method of charcoal making has to be controlled in order to prevent the wood from burning into ashes, (Gill 2007). Perhaps the outcome of this process is light and softer charcoal which often
8
emerges in smaller pieces. Gill (2007), further buttresses the indirect method as involving the use of external heat source to heat the wood in a closed and unventilated vented chamber to bring forth a high quality charcoal that is convenient for both domestic and commercial endeavours. Gorski (2007), also states the advantages of the coniferous (softwood) charcoal in generating high quality black powder and for producing long last-lasting spark trails. Thus, the application of the indirect charcoal making process on the deciduous wood could perhaps yield a harder type of charcoal most preferred for blacksmithing, forgery and barbecuing because of its long lasting blaze and the high temperature delivery. The valuable impact of charcoal that indisputably crosses over to other fields outside art has incited several concepts concerning it, which is why Anon. (1999), submits that the possible earliest use of charcoal as a fuel for smelting copper began over 7000 years ago. Although the above mentioned source does not specify the location of the earliest charcoal use as fuel but it provides more about the earliest indication of man‟s involvement with the charcoal as fuel in southern Europe and Middle East which took place in about 3,500 BC. It also happened in Egypt around 2,750 BC and thereby confirming the charcoal as one of the anchoring constituents of the early technological development.
Charcoal eating as one of the earliest forms of medication is applicable even to the animals especially the monkeys. This is because charcoal has the capacity of absorbing and deactivating the toxins contents in the Indian almond and mango which they consume, (Anon. 2009). The first recorded application of charcoal for medical purpose in the human race is said to have come from the Egyptian Papyri around 1500 BC, and the principal use appeared to be for surgical and embalming processes, (Prairie 1996). The same medical function of charcoal was later identified in Rome at 150 AD and eventually became well known for treatment in the 1800s, (Anon. 2005).
9
From this historical analysis, it appears that the charcoal‟s varied abilities have integrated art, medicine and belief to form the key subject matters of Egyptology. The common charcoal serves as fuel and energy, but in its activated form, it exhibits antibiotic functions by the consistent lowering of cholesterol level, treatment of poison, reduction of flatulence, hangover prevention and the treatment of bile flow problems (Anon. 2014). Furthermore, Anon. (2014), observes the importance of the activated charcoal as the high absorbent material with millions of tiny pores that can capture, bind and remove gas or toxins that are up to 100 times the charcoal‟s weight, the toxins are specifically the ones from low quality processed food and the environmental pollution and also helps in healthy digestion. Prairie (1996), also confirms it to be an effective purifier of food and water besides its worth in the productions of glass and the gun powder. These numerous functions are conceivably the basis for which the charcoal is being regarded as an invaluable item throughout centuries. The fast growing demand for charcoal in the international market has made the charcoal industry in Africa a vital part of the economy with suppliers barely meeting the demand in Europe, America, South Africa and Nigeria, (AbdulAzeez 2013). This has led to some unexpected results especially in Africa which were stated by Leowinata (2014) to include the impoverishment and displacement of wildlife specifically the cheetah and other big cats in the rural northern Tanzania and other Swahili villages. It is similarly observed that the spreading need for cooking fuel and other commercial needs has spark of charcoal production in some Northern and Middle Belt states of Nigeria such as Bauchi, Taraba, Gombe Nassarawa and Benue states which are endowed with natural vegetation. Although this may seems to be economically rational and worthwhile but it could also be a cause of environmental depletion and loss of nutrients; hence making the ecological system untenable for man and wildlife.
10
Balance is a principle of life because every animal must balance breathing in and breathing out. Similarly, the earth stays in its orbit because the pull of the sun is balance by the earth‟s spin, (Ragans, 1988). These concepts have inspired Seon Ghi Bahk to use charcoal to tackle the matter of balance by repurposing them to form a series of sculptural works composed across a three-dimensional space, giving the illusion of uniquely-shaped charcoal makes for an interestingly fragile sculpture with a coarse texture as seen in Fig: XVI below. Even as Bhak uses charcoal to tackle balance in architectural forms, the equestrian form remains notoriously difficult to render in either stone or bronze and many sculptors experience technical difficulties of balance and weight-support while creating it. Therefore, it‟s in this light that this study seeks to use the charcoal as a medium owing to its rough texture that can suggest the movement of forms and its weightlessness in order to achieve seemingly delicate balance and stability in the equestrian forms by minimizing their points of contacts with the pedestals. 1.2 Statement of the Problem
Several sculptors like Alexander Calder, Badaru A. Kehinde, Seon Ghi Bhak, etc. have succeeded in achieving balance and stability in kinetic forms, architectural forms, geometric forms etc. But when carrying out the equestrian forms, sculptors had always encountered procedural challenges caused by the weights of the media of expression and the physical features of the horse‟s slim legs, though, powerfully firm enough to carry its massive upper body and the rider in reality. Until recently, these factors had instigated many sculptors into the monotonous use of a number of bulky points of contact between the equestrian forms and the pedestals to achieve balance and stability when expressing the equestrian forms. Consequently, the above restrained the lively actions of the forms applied by the sculptors who appear not to have considered stretching out the charcoal beyond its conventional function of drawing and sketching
11
in the two-dimensional art into sculpture to resolve the problem of balance and stability in the equestrian forms. 1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study The aim of this study is to produce sculptures of the equestrian forms using charcoal to achieve balance and stability, while the objectives are to:
1. Project delicate balance and stability in the equestrian forms with charcoal in sculpture.
2. Use charcoal to explore the dynamic motions and actions of the equestrian forms in sculpture.
3. Utilize the light weight of charcoal to restrain the overstressing dependence of the equestrian forms on pedestal in sculpture.
1.4 Research Questions
1. How can charcoal be used in sculpture to project delicate balance and stability in the equestrian forms?
2. In what way can charcoal be used to explore the dynamic motions and actions of the equestrian forms in sculpture?
3. How can the light weight of charcoal be maneuver in sculpture to create balance and stability in action packed equestrian forms with restrain contacts and dependence on the understructures?
1.5 Justification of the Study
This study is justified through its input to the equestrian forms by employing charcoal as a medium of expression to create firmly balanced forms of the equitation with limited
12
dependence on the base areas. In other words this study is justified by its effort in spreading out the usefulness of charcoal as an artistic medium of expression from two-dimensional art to three-dimensional art in order to reduce the linkage of the equestrian forms to base and to encapsulate the actual elegance and liveliness of the equestrian strides and actions in sculpture. 1.6 Significance of the Study The exploration of the possibilities of creating balance and stability in the equestrian forms with diminution of numerous contacts on base is hoped to further reduce the excessive dependability of the equestrian forms on the base for a fresh aesthetic appreciation. This is to enhance the visual relationship of the equestrian forms with the tree dimensional space. This study also hopes to be a pointer to sculptors to return to the wholesomeness and excellent serenity of nature with the purpose of exploring the relationship between man and other creatures in this age of mechanization and automation. Furthermore, the study encourages additional approaches in the use of charcoal for the creation of sculptures. 1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study The scope of this study is delimited to the use of charcoal on mild steel rod armatures as the skeletal frame works to create active equestrian forms that are asymmetrically positioned on minimum points of contact to the pedestals to achieve balance and stability. 1.8 Conceptual Framework
13
The conceptual framework for the research is based on Hobbs‟ (1985) findings which acknowledge that the materials with which a work of visual art is created affect its forms as much as the visual elements and principles. He also states that each material requires the artist to work in a different way and the end product always offers the viewers satisfaction from the appreciation of its form. Therefore a sculptural medium can inspires form, texture, colour and balance which always harmonize with the essence of aesthetics. In the light of these, the researcher is directed towards the exploration of the equestrian forms using the vibrant qualities of charcoal, especially texture, form and weightlessness to project a delicate balance in the equestrian forms in sculpture. 1.9 Definitions of Special Terms Bucephalus: the name of Alexander the Great‟s horse. Centaurettes: (female centaur), she was an ancient Greece‟s mythological creature usually portrays as half horse and half woman. Dogon: West African Niger Congo language of Mali and Burkina Faso. Dubar: the traditional and religious festivals held in most northern states of Nigeria by the Hausa and Fulani, usually characterized by horse riding, music and processions in commemoration of the Eid-al-fetr and Eid al-Adha. Eid al-Adha: (“Feast of the Sacrifice”), the Muslim religious festival that commemorates the willingness of the patriarch Abraham to sacrifice his son Ishmael at the command of Allah (God). Eid al-Fetr: (“Feast of fast Breaking”), the three-day Muslim religious festival that follows Ramadan, the month of fasting. Eques: the Latin word for the knight.
14
Equid: a member of the family of animals that include horses, donkeys, and zebras. Equus: the Latin word for the horse. Tassili: the geographical location in Algeria, North Africa where some of the pre-historic artistic findings were discovered. Puus Kaat: (“Day of Gathering”), the traditional festival of the Mwaghavul people of the central Plateau state in Nigeria which usually features horse riding, dances, music, cultural displays etc. Mangu: a geographical location in the central Plateau state of Nigeria that is occupied majorly by the Mwaghavul speaking people. Queen Amina: the 15th century Military ruler of the Hausa city-state of Zazzau (Zaria) city in Kaduna state, Northern Nigeria. She elevated the Zaria City to prominence through her brilliant military exploits during her reign.

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT»
Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 08060082010, 08107932631, 08157509410 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: edustoreng@gmail.com