Deregulation has been a blessing to all Nigerians because it makes private investors to establish their own television station in Nigeria. This project examines “Broadcast Deregulation and Efficient Information Dissemination in Nigeria. (A Study of NTA and ITV Benin). Four research questions were for formulated for this study, A total number of 371,106 was the population of Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. The purposive sampling procedure was used to select the respondents by the researcher to the get the sampling size which is 150. Findings of the study reveal that, Deregulation of Broadcast Media Station has increased and make news readily available to all the people of Ikpoba Okha. The recommended among others, that government should encourage deregulation to promote efficient information.
1.1 Background of the Study
The broadcast media is made up of radio and television. They are both medium for education, entertainment and advertisement.
According to Oroh cited chester et al (1971,p:4) defined broadcast as the transmission of signal capable of being received frequencies, usually or visually or both by the general public.
However, Radio broadcast came through the British Empire service from Daventry England. Soon after that year, the Lagos station began to experiment with rediffusion service in 1932. The Nigeria posts and telegraphs department was given the distribution of programmes to subscribers in Lagos, Kano and Ibadan. This was to operate in conjunction with the Empire Broadcast Service.
In 1936, Radio finally made its debute when the first Radio distribution service (rediffusion) was opened in Lagos as a means of distributing programmes originating from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in London as part of its overseas service.
Television came into this country through regional initiative, according to okunna citing okenwa (1993)
The politics of Nigeria just before independence place
more emphasis On developing in regions, the innovation
that was to enhance the pace of Region development.
Over the years, Nigeria television broadcasting industry was in the hand of government control.
However, upon deregulation of television broadcast in Nigeria media have risen so far, have chosen to a line that is similar to that of Nigeria Television Authority (NTA), quality is generally poor, perhaps with the singular inception of AIT (African Independent Television is also boring and of course, no serious plan is made in the area of developing contents.)
A major boost for the growth and development of broadcasting in Nigeria was the deregulation of Broadcast media landscape, via the promulgation of decree No. 38 of 1992 (now act of parliament) establishing the Nigeria Broadcasting Commission (NBC).
Television broadcasting began in Nigeria in October in 1959 through the government of then western region. It was known as Western Nigeria Television (WNT) ibadan for both Nigerians and African as a whole. Eventually, all other regions started their television broadcasting station there after.
However, the federal Government at a stage look over the control of television broadcast in Nigeria and the name was changed from a regional name to the Nigeria Television Authority with full powers. Deregulation has been a blessing to all Nigerians because it makes private investors to establish their own television station in Nigeria. Deregulation of broadcast media could be said to have begun in 1992 when Nigerian Broadcasting commission (NBC) was set up. This brought to an end to government (state and federal monopoly). Since then Nigerian Broadcasting gave license to many private Radio and television Station.
The major reasons for government control of broadcast according to Okunna (2006).
Is based on the fact that the air waves (Electro Magnetic spectrum) are scarce public resource which can only be controlled and best suitable for serving the public good.
Through the years, the broadcast media has been controlled solely by the federal government, even though the introduction of television was made possible through regional government. Due to the populace, the then military government of president Ibrahim Babamose Babagida (IBB) granted and approved license for private broadcast media in Nigeria with the establishment of Nigeria broadcasting council (NBC) via decree 38 of 1992. Since then, many private broadcasting houses sprang up. Some of these private media include, ITV, AIT, MINAJ, GALAXY etc .This is to ensure that information is well disseminated effectively to the society. The issue now is how has this been achieved? Could it be said that after some years of deregulation, that the society still avail for more information from the public in spite of deregulation? This is what the study will like to find out.
Nigeria Television Authority (NTA), Benin
Television broadcasting in Nigeria operates under the provision of the Nigeria television Authority (NTA). The only deviations came during the second republic (1997-1983). When some state based on the provisions of the 1979 constitution that radio and television broadcasting a concurrent subject between the federal and state governments, established their own stations that were independent of the NTA structure, control and management. Other wise, the Authority is vested with a wide range of power to supervise television industry in the country. On April, 1977, the Nigeria federal military government formally promulgated a decree establishing NTA decree makes the Authority a policy making body , made up of sixteen members a chairman , the chairman of the six zonal boards , a director general , a representative of woman ‘s organizations and people with experience from each of the following areas. The mass media arts and culture management, engineering, financial matters and education.
The NTA was established to restore order out of chaos, to restore a sense of national destiny and propagate common culture boards, through television broadcasting, among all the ethnic groups in Nigeria. And also to ensure that the services which it provides reflect the unity of Nigeria as a federation and at the same time gives adequate expression to the culture characteristics and affairs to each state, zones, or other part of the federation.
The additional functions of the Authority among others include
1) To place and coordinate the activities of the entire television network.
2) To estimate and operate a formular for sharing funds among stations.
3) To act as liaison between the federal government and the zonal operation.
4) To provide other persons with and receive from them matters to be broadcast.
The ITV was established on 26th June 1995 by Sir Chief Dr. Gabriel Osawaru Igbinedion. It got her license from president Ibrahim Babamose Babaginda. The station came to air on 27th March 1997 operating on UHF channel 22 in Benin City, Edo State. The logo of the station is “Certainly the Best”. As it was the first private broadcasting station to be granted license in Nigeria.
The station is made up of seven departments. The department includes Administration and Human Resources, Engineering programmes, General Operations, Commercial marketing, Accounts, Training and Manpower Development.
Since then, they have been presenting wonderfully in the area of information dissemination, entertainment, education and other area of interest in the station and international level.
1.2Statement of the Problem
Deregulation is imperative in the dissemination of information, thereby allowing a free flow of information across every look and cronies. It is a statement that governments have deregulated broadcast media as the information dissemination is still scanty. Some private broadcast station now turns it to campaign forum for political activities for themselves or their cronies. Is this the aim of deregulation? This is of the problem confronting the media practitioner in Nigeria. The influence of ownership of this private media house cannot be ignored as they need to be protected perhaps, setting up media house by their might not only be for information dissemination but for their interest. Therefore, the statement the problem is how can the media practitioner ensures free flow of information
1.3Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to ascertain broadcast deregulation and efficient information dissemination in Nigeria, using NTA and ITV as a case study.
1) To examine the impact of the emergency and growth of deregulation of broadcasting media on broadcasting station improvement in Edo State.
2) To study whether deregulation of broadcasting serve as watching on government activities in Edo state
3) To know if deregulation of broadcasting media has contributed to the development of Edo state
4) To study if the people of Edo state prefer deregulation of media to government owned media
1.4 Research Question
1) Has the emergency and growth of broadcasting media improved broadcasting station in Edo state?
2) Has deregulation of broadcasting station serve as watch dog on government activities in Edo state?
3) Has deregulation contributed to the development of Edo state?
4) Do people of Edo state prefer private media to government owned media?
1.5 Scope / Limitation of the Study
The research has been narrowed down to NTA and ITV in Benin City Edo state. Since it is not only difficult but also impossible to study the impact of deregulation in all 36 state of the federation compare to the time available for this work and other necessary material.
The major problem of this study is that of time factor. The time under which this study was carried out was too short for the researcher to do a thorough and more comprehensive research work. This study was done coupled with academic stress and this may have resulted in some minor faults in the study. Financial problem, Ability to raise money for the project work was a big challenge.
1.6 Significance of study
This work is significance because it will benefit the general public to know the reason and benefit of deregulation of broadcasting industry.
Government: it will enable the government through NBC and need to sanitize and regulate multitude of broadcasting station.
Media House: Broadcast Media will see the need to repack their programme as they are competition among broadcast outfit for both audience and Adventism.
The research work is to examine whether the aim of deregulation of broadcast media is achieved or not. And to find out what hindrance they are faced with in achieving their aim. Also to determine that the deregulation of broadcast media have been able to allow free information flow.