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Breast management is a monthly examination a woman can perform by herself to check for breast cancer, Breast management is cheap and not painful, however it is dependent on the knowledge and attitude of women and young girls towards it. This study was carried out to assess the causes, management and perception of breast cancer among female students in the Delta State University.
A sample size of two hundred students was drawn from the population of study. A questionnaire was developed and used for collection of data. The data was analysed using frequency counts and percentages.

The findings revealed that there is a high level of awareness of breast cancer and Breast management among the fresh students, the knowledge of BSE is inadequate among the students and the knowledge of the symptoms of breast cancer to watch out for during BSE is also inadequate. It was recommended among other things that curriculum planners should include the teaching of Breast management in senior secondary school health education curriculum and workshops and training should be organized for teachers to enable them give adequate information to the students.



1.1 Background To The Study 

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancer in the world among women. It is considered as the world’s leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Today studies have shown that one in every eight women is likely to develop breast cancer at some point in their life (Isara and Ojedokun, 2011). Although breast cancer usually develops in after the age of 45, the age range has rapidly decreased and younger women in their early 20s are beginning to develop the disease. Cancer in younger women are generally more aggressive and can result in low survival rates making early detection to be very important.

Most of the deaths from breast cancer are accounted for in developing countries due to lack of early detection programs, lack of adequate diagnosis and treatment facilities. This deficiency has led to many women presenting the disease in the late stages which provides very few chances of survival.

The two components of early detection of breast cancer are health education to promote early diagnosis and screening (Isara and Ojedokun, 2011). Early diagnosis makes women to have more treatment options and a chance of long term survival. This can be done with the use of Breast management (BSE), clinical Breast management (CBE) and mammogram. In developing countries, BSE is seen to be a simple inexpensive, non-invasive and non-hazardous intervention that also encourage women to take responsibility for their health (Narimah 1999).

The practice of Breast management has been suggested as part of the health promotion strategies that can help women and young girls to be familiar with there breast, its structure and how their normal breast should feel like, thereby increasing their sensitivity to detect any abnormalities in their breast. Breast management is cheap and not painful, however it is dependent on the knowledge and attitude of women and young girls towards it.


Adolescence is a transition period between childhood and adulthood and during this period significant changes occur in the body. Studies in Nigeria have shown that women and young girls have poor knowledge of breast cancer and its risk factors (Salaudeen, Akande and Musa, 2009). The adolescence period is a time that provides teaching opportunities for shaping health behaviors into adulthood. Most of the fresh undergraduate students are adolescents that need to be taught the importance of Breast management and how to practice it in order to encourage positive behaviors towards BSE and seeking professional help when needed.

The need to assess the causes, management and perception of breast cancer among female students is to promote breast cancer awareness, self-care (an attitude that is fostered early in life) and change the behavior if students towards Breast management through health education.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

Breast cancer which is an increasing cause of death amongst women around the world can be detected early enough through regular Breast management. Despite the measures put in place to detect the disease at the early stage, the prevalence and late detection of breast cancer is still on the increase. Breast management can only be practice regularly if the people are aware of the disease, the importance of Breast management and how to perform it.


1.3 Research questions

  1. What is the level of knowledge of female undergraduate students on the causes of breast cancer?
  2. What is their source of in formation about breast cancer?
  3. What is their preferred early breast cancer management method?


1.4 Objectives of the study

  1. Assess the female undergraduate students’ knowledge about the causes of breast cancer
  2. Determine their source of information about breast cancer
  3. Assess their preferred breast cancer management measures


1.5 Significance Of The Study

It will enable curriculum planners to know what should be in the secondary school health education curriculum.

It would help health education teachers to device health education materials and manuals that would improve the the teaching strategies for Breast management.

1.6 Delimitation Of The Study

This study was limited to the female undergraduate students of the faculty of social sciences, Delta State University, Abraka. Where the researcher is familiar with the environment and is likely to gain access to the population to be studied.

1.7 Limitations Of The Study

It was difficult to make generalization from the findings of the study because of the sample size, as the researcher was not able to utilize all members of the population of study.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

Breast management: This refers to a monthly examination a woman can do by herself to check for a lump or signs of breast cancer. It involves manual palpitation of the breast while standing or lying down.

Breast cancer: It is an uncontrolled growth of breast cells that forms a tumor in the breast.

is low among males as M: F ratio is 1:80 which is similar to reports from other countries such as Finland, Norway and Philippine.

Information derived from this study has added to existing literature on the knowledge of female undergraduates about breast cancer and their preferred early breast cancer detection measures. It is anticipated that findings from this study will also suggest directions on how best to raise awareness and knowledge level and improve utilisation of breast cancer early detection screening methods among this subject group and the general populace.

The research findings can also be useful in planning, organising and implementing interventions to fill up discovered gaps in knowledge of breast cancer and ending poor behaviours, choice, practices, and perceptions increasing breast cancer prevalence and mortality. So far, there is no published work found in Edo State that assesses female university students’ knowledge of breast cancer and preference of early detection screening methods. It is also important to assess preferred management measures (EDM) of young women who are not medically recommended for mammography. The study will provide answers to the research questions below.


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