Challenges Facing Small And Large Scale Organizations In Nigeria. Case Study Indomie Foods And Pepperoni
This study was on Challenges facing small and large scale organizations in Nigeria. Case study indomie foods and pepperoni. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected indomie foods and pepperoni in Abuja. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made managers, secretaries, sales representatives and junior staffs were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
- Background of the study
Small and large scale organization are largely viewed as the engine wire of any nation’s economic growth and they are regarded as justifiable means that propel development globally. Small and large scale are labour intensive; as much as they are capital saving business ventures. They are capable of making people self-reliant and generating billions of new jobs globally (Abeh, 2017a,b; Kadiri, 2012). They are also observed as the key drivers to economic growth and poverty reduction (Agwu & Emeti, 2014). Small and large scale are significant parts that links, strengthen and enhances the development of the countries. Their performance and growth in manufacturing, agriculture, services, etc., has been considered as the drivers and has contributed to the Nigeria economy. Sustainable growth and the increase in Small and large scale performance create competitiveness that opens numerous doors for employment opportunities, tangible and intangible assets (investment) in the environment (Eniola & Ektebang, 2014). Historically, Nigeria’s independence in 1960 marked a turning point in the growth and development of Small and large scale, which has created much of the emphasis on Small and large scale as panacea in the reduction of poverty and joblessness or unemployment in Nigeria as a whole. The adoption of the Economic Reform Program (ERP) of 1986 indicated a pivotal shift from impressive, capital intensive and large scale industrial projects based on import substitution to small scale industries with enormous potentials for the development of domestic linkages for sustainable economic and industrial development (Agwu & Emeti, 2014). As such, Small and large scale perform very important part of the Nigerian economy (Eniola & Ektebang, 2014). Though, Small and large scale have developed over the years in Nigeria in spite of its challenges.
Dr. Ade Oyedijo, a financial expert in a paper titled “Nigeria’s Economy and its Career Promise for the Mature Employee” affirmed that the plights of Small and large scale in Nigeria have to do with key variables and challenges that characterise the nation’s economy. These include but are not limited to a very high unemployment rate, which is expected to increase as a result of the current ongoing public sector reforms, high unemployment rate, high poverty level, disease, hunger, etc. Dr. Oyedijo also mentioned a drastic shift from the production of non-oil traded goods (mostly agricultural) to traded goods while about 95 million Nigerians are reported to be living below the poverty line even as 19 of her citizens are ranked among the 500 wealthiest men in modern capitalist economy as among the characteristics of our nation’s economy which aggravate the problems of Nigerian Small and large scale. He also opined that since independence, the main thrust of Nigeria’s development strategies and objectives have been the development of industrialization, education and a self-reliant economy but regretted that the human capital which is expected to support the industrialization process and propel other sectors to maturity has not exhibited the right mix of knowledge, attitude and skills required to achieve this purpose.
In spite of the fact that Small and large scale have been regarded as the bulwark for employment generation and technological development in Nigeria, the sector nevertheless has had its own fair share of neglect with concomitant unsavoury impacts on the economy. In a seminar titled “Carer Crisis and Financial Distress- The Way Out”, the General Manager of Enterprise and Financial Support Company Limited, Mr. Oluseyi Oluboba, identified in his paper the following as the main problems of Small and large scale, which are however not insurmountable: low level of entrepreneurial skills, poor management practices, constrained access to money and capital markets, low equity participation from the promoters because of insufficient personal savings due to their level of poverty and low return on investment, inadequate equity capital, poor infrastructural facilities, high rate of enterprise mortality, shortages of skilled manpower, multiplicity of regulatory agencies and overbearing operating environment, societal and attitudinal problems, integrity and transparency problems, restricted market access, lack of skills in international trade; bureaucracy, lack of access to information given that it is costly, time consuming and complicated at times. The problems and challenges that Small and large scale contend with are enormous no doubt but it is curious to know that some Small and large scale are able to overcome them. This gives hope and should provide a basis for optimism that there is a way out. There must be some survival strategies, which are not known to many Small and large scale promoters. This research is also intended to explore and unravel some of the key business survival strategies, which have worked for a few thriving Small and large scale. The benefits of this could be tremendous in that other Small and large scale facing threats of extermination as well as new and proposed new ones could also borrow a leaf from them.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In running effective Small and large scale in Nigeria, efficient and effective managerial skills are required. Many Small and large scale lack the basic skills, techniques and aptitude to successfully operate a business. The managerial skills and talents necessary for planning, organizing, directing and controlling both the human and material resources are essential components of effectively running a business outfit. The study of Ololube and Uzorka (2008) showed that Small and large scale are unable to employ and maintain highly skilled workers because of their small sizes and the limited capital available. Skilled personnel like accountants and managers that are meant to be employed by Small and large scale are not engaged partly due of financial problems. This has resulted in poor accounting and financial management practices experienced by Small and large scale in Nigeria. Also Beckman (2008) contend that most of the problems of Small and large scale are external to it, among them are those related to capital shortage, taxation and regulations, product liability patent and franchising abuses. The internal problems of Small and large scale in Nigeria include: inadequate working capital, stiff competition from larger companies, difficulties in sourcing raw materials, low capacity utilization, lack of management strategies, poor educational background of operators, and huge financial problems while the external problems include: policy inconsistencies, multiple taxation, harsh regulatory requirements and trade groups. This study use indomie foods and pepperoni as a case study
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
- To find out the challenges facing indomie foods and pepperoni
- To Find out the factors that determine the growth of small and large scale organization in Nigeria
- To analyze the effect of the challenges on the growth of indomie foods and pepperoni
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there are no challenges facing indomie foods and pepperoni.
H1: there are challenges facing indomie foods and pepperoni.
H02: there are no factors that determine the growth of small and large scale organization in Nigeria
H2: there are factors that determine the growth of small and large scale organization in Nigeria
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is important because several advantages accrue to the small and large scale organizations. These include the development of the entrepreneurial spirit, employment generation for entrepreneurs; promotion of savings potential and investment ratio. Skill culture is increased as more people seek apprenticeship in preparation for self-employment.
The study will enable the government small and large scale organizations to come up with policies that will improve the management of small-scale business
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers Challenges facing small and large scale organizations in Nigeria. Case study indomie foods and pepperoni. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study
DEFINITION OF TERMS
CHALLENGES: A challenge is something that puts you to the test like running your first marathon or reading War and Peace. Challenge, as a verb, is derived from a Latin word meaning “to accuse falsely,” and it is still used much as it was in the 13th century, in the sense of questioning whether something is true or right
LARGE SCALE BUSINESS: Large-scale businesses: have more employees, in more complex management hierarchy than in the medium-scale businesses. They have great number of business operations daily. As rule such businesses are characterized by a large number of clients, business contacts, and great volume of business communication.
SMALL SCALE BUSINESS: a small-scale business is typically described as an enterprise with a small number of employees, a relatively low sales volume, and is usually privately owned with most of the profits going to the owner. These businesses also typically serve a small community and see low turnover in staff