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Characteristics of Solid Waste in Akure, Ondo State

ABSTRACT

This study assesses the characteristics of solid wastes in Akure, Ondo State. Specifically, the study examines the nature and composition of solid wastes in Akure, Ondo State, examines the types of containers used in the collection of solid wastes in Akure, Ondo State, identifies the available waste disposal methods within Akure, Ondo State, determines whether Akure residents in Ondo State dispose of their solid wastes regularly, examines the efforts of the Ondo State government is putting effort in the reduction of  solid wastes in Akure, finds out the solid waste  management  constraints and problems facing the local agencies responsible for solid waste disposal in Akure, Ondo State and finds out the strategies towards improvement of solid waste disposal in Akure, Ondo State. The study employs the survey descriptive research design. A total of 259 responses were validated from the survey. The study adopts the learning theory. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that the nature and composition of solid wastes in Akure, Ondo State include vegetable and food remains, polythene bags, plastics, metal waste and paper wastes. Furthermore, the findings reveals that it was deduced that indeed Akure residents in Ondo State dispose of their solid wastes regularly. The study recommends that the management of urban solid waste is a vital social function for the protection of the environment and the public’s health. Therefore, money should be allocated to the least expensive and most suitable technology solution for risk-free management.

Keywords: Characteristics, Solid Waste

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

Solid Waste is one of the most daunting environmental sanitation concerns confronting the globe today, and despite massive expenditures in the industry, it has consistently declined (African Union 2015). In today’s world, many goods are intended to be used once and then discarded. Many of our consumers’ habits are defined by single-use packaging and throwaway goods. According to Negm & Shareef (2020), waste problems are a society’s reflection. There is a strong relationship between a society’s economic, historical, cultural, and environmental conditions and its state. These factors vary by country, city, or community, just as waste concerns do. Understanding the status of a civilization consequently leads to an appreciation of the waste issues that exist in that society. In contrast, it is feasible to determine the condition of a civilization by examining its garbage problems (Negm, & Shareef, 2020).

Waste management issues are constantly on the rise. Due to its negative environmental consequences, Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a worldwide demanding issue, especially in developing nations (Zainu, & Songip 2017). The development of solid wastes is a critical environmental issue in developing nations, as well as a major worry in wealthy ones due to the environmental problems that result from its improper management and disposal. Globally, the creation of solid waste is mostly driven by population expansion, technological advancements, and economic growth. As new subdivisions are developed, urbanization has led to a rise in the output of garbage from residential sites, private and public utility facilities, and building and demolition operations (Katiyar, 2016). In recent years, this has garnered the interest of academics in both wealthy and developing nations. However, while waste generation in the developed world is managed effectively through the implementation of consistent waste policies, waste generation in developing countries of the global south, particularly Nigeria, is not managed effectively due to the absence of effective implementation of consistent waste policies. This has made solid waste management the most urgent environmental issue in Nigerian cities.

Ikott, (2022), notes that the management of solid waste has become one of the main difficulties for state and local government environmental protection organizations in Nigeria. The volume of solid waste created continues to expand at a quicker rate than the agencies’ capacity to raise the financial and technical resources required to keep pace with this expansion. Ineffective collection techniques, inadequate coverage of the collection system, and poor disposal of solid waste define solid waste management in Nigeria. The amount of solid waste created in metropolitan centers of industrialized nations is more than in developing nations, although solid waste management in the latter remains inadequate (Katiyar, 2016). In developing nations, solid waste differs from that of developed nations. Most developing nations, including Nigeria, have solid waste management issues that differ from those of developed nations in terms of composition, density, political and economic framework, waste quantity, availability to garbage collection, awareness and attitude. In emerging cities, garbage is heavier, wetter, and more corrosive than in industrialized areas.

In the past, the focus has been on the technical features of various collection and disposal methods (World Bank, 2020), but more recently, the emphasis has shifted to increasing institutional arrangement to service delivery, with a particular emphasis on privatization (Ikott, 2022). Currently, Nigeria is experimenting with the privatization of this industry. In seven Nigerian cities, the Federal Government has implemented the National Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management Intervention Programme. Maiduguri, Kano, Kaduna, Onitsha, Uyo, Ota, and Lagos are the seven cities. Various state governments have developed solid waste management organizations and regulations to include private sector participation in garbage collection and transfer to approved landfills.

  • Statement of the Problem

Numerous connoisseurs from diverse developing country cities have raised grave worries about inappropriate waste treatment and disposal in these nations (Zainu, & Songip 2017). Local administrations are responsible for solid waste management in the majority of developing nations. These services consist of garbage collection (from houses or district collection stations) and disposal. In the majority of situations, these local governments are only able to provide a limited service due to their inadequate financial resources and human resource capabilities (Setiawan, Djunaidi, Munawir, & Putra 2019).

According to Adewumi (2017), Nigeria, along with other emerging nations, is experiencing an unprecedented increase in urban centers. This growth rate is among the greatest in the world, topping 6,5 percent every year. This growth rate has ramifications for all socioeconomic and cultural aspects of people’s lives. Among these consequences are strain on urban facilities, substandard housing conditions, unemployment, crime and violence, transportation congestion, and environmental issues.

The mountains of uncollected waste carelessly deposited on vacant lots, in open areas, and in channels are proof of this. These open waste collection points create significant environmental issues, such as contamination of water resources, production of methane from the decomposition of organic waste, which contributes to global warming, and production of solid leachates from organic processes, which contaminate groundwater resources (Adewumi 2017).

Regardless, this might be linked to the inability of Local Governments and Environmental Authorities to manage the increase in solid waste creation caused by population development, urbanization, and industrialisation. These processes have caused significant environmental and public health concerns in metropolitan areas and have created a great deal of demand (Ezechi, Nwabuko, Enyinnaya & Babington 2017).

The general consensus is that the majority of communities in Nigeria have inadequate solid waste management plans. However, the situation varies between regions and administrations at various levels. In Akure, the capital of Ondo State, for instance, a great deal of work has been devoted to proper municipal solid waste management. In 1999, the Ondo State Garbage Management Authority was established to oversee and manage solid waste in all parts of the state, including Akure, the state capital. In Akure, the Ondo State Garbage Management Authority is responsible for providing rubbish disposal containers, cleaning the streets, collecting and transporting waste, and partnering with private waste collectors. Despite the establishment of the Ondo State Waste Management Authority in 1999, solid waste management in the state is characterized by poor collection techniques, limited coverage of the collection system, and incorrect disposal of solid waste, according to research (Adewumi, Ogedengbe, Adepetu & Fabiyi 2018).

The content of waste output has been impacted by wealth, population, and economic expansion, resulting in a rapid increase in garbage production. In addition, the amount of waste produced varied based on the season, social behavior, culture, industrial production, size of the waste material market, and urbanization level. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to characterize solid waste in Akure, Ondo State and to determine how to effectively manage it.

  • Purpose of the Study

The broad aim of this study is to examine the characteristics of solid waste in Akure, Ondo State. Specific objectives of this study are to:

  1. Examine the nature and composition of solid wastes in Akure, Ondo State.
  2. Examine the types of containers used in the collection of solid wastes in Akure, Ondo State.
  • Identify the available waste disposal methods within Akure, Ondo State.
  1. Determine whether Akure residents in Ondo State dispose of their solid wastes regularly.
  2. Examine the efforts of the Ondo State government is putting effort in the reduction of solid wastes in Akure.
  3. Find out the solid waste management  constraints and  problems facing the local agencies responsible for solid waste disposal in Akure, Ondo State.
  • Find out the strategies towards improvement of solid waste disposal in Akure, Ondo State.
    • Research Questions and Hypotheses

The following research questions which are in line with the objectives of the study will be answered:

  1. What is the nature and composition of solid wastes in Akure, Ondo State?
  2. What type of containers used in the collection of solid wastes in Akure, Ondo State?
  • What are the available waste disposal methods within Akure, Ondo State?
  1. Do Akure residents in Ondo State dispose of their solid wastes regularly?
  2. What are the efforts of the Ondo State government is putting effort in the reduction of solid wastes in Akure?
  3. What are the solid waste management constraints and problems facing the local agencies responsible for solid waste disposal in Akure, Ondo State?
  • What are the strategies towards improvement of solid waste disposal in Akure, Ondo State?

Research Hypotheses

To further the effectiveness of this study, the following null hypotheses are formulated to guide the study and it will be tested at 0.05% levels of significance.:

H01: Akure residents in Ondo State do not dispose of their solid wastes regularly.

H02: The Ondo State government is not putting effort in the reduction of  solid wastes in Akure.

  • Significance of the Study

            This research is intended to be important to the society. In addition, the relevance of this research relates to the advantages that will result from its completion.

The presence of solid wastes degrade the aesthetic value of the environment, in addition to the many illnesses and harmful conditions inherent to and resulting from the indiscriminate disposal and dumping of wastes, which has become a prevalent practice in the state of Akure. The outcomes of this study will add to the effort to make the Ondo State one of the cleanest cities in the world in the 21st century. When this is accomplished, the state’s visual appeal will begin to promote its tourism business, which is a source of cash for the government and a job generator for its populace. Again, if the advice and ideas of this study are sincerely and persistently implemented, the negative impact of diseases like malaria, diarrhea, cough, catarrh, cold, and fever will be reduced to an absolute minimum. This will ultimately reduce the high rates of newborn and pregnant women’ death.

Academically, the findings of this study will serve as a foundation for future research and add to the knowledge of scholars/academics, who will in turn influence students and future state or national course assignments.

For the bureaucrats, human resource managers, town planners, and legislators, understanding of the difficulties related with waste management in the state and viable solutions will serve as a guide for logical decision-making and successful planning.

  • Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the characteristics of solid waste in Akure, Ondo State. Specifically, this study examines the nature and composition of solid wastes in Akure, Ondo State, examines the types of containers used in the collection of solid wastes in Akure, Ondo State, identifies the available waste disposal methods within Akure, Ondo State and determines whether Akure residents in Ondo State dispose of their solid wastes regularly.

In addition, this study examines the efforts of the Ondo State government is putting effort in the reduction of  solid wastes in Akure, finds out the solid waste  management  constraints and  problems facing the local agencies responsible for solid waste disposal in Akure, Ondo State and finds out the strategies towards improvement of solid waste disposal in Akure, Ondo State.

Selected residents of Akure in Ondo State will serve as the enrolled participants for the survey of this study.

  • Operational Definition of Terms

Characteristics: A feature or quality belonging typically to a person, place, or thing and serving to identify them.

Solid wastes: “Solid waste” means any garbage or refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations, and from community activities.

Disposal: The action or process of getting rid of something.

Management: Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a non-profit organization, or a government body.

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