Nigeria experiences the highest rate of road traffic accidents resulting in fatalities and various levels of injuries. On Abuja-Lokoja road, traffic accident takes the lion’s share of the risk having highest number of vehicular accidents withcorresponding fatalities and injurieswhich has a great impact on cost and the socio-economic development of the society. It is therefore necessary to gauge the monetary value of these losses in order to highlight the extent of damage incurred to society as a whole. This research is focused on using Gross-Output Model or Human Capital Approach to compute the cost of traffic accident on Abuja-Lokoja road. The aim of this research is to formulate a model that can be used for estimating the total cost of road accidents at all levels of severity. The extent of injury levels, property damaged and general cost resultingfrom an accident using secondary data were obtained from thePolices, Research and Statistics department of the Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) for a period of eleven years (2000-2010).The research was carried out with the aid of questionnaires and interview. The data collected were analyzed using the percentage frequency distribution table and the result was used to cost the property damage cost and the medical cost. The accident cost was decomposed and quantified based on the accident severity levels.The cost per fatal accident isN 24, 853, 524, the cost per of serious injuries accident isN633.520, and the cost of per minor accident isN 10, 575. 36, the total human cost isN 55, 714, 330,477, the total properties cost isN 890, 067, 000, the police administrative cost isN 65, 446, 757. 76 and the total accident cost isN 56,669,844,234.Therefore the cost per vehicle per kilometer is N 60,804.03Km-1, the cost per kilometer is
N318,369,911 Km-1for Abuja-Lokojaroad. This result is in agreement with other researches carried out using gross output method.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents x
List of Tables xiii
List of Figures xv
List of Plate xvi
List of Abbreviation xvii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study 4
1.4 Scope and Limitation 5
1.5 Research Justification6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Background 7
2.2Evolution of Road Transportation in Nigeria 7
2.3 Social Economic and Development Importance of Road Transport 9
2.4 Menace of Road Accidents in Nigeria 10
2.5 Significanceof Costing Road Accident 13
2.6 Method that can be used to cost Road Accident 15
2.6.1 The “Gross Output” (or Human Capital) Approach 16
2.6.2 The “Net Output” Approach 16
2.6.3 The “Life-Insurance” Approach 17
2.6.4 The “Court Award” Approach 17
2.6.5 The “Implicit Public Sector Valuation” Approach 17
2.6.6 The “Value of Risk Change” or “Willingness to pay” Approach 18
2.7 Advantages of Gross Output Approach 19
2.8 Causes of Road Traffic Accident 20
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials 23
3.2 Methold 25
3.2.1 Location of the Study and the Condition of the Pavement 25
3.2.2 Data Collection 26
3.2.3 Technology Data Collection 26
3.24 Method of Data Analysis 26
3.2.5 Problem Encountered in the Field 27
3.2.6 Data Analysis and Interpretation 28
3.2.7 Data for Medical Cost of Accident 30
3.2.8 Vehicle Repair Cost 47
3.2.9 Loss of Productivity 48
3.2.10 Cost of Medical Treatment 50
3.2.11 Police Administrative Costs 53
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.2 Sum to Reflect Pain, Grief, and Suffering 54
4.3 Volume of Road Traffic Accident 54
4.4 Calculation 61
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Conclusions 69
5.2 Recommendations 70
INTRODUCTION 1.1Background to the study Accident can be defined as an unpleasant incident that happens unexpectedly; it can also be defined as an incident that happens by chance. Road traffic accident is therefore an unexpected phenomenon that occurs as a result of the use or operation of vehicles, and trucks, on thehighway, when a traffic accident occurs it may be fatal, resulting in deaths of road users (passenger, drivers, or pedestrians); serious when there is no deaths but a person is seriously injured, and minor when it is not serious enough as to cause substantial hardship. When there is no fatality, serious injury, minor or slight injury and only vehicular damage or property damage occurs, it is referred to as damage only accident. Most citizens use the road at one point in time or the other, and therefore face a risk of road accident. Through road accidents, hundreds of productive citizens die every year. By these, many families have lost their bread winners, many wives have become widows and many husbands rendered widowers, countless number of children have become orphans many songs of victory and jubilations had been turned into morning and wailing overnight. Many dreams are shattered; plans and aspirations are laid to rest in the graves all in name of road accident.
In Nigeria today according to the Inspector General of Police’s Statement (Atta, 1990), there are more reported cases of death on the road through road accidents than there are cases of murder, suicide or death by any atrocious crimes.Road traffic accidents may at first seem to bea relatively unimportant problem to developing countries, such as Nigeria, when compared with the more obviously acute problems of malnutrition, education, poorly developed
infrastructures, terrorism, Niger Delta militant and thuggery.However, an analysis of causes of death in a number of countries in the developing world, including Nigeria,showedthat deathscaused by motor vehicle accidents ranked third behind those caused by diseases and natural death (Akoto and Wiredu, 1986).World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) sources indicate that Nigeria leads eleven other countries in the world in terms of accident involvement and severity. The tremendous toll of motor- vehicle accidents on Nigerian roads, not only causes much suffering, pain and misery but leads to a waste of scarce human and material resources.Many papers have been written in the past, notably within the period of 1972 to 1979, and several data giving statistics of road accidents in Nigeria. For example,” Road Traffic Accident in Nigerian”, a Nigerian Army publication(1977) on road safety, it was claimed that on the average, 3.1 persons died on road accidents every 12 hour in 1976. Nigeria road is a death trap, a bomb ready to explode, going by the report given by the Federal Road SafetyCorps (2005), that out of 192 countries, Nigeria ranks 191 in number of deaths caused by road accidents, coming as the 2nd worst country in the world. It states further that 162 people die from road accidents for every 100,000 Nigerians. This report clearly showed that road accidents are gradually overtaking deaths from Malaria and Tuberculosis in Nigeria as it has claimed thousands of life.
Owing to the global and massive scale of the issue, and with the predictions that by year 2020 road traffic death and injuries will exceed HIV/AIDS as a burden of death and disability, United Nation and its subsidiary bodies have passed resolutions and held conferences on the issue of traffic accident. The first United Nation General Assembly resolution and debate was held in Moscow 2003,the World Day Remembrance for Road Traffic victims was declared on 26th October 2005.The
United Nations adopted a resolution which calls for Government to mark the third Sunday in November each year as World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims(UN, 2005). Transportation constitutes one of the major features of development in Nigeria as it does for any other country of the world. In contemporary times, the country has experienced an unprecedented general economic boom (mainly imports) which has led to increased activities within the industrial and commercial sector. Thus the movement of goods, services and people has become critical to the continued development of the country’s economy. One cannot therefore ignore the importance of transportation to any society as first; it enhances mobility from one place to another. Secondly; it contributes immensely to man’s economy fortune via easy movement of goods and services. Perhaps, this was what Lord Luggard saw when he stated in 1922 that “The material development of Africa may be summed up in one word Transport”(Clement,2009). Specifically, the contribution of road transport to the development of the country is not only significant but decisive. It is significant in the sense that it makes possible realization of the broad development objective of government and achievement of the average citizen’s social economic desires. On the other hand, it is decisive in changing the pattern of internal communication to meet the demand of an independent, self-sustaining economy. As Adebayo (2007), andAbdullahi (2008) stated- road transportation is so vital to Nigeria that hitherto, it provides or accounts for about 90% of total passengers and goods carried within the national economy, thus providing a sound, efficient, safe and environmentally friendly and sustainable transport system is essential to the developmental efforts of Nigeria.
The over dependence on road transportation in Nigeria has meant that it is the mode of transportation which is mostly used and therefore often abused. The abuse of this mode of transportation is mostly always resulting to road traffic accidents. According to Encarta dictionaries, accident is defined as a collision or similar incident involving a moving vehicle, resulting in property damage, personal injury or death. Road traffic accidents are serious problems facing not only Nigeria but most countries of the world. In the Nigeria situation, with so much money in circulation, the number of vehicles on the roads has increased far beyond what the necessary infrastructure and related man – power can cope with. Consequently, the continued dangerous trend of road traffic accidents in Nigeria has placed the country as one of the most road traffic accident prone countries worldwide, only second to Ethiopia as at 2008 (FRSC, 2009). According to Edeaghe (2005) data released by a nongovernmental organization revealed that in Nigeria, one out of every three accident victims dies, and since the civil war, no other pathology or phenomenon has claimed the lives of more Nigerian than have road traffic accident, and in response, the world bank has described the roads in Nigeria as the most dangerous, yet the medical response to these accidents is abysmally poor.
Being that deaths that occurred from road traffic accidents have a higher percentage in Nigeria, this prompted the Nigeria Government to establish the present Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) in 1988 to address road safety crisis in Nigeria. The commission was therefore established with the goal and objective of reducing to the barest minimum, accident rates on roads and therefore to guarantee safety on our highway. It is this reality that the researcher is seeking to unravel the cost of road traffic accidents in Nigeria
1.2 Statement ofResearch Problem A nation is as developed as her transport sector, as this sector has great influence on the other sector and economic activities. This is due to the fact that transport is hardly in demand for its own sake, rather the demand for transport is derived demand, since it arises from the desire to meet certain needs, such as economic, social, recreational, political or educational. One of the major road in Nigeria that link parts of the country including most of the Northern, Eastern and Western states is the Abuja-Lokoja road. This makes the road a very busy one in terms of volume of traffic. The socio-economic activities in Nigeria require an effective transportation system as the people are engaged in farming, trading, or civil service which require a lot of movements. Unfortunately, this development has also generally created serious problem in terms of traffic flow. As vehicles increased on roads there is normally an increase in traffic problems. These include traffic congestion, noise, traffic hold-ups and accelerating rate of accidents which now constitute a menace on the Abuja-Lokoja road. It is, therefore, become necessary to study the trends of traffic accident patterns on Abuja- Lokoja road. As a result the research problem tackled in this project is to analyse the cost of road traffic accidents on Abuja-Lokoja road with a view to working out countermeasures. 1.3Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research is to compute Road Traffic Accident on Abuja-Lokoja road using the Gross Output Approach that can be used forestimating the total cost of road accidents at all levels of severity. The above can be used toachievethe following objectives:
1. To quantify, in monetary terms, the cost of road accidents onAbuja-Lokoja road.
2. To provide a rational basis of assessment of financial claims to the family of accident casualties.
3. To estimate the cost of road accident per vehicle per kilometre level on Abuja-Lokoja road.
4. To advise economists, planners and engineers on a workable method that can be used to cost road accident.
1.4Scope and Limitations The study is limited to 178km Abuja-Lokoja highway. Specifically, it is concerned with the total cost of road accidents, and causes of road crash. This study covered road accidents on Abuja-Lokoja road covering a period of 11 years from 2000-2010.But generally, the study will assess critically the implication that road traffic accident has on the society. 1.5 Research Justification
The FRSC Zonal Commanding Officer, Zone RS 10, says road traffic accidents claimed 21,090 lives out of 35,300 cases recorded in Nigeria between 2007 and 2010,but latest audit report from Federal Road Safety Corps showed that 41 people died along the Abuja-Lokoja Road between January and May 2010 owing to the deplorable condition of the road. The report also rated the road as the worst in terms of accidents in Nigeria (Bulus, 2011). Every account entails an overall loss to the community far beyond what the country can afford. It is obvious, from an economic standpoint, that highway improvements that result in decreased accident
rates shallindirectly bring about monetary savings to the road users and the public, a good justification for these investigations. An estimate of the total national cost of road accidents will help Governments realize the heavy economic losses being incurred annually.This will encourage them to invest in road safety improvements to reduce these losses.
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