TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 objectives of the study
1.4 Significant of the study
1.5 Scope of the study
1.6 Limitations of the study
1.7 Definitions of the study
2.1 Fuzzy Logic
2.1.1 Applying Truth Values
2.1.2 Linguistic variables
2.2 Concept of Two-way traffic
2.3 What is Automation?
2.4 What is Two-way traffic light?
2.5 Measures to facilitate to Two-way traffic
2.3 Two-way traffic light
2.4 The Automated Two-way traffic
SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Method of data collection
Problems of exiting system
Objectives of the new design
Overview of proposed system
Justification of the programming language
4.4.1 Software requirements
4.4.2 Hardware requirements
4.5 System testing
4.6 Training and re-training of staff
4.7 Change over procedure
4.8 Recommended mode of change over
4.9 User manual / documentation
4.10 Maintenance details
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
Appendix A source code
Appendix B output listing
The control of traffic at road junction, which was done purely by human effort, proves to be inefficient owing to the increasing rate of both motorists as well as the complexity of road networks. Vehicular travel is increasing throughout the world, particularly in large urban areas .therefore, the need arises for optimizing traffic light control systems.
In this project work, I researched on the development of traffic light controllers using fuzzy logic algorithms, especially on two- way traffic roads.
Experimental results indicate that automated traffic light control system out perform the traffic control system where traffic wardens are used to control traffic.
For road and highway systems the safe and efficient flow of traffic through intersections is paramount. Traffic is controlled at the intersection of roads by traffic lights and traffic signals to ensure there are no accidents or collisions. In some traffic signal control systems the period of green signals and red signals can change depending on the time of day and traffic conditions, as can the duration that pedestrians can cross roads in front of stationary traffic. To meet all these requirements of a real time interconnected system, the “Traffic Light Control System” is the ideal embedded platform due to its robust design, compact design factor, reliable high performance components and multitude of interfaces for connection to communications equipment and redundant communications equipment.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The high rate of road mishaps as a result of uncontrolled traffic at cross roads is disheartening. This has made the mere idea of traveling a threat to the public and commercial drivers. Making it pertinent to add wait-time at traffic junctions to the transportation fair of passengers, including risk of human life and properties.
Vehicular travel is increasing throughout the world, particularly in large urban areas, to better accommodate the increasing demand and to limiting impatience in the conduct of road users which invariable result in disorderliness, mishap, treat and accident. The prevention of this occurrences and disorderliness should take priority in the minds of any government.
In an attempt to provide traffic control on our roads, the government has instituted agencies and organization such as the national road safety commission, Traffic warden and even the police to assist in regulating the flow of traffic. Traffic wardens have the power to request that a vehicle should stop does not stop or make vehicle proceed in a certain direction. They may also issue non-endorsable fixed penalty notices to vehicles that are breathing certain packing regulation blocking the passage of vehicle, stopping on a wrong route, and exceeding the time limit in a packing negotiation.
Despite traffic control system sat up by the government, disorderly driving continues. The increase in population and vehicles including lack of modern equipment are reasons for the failure of Nigeria traffic road control system making it impossible to achieve the objectives for which they established. This among many others includes control of traffic congestion, vehicle queuing, and block of ways and waves of accidents.
Therefore, there is the need to encourage an automated traffic management system in performing the functions of traffic control in the country.
Traffic light control system are generally organized, flowing in lanes of travel for a particular direction with interchanging traffic signals or signal at intersections to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic. Traffic can be separated into vehicular, non-vehicular (bicycling) and pedestrian classes of traffic. Vehicles of the dame class share their speed limits and share easement with one another. Cooperative signaling arrangements can also be made with representatives of the other classes of traffic. Organized traffic typically reduces travel time, through vehicles wait at some intersections control system.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Traffic congestion problem is a phenomenon which contributed huge impact to the transportation system in country. This causes many problems especially when there are emergency cases at traffic light intersections which are always busy with many vehicles. A traffic light controller system is designed in order to solve these problems. Traffic control establishes a set of rules and instructions that drivers, pilots, train engineers, and ship captains rely on to avoid collisions and other hazards. Motorists depend on traffic control devices to avoid collisions and travel safely to their destinations. Traffic control devices for highway travel include signs, signal lights, pavement markings, and a variety of devices placed on, over, near, or even under, the roadway.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this project is to develop a traffic control system using fuzzy logic algorithm that allows for optimum utilization of the traffic management system by employing a customizable traffic control system that will meet the test of time. This system will be a powerful and flexible tool that will offer this service at any time with the constraints of the technologies being applied.
SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The research carried out in this study has the goal to optimized traffic congestion at cross roads. Since this is the objective of the government in setting up traffic control organization to control traffic congestion, allow timely and free flow of traffic and reduce accident. If this traffic control system is installed, it will enable the government to meet its objectives even without human intervention. The study is expected to also provide a guideline for students and teachers who prefer a better way of traffic flow on our highway based on their efficiency, qualities and attributes. Moreover, it will significantly bring to the fore of its readers a scientific evidence of formally unsubstantiated facts on related issues concerning the development of intelligent traffic system.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project is mainly interested in the optimization of traffic congestions; although the ideas stipulated could be developed further to optimize traffic at four-way, eight ways and multiple road traffic.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This traffic control system uses light emitting diodes (LED). LED base lamps consist of arrays of LED elements arranged in various patterns, when viewed from a distance the arrays appears as a continuous light source unless closely examined. And for people with color blindness it could be more dangerous as this could lead to accident. Cars in this traffic light system can also experience wait time at cross roads, but such wait-time are more reduced than in the case of manual traffic control.
Moreover this traffic control does not give room to correspond with rush hours since the timer is set at a specific duration and the probabilistic nature of the system. Passes from one phase to another repeating itself regardless of traffic density.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Fuzzy logic: Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1
Vehicle travel: Travel using vehicle
Traffic control: Regulation of movement
Congested traffic: Heavy travel
Flowing: Movement of vehicle and goods.
Wait-time: Period allowed for vehicle to wait before passing.
Two-traffic: Two-way lane.