TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. 1
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY.. 1
1.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT.. 3
1.2 AIM and OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.. 3
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY.. 4
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY.. 5
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.. 7
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT.. 7
1.7 PROJECT ORGANIZATION.. 8
CHAPTER TWO.. 10
2.0 INTRODUCTION.. 10
2.0 CONCEPT OF THE PROJECT.. 10
2.1 BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS. 11
2.1.1 Physiological characteristics. 13
2.1.2 Behavioural characteristics. 14
2.2 TERMINOLOGIES IN BIOMETRICS. 16
2.3 Fingerprint Patterns. 16
2.4 FINGER-PRINT TECHNOLOGY.. 19
2.4.1 Minutiae based technique. 20
2.4.2 Correlation based technique. 21
2.5 IGNITION SYSTEMS. 22
2.6 FINGER PRINT IGNITION SYSTEM… 24
3.0 INTRODUCTION. 28
3.1 COMPONENT THEORY.. 28
3.2 PROGRAMMING AN ARDUINO BOARD.. 30
CODE FOR FINGERPRINT ENROLLMENT.. 32
3.3 CODE FOR FINGERPRINT MATCHING: 39
4.0 TESTING AND CONSTRUCTION.. 43
4.1 IMPLEMENTATION.. 43
4.3 CONSTRUCTION.. 44
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
BACKGOUND TO THE STUDY
With the rise in global theft and increasing crime levels, it is becoming essential to find a viable alternative to the security of automobiles. Cars are important in the day to day activities of our lives so it is important for our cars to have adequate security systems.
Security systems advanced over the years from the normal lock and key system, to the electronic alarm system. Security measures were put in place to prevent unauthorized entry into the cars but over the years, measures have also been put in place to bypass such security measures, such as bypassing the key ignition system of a motor vehicle by hot-wiring; which is the ability to start the ignition system of a car without having the key. We have 3 major types of ignition system namely the mechanical, electronic, and distribution less system. For this project, we are making use of the electronic ignition system which makes use of authenticating the user’s biometric information before igniting the car. The purpose of this project is to introduce our group’s conceptual design which makes use of fingerprint biometrics to ignite a car.
Biometric security refers to a security device used to authenticate or grant access to authorized individualsto a secure system based on the automatic comparism of an individual’s physical characteristics due to the fact that biometric security evaluates an individual’s physical data. It is one of the world’s strongest and most secure physical security system used in identity verification. (Definition from techopedia.com). Biometrics is one of the most widely used security feature, this is due to the fact that it works with the physical structure of an individual so it cannot be easily manipulated making it an effective security major. Biometric systems have gained recognition as a security measure in various sectors. The human fingerprint can serve as unique marker or identification tool for every human being due to the fact that the human fingerprint is unique to every individual, even to identical twins. No matter how similar two prints may look at a glance they are different.
The main focus while developing the biometrics vehicle anti-theft system is to protect our cars from theft by providing a secure anti-theft protection. For protection and car theft, we should restrict the starting of vehicles, in which only authorized persons have this ability to start the car without the use of keys once it has identified by the Fingerprint sensor. The Fingerprint of the owner and other authorized persons are stored into the database beforehand and at the time of starting engine of the vehicle, scanned fingerprints are being crosschecked with the database. Biometric systems are one of the most used security measure in the recent day, they are mostly used due to the fact that they require the use of the physical or biological trait of a human being they have over time served as security mechanisms in various ways since each human on earth has a unique pattern weather fingerprint or retina, with a system like this, nothing but a finger is needed to engage the vehicle. A fingerprint scanner eliminates the use of keys and enables a car owner to be less self-conscious about car security, because the only security he or she needs is available at his fingertips, which simply means that the biometric method requires the physical presence of the person to be identified. There is a present demand for security systems in vehicles. Therefore, the main aim of designing and implementing a biometric security system using fingerprint technology, is to prevent unauthorized vehicle access. We have a discussion of how the designs meet the criteria given in the project outline.
1.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT
According to Interpol there were 7.4 million reported cases of stolen motor vehicles at the end of 2015 (http://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Vehicle-crime/Database-statistics). This staggering statistic of car theft brings to light the need for improved motor vehicle security systems.
Biometric authentication offers promising solutions, certain challenges inhibit its use such as: recognition errors, compromised biometric data and the presence of vulnerable points in the biometric system. Few studies have addressed recognition issues facing biometric ignition systems.
This study intends to use multiple fingerprint template registration in an attempt to reduce false acceptance rates and consequently enhance the security of the proposed authentication system. A prototype authentication system will be proposed using Adafruit fingerprint module, Arduino Uno board, a fingerprint module, a Vero board and a DC motor.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this project is to demonstrate the implementation of biometrics into the ignition system of motor vehicles.
The objectives of this study are to:
- Identification of appropriate sensitive fingerprint sensor for ignition systems.
- Configure the prototype biometric ignition system using Adafruit fingerprint module, Arduino Uno board, a fingerprint module, a Vero board and a DC motor.
The results expected from this project is to successfully strengthen the security of cars by making use of a special biometrics system which includes a fingerprint sensor. Once the fingerprint has been compared with the database then only will the ignition of the vehicle come on. This lead to a more secure and reliable vehicle, protection will be increased against crime.
The prices of fingerprint authentication systems, when compared to other biometric systems are quite affordable and the user verification rate is very high, making it a proven core technology. The addition of multiple fingerprints to the fingerprint database increases the system accuracy and the flexibility as well reduces false rate match dramatically.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
After careful examination at the increasing rate of car theft in this part of the world, we saw a need to enhance the security systems of cars by replacing the mechanical key based security system to a biometric fingerprint based ignition system. The biometric fingerprint system would provide reliability and confidence more than the key system security because of its accuracy and intrinsic feature. This system consists of a software module which allows a user to input data which is the users fingerprint and then a hardware module which operates as an interface for the ignition system. Therefore, when a valid user operates the system, the live biometrics template is compared with the stored biometric template and the car is ignited and vice versa happens when the live template is not recognized.
Understanding the crime levels throughout the world and Nigeria, this study will explain how a biometrics system can be built to improve security systems. The major key that separates biometric authentications from other security systems is the fact that every individual on earth is unique in term is their physical traits. Consequently, fingerprints are a unique marker for every person, even identical twins. No matter how similar two prints may look at a glance, the difference will always be clear to trained eyes or authentication systems. Due to the previously stated reason, it would be an improvement to vehicle. There is a present demand for robust security systems in vehicles therefore, the usefulness of designing and implementing a biometric security system using fingerprint technology, to prevent unauthorized vehicle ignition cannot be overemphasized.
The sole aim of this research is to produce the next generation futuristic security system, one that is reliable, easy to access by authorized personnel and impossible to get into by unknown individuals, our biometrics, are unique to us individuals that is to say no two individuals can ever have the same fingerprint or retinas so it can be used as one of the most secure security measure.
We intend to use this unique feature to work hand in hand with security system we wish to incorporate in the ignition system of motor vehicles. Where the ignition will only come on when a recognized print is scanned by the fingerprint sensor and no change to the vehicle system will occur when an unknown print is scanned.
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
1.) Adafruit fingerprint sensor: – This an electronic device that captures fingerprints and saves them as templates and could be used in the future to gain access when the live biometric templates match the saved template.
This device has an on-board flash memory that can store over 162 fingerprints, there’s a high-powered DSP chip that does the image storage, calculation, comparismand searching. Connect to any microcontroller or system with TTL serial, and send packets of data to take photos, detect prints, hash and search. The adafruit sensor has the following technical details;
- Supply voltage: 6 – 6.0VDC
- Operating current: 120mA max
- Peak current: 150mA max
- Fingerprint imaging time: <1.0 seconds
- Window area: 14mm x 18mm
- Signature file: 256 bytes
- Template file: 512 bytes
- Storage capacity: 162 templates
- Safety ratings (1-5 low to high safety)
- False Acceptance Rate: <0.001% (Security level 3)
- False Reject Rate: <1.0% (Security level 3)
- Interface: TTL Serial
- Baud rate: 9600, 19200, 28800, 38400, 57600 (default is 57600)
- Working temperature rating: -20C to +50C
- Working humidity: 40%-85% RH
- Full Dimensions: 56 x 20 x 21.5mm
- Exposed Dimensions (when placed in box): 21mm x 21mm x 21mm triangular
- Weight: 20 grams
2.) Arduino Uno board: This is a generic board, which uses the ATmega328P microcontroller
Which is a 28pin microcontroller that has a flash memory that supports read and write capabilities the adafruit sensor has a pre-programmed library, which is loaded into the board, to enable its use.
3.) D.C Motor: A direct current (DC) motor is another widely-used device that translates electrical pulses into mechanical movement. Connecting them to a DC voltage source moves the motor in one direction.
4.) Power supply: Power supply for this circuit is low since all the component or equipment can operate in low voltage. High voltage will cause wasted or spoil the circuit, low voltage likes 5V is predominant
5.) Micro-Controller: A microcontroller (or MCU, short for microcontroller unit) is a small computer (SOC) on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. The Uno 8051microcontroller is to be used for this project which board based on a 16-bit/32-bit ATmega328p CPU with real-time emulation and embedded trace support.
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Literature review done by searching data from the internet and books from the library. Procedures stated in this study is adhered to Equipment and tools that are going to be used in this project has been chosen by study from the literature review through internet. Then the circuit is constructed by using breadboard to test the functionality of the circuit to ensure it works according to requirements. After required analysis and testing has been carried out on the breadboard, circuit is built by soldering those electronics components on the strip board or on PCB board. The final thing is testing the circuit to ensure it can function well.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
The project attend to design a biometric fingerprint ignition system that is limited to a couple of users due to the nature of the security system in respect to its intrinsic ability.
The nature of this project is not to authenticate a lot of users but to provide car security to users and their partners or family. The limitation of this system includes: for example if a user has dirt or contamination on a finger the system would reject the entry making it difficult for a user to access the car. Secondly, scanners are not able to identify a real finger from an artificialfinger, therefore, making it possible to override the scanner by using gelatine print mould instead of a real finger.
The project attend to design a biometric ignition system that is limited to the use of a motor for implementation due to the unavailability of the intended use which is a car. Also, the reliability of the sensor is it give an error or a non-response in cases of dry or dirty fingerprints, as well the use by children is not recommended because the size of their fingerprint changes quickly.
1.7 PROJECT ORGANIZATION
This project work is divided into 3 parts. The major part which is the body and the second part consist of five chapters.
Part 1 and 3 contains the following
Declaration, Certification, Dedication, Acknowledgement, table of content, Abstract, References.
The five chapters in the second part (part 2) include;
Introduction (chapter1); this chapter give a full insight into the project works and seeks to state the problem the project is meant to address. Also the aims, objectives and the need for the project are clearly stated.
Literature review (chapter 2); this chapter seeks to look at earlier works in relation to this project. It also gives an in depth look into various variable power supply and the evolution of these system.
Design and Analysis (chapter 3); how the various devices or components used in this system works, is fully explained in this chapter
Furthermore the preferred method(s) used to achieve the project requirement is highlighted.
Construction and Testing (chapter 4); this chapter involves details of the construction of the system and then test running of the system
Conclusion and Recommendation (chapter 5); this chapter compares the executed project with the project’s objective with a view of making sure that the project has solved the particular problem it is meant to solve.
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