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Download this complete Project material titled; Design And Testing Of An Outward Radial-Flow Reaction Water Turbine with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

 

An outward radial flow reaction water turbine was designed based on Euler
one-dimensional theory, constructed and tested to drive a 6W bicycle electric dynamo
using water from supply mains. The turbine watered and lit the place it was tested
eliminating the use of energy from other costlier sources which are not as
environmental friendly. Available literature showed that water and steam had been
used in providing the needed pressure for turbines based on the one-dimensional
theory with successes recorded in the past. Dedicated efforts were made in Europe
and America at improving different designs until Pelton impulse turbine, the Francis
turbine and the Kaplan turbine now universally accepted were satisfactorily designed.
In the production of this turbine (water sprinkler), the interest was more on power
generation than watering, therefore four arms were used to discharge more water so as
to deliver surplus of useful power. Consequently, the design angular speed of the
turbine, the rotor arm diameter, the work done on each arm by the fluid, the tangential
force and tolerances were determined. Mild steel, cast aluminium alloy and stainless
steel were used to fabricate this turbine because they were readily available, cheap
and machinable. A range of power output of 0.42W to 2.66W was obtained for a
range of mains pressure of 2
1.5 105 m
 N to 2
2.8 105 m
 N . The results obtained from
readings taken were tabulated and graphs plotted accordingly. The optimum
performance occurred at 2
2 105 m
 N , a speed of 600rpm and a mass flow rate of
0.685 kg/s. The maximum power obtained at maximum mains pressure of
2
2.8 105 m
 N was 2.66W. The cost of the water turbine stood at thirty five thousand,
three hundred and eighty naira only (N35, 380.00) and this would reduce greatly when
– 9 –
the water turbine is mass produced. Power was generated to lit the place that the water
turbine was used from the residual power head.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page ii
Declaration iii
Certification iv
Dedication v
Acknowledgement vi
Abstract viii
Table of Contents x
List of Tables xiv
List of Figures xv
List of Drawings xvi
List of Plates xvii
Abbreviations and Symbols xviii
Appendix xx
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Statement of the Problem 1
1.2 Significance of the Study or Justification for the Study 2
1.3 Theoretical Frame Work 3
1.4 Objectives of the Study 4
1.5 Statement of Research Questions 4
– 11 –
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Types of Turbo Machines 8
2.3 Evolution of Turbines 9
2.3.1 A Practical Hero Aeolipile 9
2.3.2 Impulse Turbine 17
2.3.3 Reaction Turbine 18
2.3.4 Axial Flow 20
2.4 Development of outward Radial-flow Reaction Water Turbine 20
CHAPTER 3: GENERAL DESIGN THEORY AND CALCULATIONS
3.1 The Euler Turbine Equation 22
3.2 Departures from Euler’s theory and Losses 29
3.3 Degree of Reaction 30
3.4 Efficiency and Utilization Factor 32
3.5 Design Theory of the Radial Outward Flow Reaction Water Turbine
(Lawn Sprinkler)
3.5.1 Introduction 35
3.5.2 Determination of Design Angular Speed of the Turbine 39
3.5.3 Determination of Rotor Arm Diameter 40
3.5.4 Work done on the Arm by the Fluid 41
3.5.5 Determination of Tangential Force 43
3.6 Tolerance 46
3.7 Calculations 47
– 12 –
CHAPTER 4: CONSTRUCTION OF THE OUTWARD RADIAL FLOW
REACTION WATER TURBINE
4.1 Introduction 50
4.2 Material Selection 50
4.3 Methods of Production 52
4.4 Cost of Production of the Water Turbine 53
4.5 Bearing Selection 54
4.5.1 Rolling Bearings 55
4.5.2 Plain Bearings 55
4.5.3 Rotor Bearings 56
4.6 Description of a fully built outward radial flow reaction water turbine 56
CHAPTER 5: TESTS AND RESULTS
5.1 The Outward Flow Reactions Water Turbine 59
5.2 Procedure for taking Measurement 59
5.2.1 Measurement of pressure and speed taken with Turbine
not Loaded 59
5.2.2 Measurement of pressure, speed, current, voltage and
flow rate taken with Turbine Loaded with dynamo 61
5.3 Discussion of Results 66
– 13 –
CHAPTER 6: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION
6.1 Summary 68
6.2 Conclusion 69
6.3 Recommendation 70
REFERENCES 72
APPENDIX 74

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Water in nature is a useful source of energy. Its energy comes directly in
mechanical form, without the losses involved in heat engines and fuel cells, and no
fuels are necessary. Solar heat evaporates water, mostly from the oceans, where it is
mixed into the lower atmosphere by turbulence, and moved by the winds. Through
meteorological processes, it falls on the earth as precipitation, on the oceans, but also
on high ground, where it makes its way downhill to the sea, without evaporative and
other losses. A cubic meter of water can give 9800J of mechanical energy for every
meter it descends, and a flow of a cubic meter per second in a fall of 1m can provide
9800W, or 13hp. The efficiency of hydraulic machines can be made close to 100%, so
that this energy is available, and it can be converted to electrical energy with an
efficiency of over 95%. Hydropower and increasing population cannot co-exist; the
limits of hydropower are fixed and obvious. The percentage of hydropower is
dropping by the day. It is not that hydropower is decreasing in absolute terms; it had
remained roughly constant while the total market had expanded greatly. The oil
reserve is depleting and the cost is constantly on the increase.
Sprinklers are mainly used for sprinkling water in many areas, namely; Truck
crops, nurseries, orchards, gardens, lawns, application of fertilizer, soil amendments,
log curing, water distribution for compaction of earth fills, setting of dust, farm fire
protection, frost protection, cooling crops and animals, dewatering of mines and
excavation.
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Considering these areas where sprinklers are used, lighting these places will
greatly enhance the working time, and ease working in the places at night. This is
currently possible by using power from National grid or other power sources which
are costly and could be eliminated if we can use the residual power head to rotate a
dynamo and generate electricity.
1.2 Significance of the Study or Justification for the
Study
Hydro-energy technology is environment friendly, renewed naturally by
rainwater and melting of snow on high mountains during summers and simple.
Waterpower is available whenever a sufficient volume of steady water flow exists.
Hydro schemes are multipurpose. The water is used before and after power generation
and there is no wastage of water. Only the head is lost during power generation. The
operating cost of water turbine is very low, it has long service life and the renewable
energy resource occurs free of cost.
Energy is essential for sustaining civilization, the economic prosperity of a
nation or region or state or individual consumer is directly influenced by the quantity
of energy generated and consumed. Thus, there is a need to generate as much energy
as possible from all sources to meet human requirements. One way of achieving this is
through power generation from reaction hydro turbines (sprinkler heads).
– 24 –
A system is more efficient and effective, if it is made to operate as
independent as possible from other system which is the case of this reaction turbine
(sprinkler).
1.3 Theoretical Framework
The real flow through a rotor is three-dimensional, that is to say the velocity of
the fluid is a function of three positional coordinates, say, in the cylindrical system, r,
 and z. Thus, there is a variation of velocity not only along the radius but also across
the passage in any plane parallel to the rotor rotation, which constitutes an abrupt
change – a discontinuity. Also, there is variation of velocity in the meridional plane,
i.e. along the axis of the rotor. The velocity distribution is, therefore, very complex,
and dependent upon the width of the rotor and its variation with radius.
The one – dimensional theory simplifies the problem very considerably by
making the following assumptions.
(i) That the flow is axisymmetric, which means that there is a perfect
symmetry with regard to the axis of rotor rotation. Thus;
 0

V
(ii) Over that part of the rotor where transfer of energy takes place,
There is no variation of velocity in the meridional plane, i.e. across the
width of the rotor. Thus,
 0
z
V


The result of these assumptions is that whereas, in reality,
– 25 –
V  V(r, , z)
For the one-dimensional flow
V  V(r) 
The suffix  stipulates axisymmetry
(iii) That there is imaginary body forces acting on the fluid and producing
torque
1.4 Objectives of the Study
Given that there is increasing need to find other sources of energy and the fact
that a sprinkler is the simplest form of a reaction water turbine, it is necessary to
devise a means by which electricity could be generated from the sprinkler heads. In
view of the importance of lighting the places that sprinklers are used when it is dark,
use of other power sources rather than the sprinkler head will be eliminated. The
objective of this research is therefore to review the design of a simple outward flow
reaction water turbine and develop it to serve as a water sprinkler as well as a source
of mechanical power for driving an electric dynamo for the generation of electricity to
lighten up the place it is used when it is dark whenever there is water in the supply
mains. Test is also to be carried out to ascertain the efficiencies of the device under
various water pressures.
1.5 Statement of Research Questions
The fact that sprinklers could be built to serve as water turbine as well, and
given that hydro power had remained roughly constant while the total market had
– 26 –
expanded greatly, water could be further exploited by building water turbines to serve
as sprinklers as well as a source of mechanical power for driving electric dynamos for
the generation of electricity to lighten up the places. They would be used when it is
dark whenever there is water in the supply mains.
The focus of this work is therefore how to exploit energy from water turbines
(sprinklers) to generate electricity. The effect of load (electric dynamo) on the
efficiency of sprinkler is also to be determined.
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