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ABSTRACT

 

The researchwasconducted to determinethe nutritional status of Hibiscus sabdariffa at different growthconditions and stages. Three levels of fertilizer treatments; poultry manure (M), 10 tons per hectare, mineral fertilizer (N.P.K. 15-15-15)at 75 kg (F75) and 100 kg (F100) per hectare were used, and the field wasweedthree times within the sampling periods. Field trials were conducted at Teaching and Research Farm of Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Kano State.The treatments were laid out in complete randomizedblock design (CRBD) and poultry manure applied uniformly after land preparation before sowing.Thesamplingwas carried out between July to November, 2014 during the rainy season. Standard methods were used for the plant and soil samples collection, pre-treatment, digestion andanalysis.The results obtained for proximate constituents revealed that at a vegetative stage (SI); the application of M gave the highestcrude protein than the F75 and F100 with levels of 20.910±2.132, 15.322±5.568 and 18.426±0.704 %, respectively.Similarly, the levels of crude fiber recorded in the H. sabdariffa (L) were: 12.047±0.684, 11.47±9.462 and 11.173±0.0542 % for the M, F75 and F100 fertilizers at SI.Furthermore, oxalate content recorded in the H. sabdariffa (L) at SI was: 9.978±2.359, 8.455±3.364 and 8.190±0.213 %, respectively. It was observedthat the moisture content for M, F75 and F100were: 6.812±0.253, 6.989±1.053, and 6.504±0.354 %at SI with F75 having the higher value.The carbohydrateand tannin content at SI when the plant grown with these fertilizers was:32.366±5.555, 42.223±12.184 and 41.960±7.657 %, and 2.685±0.068, 2.756±0.114 and 2.736±0.454 %respectively and F75 obtained with higher value. Moreover, the levels of ash contentin the plant at SI when M, F75 and F100 usedwere: 12.411±0.600, 12.742±0.999 and 13,130±2.564 %, and thecrude fat recorded in the analyzed samples of H. sabdariffa (L) were: 15.455±2.428, 14.402±4.712 and 30.710±0.054.Similarly, calorific values that recorded: 267.400±6.948, 276.445±16.411 and 288.276 kcal in the
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analyzed sampleat SIwere found to be higher with F100 among the three different fertilizer used. However, at flowering stage (SII), the ash content, crude protein, crude fiber and oxalate contentwere found to be higher when M fertilizer was usedto grow the plant. Nevertheless, F75 fertilizer wasfound higher in the levels ofcarbohydrate and tannin in the analyzedsample at SII. Moreover, whenF100wasused at thisstage,it gave the higher crude fat content.At the maturity stage(SIII), the highestmoisture content was recorded in the plant when M fertilizer was used, while higher carbohydrate and calorific value were obtained by F75 fertilizer atSIII.Conversely, thehighestash, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat and tannin content were recorded when usingF100 fertilizer in the plant. On the other hand, the elements concentrationsat SI, using thethree different fertilizerswere:Na(448.903±1.55, 114.785±0.32 and 339.001±1.84mg/kg) for M, F75 and F100 respectively, then Mg(7881.915±14.64, 6158.574±2.56 and 4316.644±4.85 mg/kg), K(10563.292±1.40, 10399.679±2.31 and 6173.347±0.56 m/kg), Ca(33192.429±103.13, 13597.588±18.07 and 23600.721±25.90 mg/kg), Zn(30.689±0.02, 30.150±0.04 and 21.833±0.10 mg/kg) and then Cu(18.571±0.04, 10.428±0.01 and 13.222±0.04 mg/kg) for M, F75 and F100 respectively, in which M recorded highest at all.Correspondingly, F100 obtained higher in the levels of Mn andFe from M, F75 and F100 fertilizersused to grow the plant at SI were: 714.81±0.10,586.839±0.80,781.717±1.23 mg/kg and then 750.311±2.30, 922.508±2.49,1377.294 mg/kg, respectively. Generally, lead (Pb) wasnotdetected atSI. At SII, however,the M fertilizer retained the highest value for Na, K, Fe and Zn, and had theleast Pb concentration.At SIII of the plant growth, K, Fe and Znwerefound to be higher when the plant was grown with M fertilizer. More so, the levels of Mg, Mn and Cu where found to be peak at thisstage using F75 in growing the plant, while F100 fertilizer led to higher level of Na, Ca and Pb. Interestingly, the concentrations of the analyzed elements were top in the calyx when F100 was used.Although, statistically the difference was insignificant (at p < 0.05) on the elementsconcentration in the calyx when compared among the three fertilizes used in growing the plant. Moreover,during the plant growth some of the nutrient contentsincrease asthe mineralfertilizer concentration increases. However, Mg,K, crude fiberand oxalate content at SI,and also Zn at SI- SIII were foundtodecrease as the mineral fertilizer concentration increases (M>F75>F100). Furthermore,the soil pH at all the stages(SI- SIII), were found to be higher when M fertilizer was used among F75 and F100.The findings of this research indicated thatHibiscus sabdariffa(L) is a nutritious plantof rich dietary minerals and proximate compositions. While, thepoultry manure among the fertilizersstudied had the highestpotentialsfor bettercultivation of nutritious Hibiscus sabdariffa (L) except when crude fat contents is needed, in that caseF100 is recommendable.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Cover Page………………………………………………………………………………………………………. i
Declaration …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii
Certification …………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv
Dedication………………………………………………………………………………………………………. v
Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………………………………………. vi
Table of Contents …………………………………………………………………………………………… vii
List of Tables ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. x
List of Figures ………………………………………………………………………………………………… xi
List of Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………………… xiii
List of Abbreviations ……………………………………………………………………………………… xv
Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xvi
CHAPTER ONE ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.1 Background of the Study ……………………………………………………………………….. 1
2.3 Anti-nutrients in Hibiscus sabdariffa ………………………………………………………. 7
2.3.1 Oxalates …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
2.3.2 Tannins ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
1.3 Statement of the Research Problem ………………………………………………………… 9
1.4 Justification………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
1.5 Aim of the Work …………………………………………………………………………………. 10
1.6 Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
1.7 Hypotheses …………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
1.7.1 The null hypotheses (Ho) are; …………………………………………………………………. 12
1.7.2 The alternative hypotheses (Ho) are; ………………………………………………………… 12
CHAPTER TWO …………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………………………………. 13
2.1 Vegetables ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
2.2 Minerals Nutrients………………………………………………………………………………. 15
2.2.1 Calcium ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
2.2.2 Iron ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
2.2.3Magnesium…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
2.2.4Sodium ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
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2.2.5 Potassium ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
2.2.6 Manganese ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 18
2.2.7 Copper …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18
2.2.8Zinc ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18
2.2.10 Fiber …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
CHAPTER THREE ……………………………………………………………………………………… 21
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS …………………………………………………………… 21
3.1 Materials ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
3.1.1Lists of Apparatus/Equipment …………………………………………………………………… 21
3.1.2 List of reagents used ……………………………………………………………………………… 21
3.1.4 Preparation of aqueous solutions ………………………………………………………………. 23
3.2 Methods……………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
3. 1.1Description of the study area ……………………………………………………………………. 27
3.1.2 Experimental Design ………………………………………………………………………………. 27
3.1.3 Crop establishment …………………………………………………………………………………. 27
3.2.1 Quality assurance …………………………………………………………………………………… 28
3.2.3Proximate, minerals and anti-nutrients analysis of the Hibiscus sabdariffa ……….. 31
3.2.4 Determination of physico-chemical parameters of the soil used ……………………… 36
CHAPTER FOUR ………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
4.0 RESULTS …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
4.1 Proximate Compositions of Hibiscus sabariffa ……………………………………….. 39
4.2 Minerals Compositions of Hibiscus sabdariffa ……………………………………….. 40
4.3 Physico-chemical parameters of the soil ………………………………………………… 41
4.4 Statistical Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………. 42
CHAPTER FIVE …………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
5.0 DISCUSSIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………… 64
5.1 Proximate Constituents at Growing Stages of Hibiscus sabdariffa ……………. 64
5.1.1 Moisture contents of Hibiscus sabdariffa ……………………………………………………. 64
5.1.2 Ash contents of Hibiscus sabdariffa ………………………………………………………….. 65
5.1.3 Crude fat of Hibiscus sabdariffa ……………………………………………………………….. 66
5.1.4 Crude proteins of Hibiscus sabdariffa ………………………………………………………… 66
5.1.5 Crude fiber of Hibiscus sabdariffa …………………………………………………………….. 67
5.1.6 Carbohydrate of Hibiscus sabdariffa …………………………………………………………. 68
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5.1.7Calorific value of Hibiscus sabdariffa ………………………………………………………… 69
5.1.8 Oxalate contents of Hibiscus sabdariffa ……………………………………………………… 69
5.1.9 Tannin contents of Hibiscus sabdariffa ………………………………………………………. 70
5.2 Minerals Components of Hibiscus sabdariffaat its Growing Stages ………….. 71
5.2.1 Sodium (Na) contents of Hibiscus sabdariffa ………………………………………………. 71
5.2.2 Potassium (K) contents of Hibiscus sabdariffa …………………………………………… 72
5.2.3 Magnesium (Mg) contents of Hibiscus sabdariffa ………………………………………… 73
5.2.4 Calcium (Ca) contents of Hibiscus sabdariffa ……………………………………………… 74
5.2.5Manganese (Mn) contents of Hibiscus sabdariffa …………………………………………. 75
5.2.6 Iron (Fe) contents of Hibiscus sabdariffa ……………………………………………………. 76
5.2.7 Zinc (Zn) content of Hibiscus sabdariffa ……………………………………………………. 77
5.2.9 Copper (Cu) contents of Hibiscus sabdariffa ………………………………………………. 78
5.3 Soil Physicochemical Parameters ………………………………………………………….. 79
5.3.1 Nitrogen (N) contents of the soil ……………………………………………………………….. 79
5.3.2 Phosphorus (P) contents ………………………………………………………………………….. 80
5.3.3 Potassium (K) contents ………………………………………………………………………….. 81
5.3.4 Soil pH …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
CHAPTER SIX ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 83
6.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION …………………… 83
6.1 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 83
6.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………. 83
6.3 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………….. 84
Refferences ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 85
Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 97

Project Topics

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Nutrition plays an important part in the etiology, management, and recovery of several medical conditions. Nigeria is a middle-income country,it is also home to the highest number of stunted children in the continent and ranks third globally with more than 10 million stunted children(Luchuoet al., 2013).Van de Poel et al.,(2008),reported thatabout 230 million under-five children are believed to be chronically malnourished in developing countries.More so, around 54% of deaths among children of this age group are believed to be associated with malnutrition in developing countries (FAO, 2008). In Sub-Saharan Africa this group about 41% be stunted and lost their life and the death increases daily in the region (FAO, 2008). Malnutrition is widespread in Nigeria, especially in the rural areas (Olarinwaju et al., 2011). This is partly dueto inadequate food and nutrient supply. The 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey revealed that 38% of under-five children in Nigeria are stunted, 29% underweight and 9.2% wasted (Ajieroh, 2010). The 2004 Food Consumption and Nutrition Survey reported similar trends with 42% stunted, 25% underweight and 9% wasted (Ajieroh, 2010). These surveys indicated significant variation between the rural and urban areas with children from rural areas worse affected by malnutrition (Olarinwaju et al., 2011).Malnutrition in early childhood is associated with functional impairment in adult life as malnourished children are physically and intellectually less productive when they become adults (Smith and Haddad, 1999).
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1.2 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) 1.2.1 Botanicaldescription The genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae) includes more than 300 species of annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or trees (Wang et al., 2012) Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn, which is a member of the Malvaceae family. The origin of Hibiscus sabdariffa is not fully known but it is believed to be native to India and Malaysia and to have been carried at an early date to Africa. It is widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions including Africa, South East Asia and some countries of America. Seeds are said to have been brought to the New World by African slaves. It is known by different synonyms and vernacular names such as “roselle” in the U.S, “l’oiselle” in France, “jamaica” or “flor de jamaica” in Mexico and Spain, “karkade” in Sudan and is commonly known as roselle, hibiscus, Jamaica sorrel or red sorrel (English) and in Arabic, karkadeh ( Ali et al., 2005). Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is known by different names as wellasGuinea sorrel or bissap in Senegal, Roselle or sorrel in Asia (Morton, 1987; Glew et al., 1997; Lorenzo et al., 2000; McClintock and El Tahir, 2004; Babalola et al., 2001; Nyarko et al., 2006; Cisse et al., 2009a; Cisse et al., 2009b). In Nigeria, its production is mainly in the Guinea and Sudan savannah zones, where the red calyx genotypes are prevalent and are the most important source of raw materials for beverages called zoborodo.Its native distribution is uncertain, some believe that is from India or Saudi Arabia (Ismail et al., 2008), while Murdock, (1959) showed evidence that Hibiscus sabdariffawas domesticated by the black populations of western Sudan (Africa) sometime before 4000 BC. Nowadays, it is widely cultivated in both tropical and subtropical regions (Morton, 1987 ; USDA, 2007) including India, Saudi Arabia, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Sudan, Egypt, Nigeria and México ( Chewonarin et al., 1999; Dung et al., 1999; Ismail et al., 2008; Mahran et al., 1979; Rao, 1996; Yagoub Ael et al., 2004).
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On the other hand,Hibiscus sabdariffa is believed to be native to Tropical Africa, but is widely distributed in the Tropics and Subtropics of both hemispheres, and in many areas of the West Indies, Central America and South East Asia (Ibrahim and Hussein, 2006). It is highly cultivated in the savannah zones of West Africa. Mexico, Egypt, Senegal, Tanzania, Mali and Jamaica are also important suppliers but production is mostly used domestically (FAO, 2004). Hibiscus sabdariffa has relatively short growing periods and requires low inputs, as compared to other vegetables (Chadha et al., 2000). The potential of this leafy vegetable in playing a key role in fighting hunger and reducing malnutrition cannot be over emphasized (Watson and Eyzaguire, 2002). The young leaves and tender stems of Roselle are eaten raw in salads or cooked as greens alone or in combination with other vegetables or with meat or fish (McClintock and El Tahir, 2004). Traditional processing of the Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx has been greatly improved by the establishment of many small enterprises that use it for the production of jam, concentrates and particularly for drinks or beverages. Drinks and beverages made from the plant are very popular in Nigeria and highly consumed (Cissé et al., 2009a). The calyx is used for production of fruit drink in the tropics. Demand is on the increase because of nutraceutics endowment of the natural food drink (Salmah et al., 2003). Roselle calyx has been reported to be rich in anthocyanin and dietary iron (Seguchi and Hayashi, 1998). Wang et al., (1997) has confirmed the antioxidative attributes of anthocyanins and their aglycons against peroxyl radicals. Their use for the preparation of soups cuts across different cultures of West Africa, as they supply the body with minerals, vitamins, certain hormone precursors as well as proteins and energy. Hibiscussabdariffa calyx consumption in diet has been reported to protect the human body from degenerative diseases. A long-term consumption of diets rich in plant foods offered some protection against chronic diseases, especially cancer (Wallstrom et al., 2000).
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1.2.1.1 Morphology Hibiscus sabdariffa (L). is a short-day annual shrub and can grow to a height of 1–3 m, depending on variety. The green leaves are about 8–12 cm long and the stems, branches, leaf veins and petioles are reddish purple. Flowers are up to 12.5 cm wide, they are yellow with a rose or maroon eye, and are made up of five petals. After the flowers fall apart, the calyx which is a red cup-like structure consisting of 5 large sepals with a collar (epicalyx) of 8 to 12 slim pointed bracts around the base, begins to enlarge, becomes fleshy, crisp but juicy (3.2-5.7 cm long), and fully encloses the velvety capsule, (1.25-2 cm long), which is green when immature, 5-valved, with each valve containing 3 to 4 kidney-shaped light-brown-seeds, (3-5 mm long). The capsule turns brown and splits open when mature and dry (Morton 1987). 1.2.1.2 Ecology/cultivation Hibiscussabdariffa is easy to grow in most well drained soils but can tolerate poor soils. It requires 4-8 months growth with night-time temperatures with a minimum of 20 °C, as well as 13 h of sunlight and a monthly rainfall ranging from 5– 10″ (130–250 mm) during the first few months to prevent premature flowering. Rain or high humidity during the harvest time and drying process can downgrade the quality of the calyces and reduce the yield. The quality of Hibiscussabdariffa is determined by seed stock, local growing conditions, and time of harvest, postharvest handling and mainly the drying step. Most of the time it grows as a supplement crop and it is susceptible to fungi, viral and bacterial attack and also to insects. A single plant produces about 1.5 kg of fruit, approximately 8 t/ha. Yields of leaves may be about 10 t/ha ( EcoCrop, 2007 ; Plotto, 2004).
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1.2.1.3 Uses of Hibiscus sabdariffa
i) Traditional culinary use
Fresh or dried calyces of H. sabdariffa are used in the preparation of herbal drinks, hot and cold beverages, fermented drinks, wine, jam, jellied confectionaries, ice cream, chocolates, flavouring agents, puddings and cakes (Bako et al., 2009; Ismail et al., 2008; Plotto, 2004; Rao, 1996). In Sudan and Nigeria, the calyces are boiled with sugar to produce a drink known as “Karkade” or “Zoborodo” (Gibbon and Pain, 1985). In Mexico this drink is called Jamaica or “agua de Jamaica ’” or “té de Jamaica”. In the West Indies the calyces can also be used as colouring and flavouring ingredient in rum (Ismail et al., 2008). The seeds are eaten roasted or ground in meals, while the leaves and shoots are eaten raw or cooked, or as a sour-flavoured vegetable or condiment (Wilson and Menzel, 1964). In Sudan, the leaves are eaten green or dried, cooked with onions and groundnuts, while in Malaysia the cooked leaves are eaten as vegetables (Ismail et al., 2008). In Africa, the seeds are roasted or ground into powder and used in meals, such as oily soups and sauces. In China and West Africa, the seeds are also used for their oil (Atta and Imaizumi, 2002). Another use for the seed is as a substitute for coffee (Morton, 1987). ii) Use in local and traditional food and medicine
Hibiscussabdariffa has been widely used in local medicines. In India, Africa and Mexico, infusions of the leaves or calyces are traditionally used for their diuretic, cholerectic, febrifugal and hypotensive effects, decreasing the viscosity of the blood and stimulating intestinal peristalsis. It is also recommended as a hypotensive in Senegal (Morton, 1987), also emollient leaf pulp is used for treating external wounds and abscesses (Neuwinger, 2000). Leung, (1996) reported that an infusion of “Karkade” calyces is also used to help lower body temperature in Egypt and Sudan. It is also prepare and used in North Africa to treat sore
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throats and coughs, and genital problems (Neuwinger, 2000). In India, a decoction from the seeds is used to relieve pain in urination and indigestion. However, Morton, (1987) it is used to treat liver disorders and high blood pressure in Chinese folk medicine. In Nigeria the decoction of the seeds is traditionally used to enhance or induce lactation in cases of poor milk production, poor letdown and maternal mortality (Gaya et al., 2009). iii) Industrial uses Roselle is also cultivated for the bast fibre obtained from the stems, which has many uses including weaving jute sacks, ropes, handbags and door mats (FAO, 2007). In Malaysia the oil is used to produce scrubs and soaps (Ismail et al., 2008). iv) Animal feed The leaves are used for animal fodder and fibre (Plotto, 2004). The seeds can be used to feed poultry as well as sheep and the residue from the seeds oil extraction can also be used to feed cattle and chicks (Elamin et al., 2012; Morton, 1987; Mukhtar, 2007). v) Special application of H. sabdariffa
Besides its importance as a food or traditional medicine in the countries of its geographic origin, hibiscus flower is traded and used worldwide today as an important ingredient in industrially produced teas and beverages. The United States and Germany are the primary markets for dried calyx. England satisfies most of its consumer’s demands by importing herbal teas form Germany (Plotto, 2004). Statistics for the volume and value of dried hibiscus imported into these markets were not available, but the major clients for hibiscus importers are herbal teas manufactures, as this plant is used as base in many
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herbal/fruit teas, along with apple peel, orange peel and lemon twist ( McCaleb, 2000 ; Plotto, 2004). d) Nutritional value of Hibiscus sabdariffa (L.) The leaves contain protein (3.3 g/100 g), fat (0.3 g/100 g), carbohydrate (9.2 g/100 g), minerals (phosphorus (214 mg/100 g), iron (4.8 mg/100 g) thiamine (0.45 mg/100 g), ßcarotene (4135 μg/100 g), riboflavin (0.45 mg/100 g) and ascorbic acid (54 mg/100 g) (Ismail et al., 2008). The nutritional composition of fresh calyx varies between studies, probably due to different varieties, genetic, environmental, ecology and harvest conditions of the plant. Early studies reported that cHs contains protein (1.9 g/100 g), fat (0.1 g/100 g), carbohydrates (12.3 g/100 g) and fibre (2.3 g/100 g). They are rich in vitamin C (14 mg/100 g), ß-carotene (300 μg/100 g), and calcium (1.72 mg/100 g) and iron (57 mg/100 g) (Ismail et al., 2008). Mohamed et al., 2009) reported proximate the constituents of red calyx as, moisture (11.00%), ash(10.60%), crude fat(0.16%), protein(7.88%) fiber(13.20%) and carbohydrate (57.16%),Ca(60mg/100g) and Fe(25 mg/100g).The seeds contained crude fatty oil (21.85%), crude protein (27.78%), carbohydrate (21.25%), crude fibre (16.44%) and ash (6.2%). In terms of minerals, the most prevalent is potassium (1329 ± 1.47 mg/100 g), followed by sodium (659 ± 1.58 mg/100 g), calcium (647 ± 1.21 mg/100 g), phosphorus (510 ± 1.58 mg/100 g) and magnesium (442.8 ± 1.80 mg/100 g). The major saturated fatty acids identified in the seed oil are palmitic (20.84%) and stearic (5.88%) acids and the main unsaturated fatty acids are linoleic (39.31%) and oleic acid (32.06%) (Nzikou et al.,2011).

 

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