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Download this complete Project material titled; Development Of Sculpture Forfunctionality: An Exploration With Terracotta In The Landscape with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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The history of sculpture from time reveals the use of varied materials as well as its
utility for a multitude of functions; amidst this too is the contentious issue of the
varied spaces in which sculpture is placed. However there was a glaring trend
since the prehistoric period of the close affinity of sculpture with architectural
spaces which seemed to have placed a kind of limitation on the freedom of
sculptors as well as the choice of space for sculpture. On the contemporary scene,
while it is known that sculptors in Europe and America have been able to liberalise
the choice of spaces exploring with a wider range of industrial methods and media,
there continued to be a noticeable trend, within the Nigeria landscape, that
sculptures continued to be entwined within architectural spaces. Worst still,
terracotta as a material for sculpture has continued to be used only for works
meant for the four walls of archy spaces, this is despite the use of more fragile
materials, like glass for sculpture in the open landscape. The objective of this
project was, therefore, to produce terracotta sculpture for the landscape in public
spaces, to be touched, walked through or stayed in temporarily. Essentially relying
on real models, diagrams and illustrations adapted to suit the intended functional
purposes, the method used was largely based on empirical observation and studio
experiment. While the making of large colossal piece of terracotta meant for
public traffic proved an arduous task in building and firing, the experienced
afforded a stimulating line of rendition and opened a new vista in the acceptance
of the degradation that affects terracotta sculptures as they get eroded by both the
inevitable natural and artificial agents of enthrophic dilapidation.




Title page .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. i
Declaration .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ii
Certification .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. iii
Dedication .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. iv
Acknowledgement .. .. .. .. .. .. .. v
Abstract .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. vii
Table of contents .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. viii
List of plates .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. x
1.1 Introduction… .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5
1.3 Objectives of the Study.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6
1.4 Scope and Delimitation of the Study.. .. .. .. .. 6
1.5 Justification of the study.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6
1.6 Significance of the study.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6
2.1 Introduction .. .. .. .. .. 7
2.2 Review of Relevant Literature .. .. .. .. .. 7
2.3 Review of related works.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 18
3.1 Introduction.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 47
3.2 Procedure .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 47
4.1 Catalogue of Studio Works .. .. .. .. .. .. 54
5.1 Prospects .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 67
5.2 Problems .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 67
5.3 Summary .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 68
5.4 Conclusion .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 69
5.5 Recommendations .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 69
References .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 71




1.1 Introduction
Sculpture has a history of functionality as well as that of the politics of the
space it occupies or its environment; two options are clearly discernible: the
interior space and the exterior landscape. Within the interior, it may be enclosed in
the inside spaces of buildings, or in dingy rooms of an underground burial
chamber or better still, meant to be concealed in the body space of a carrier who
tucked it away under the dress. For the open-air landscape it may mean sculpture
of the open arena in the public spaces, site-specific locations, and contextual
An initial reference to the function and functionality of the many ancient
flint stone implements of the pre-historic man puts the story of sculpture in the
right perspective. To tell the same story of contemporary sculptures in the open
landscape, one needs to mention the protracted romance between sculpture and
architecture since the period of the pre-historic cave dwellings. According to
Janson (1973), the first known pictures and sculptures were done on walls of caves
by people who lived in caves. The functions of such etched or engraved
sculptures, according to Gilbert and McCater (1988) were “to exert control over
the forces of nature”, the environment where the works were placed and the
restriction of such placement to the interior being in line with their condition of
living, availability of the material surface and function. Clottes (2002) agrees that
there were, probably, no better place than the walls of their shelters for such
However, with time human activities became more complex, the tempo of
religious activities equally increased with the attending ritual practices and
sacrifices, hence the choice of sculpture’s location or environment in respect to its
functions and functionality depended more on a number of factors. For example, it
became apparent to embellish open spaces like tombs and temple- adjoining –
spaces with much larger colossal pieces that were seen as the dawn of open air
sculptures. Savage (1969) and Aldred (1980) agree on the sphinx at Giza built
around 2550 BC and the Japanese bronze Budha done around the first century
A.D. as examples respectively.
Answers to the question as to why sculpture has been so long entwined
with architecture may be found in sculpture’s close association with the fabric of
the built environment which has taken it with much difficulty to shake off that
deep rooted connection. Carless and Brewster (1959) report that sculpture and
architecture have always been allied. World Book Encyclopaedia (2002) opines
that “stone masons’ skills approached that of the sculptor” simply because similar
materials are used in both. Dmoschowski (1990), from an architect’s perspective,
sees sculpture and architecture as “closely knitted”. Coldstream (1991) writes that
the distinction between the two was always blurred because it is really difficult to
isolate the moment at which sculpture emerged as specialisation and that “the
profession of stone carvers was rooted in the quarry and the lodge”.
From the above perspective, the history of the incidence of space, location,
site or environment of sculpture has been largely due to an array of influences.
Fagg and Plass (1966) agree that form follows functions and that those functions
which may be diverse have largely been responsible for where a sculpture is
placed and the arena in which sculpture inhabits. For example, personal objects as
“Akuaba” of Ghana and “Ere Ibeji” of Yoruba carvings are often meant to be
tucked in dresses where the bodily arena becomes their environments. In the same
vein, other sculptures of paraphernalia status, according to Ravenhill (1992),
surround the immediate environment of the body as dictated by their functions.
Curtis (1999) asserts that “subjects for commemoration suggested not only the
appropriate form of their monuments but also the site”. He states further that
doctors were put outside their hospitals, academics in universities and statues of
men action were erected to face the hustle and bustle of the city square. In the
contemporary scene, public role functions that took sculpture to such exterior open
spaces, traditional burial sites and modern cemeteries is not unconnected with
grave stones of the tombs of kings, the notables and the wealthy.
The demand for leisure in the modern times made sculpture to be more
accepted in leafy glades, parks and gardens and the philosophy of modernism
allowed sculptors to seek for more freedom from the overbearing influence of
architects. The ensuing parting of ways brought the cherished freedom to work
more in the open landscape. The advent of scientific discoveries, modern
techniques and rapid pace of life in 19th century, according to Arnason (1981),
brought an accompanying guarantee for the dissemination of new ideas and
Deepwell (1995) on his own highlights the growing discontent for sculpture
“enslaved” within the confines of architectural setting or four walls for museum
oriented audiences. While utilising the principles of industrial production sculptors
have tried to “liberate” sculpture from the shaky union between it and architecture.
Hammercher (1969) reports that Ducham Villion advocated for sculpture that live
in the open air day light as “something different from sculpture suitable for
architecture and architectural setting’’. For Wezzel Couzin, one of his sculptures
literally escapes from the wall assigned to it and shoots out: instead of a wall
statue, the work became a statue for the entire structure.
At the dawn of the 20th century, the issue of the environment or space of
sculpture especially in the open landscape became a contentious issue. Kastner and
Wallis (1998) state that sculptors began to question the notion of sculptural
verticality and started responding to the horizontality of the land. Noguchi (1987)
describes such move by Isamu Noguchi with his “Sculpture To Be Seen From
Mars”. Henry Moore in Read (1965) on the Time life Building Sculpture states
that: “because a work is placed in the terrace and stands freely from the building it
could be, therefore, more individualistic and complete in its own right”
In addition, Coe (1978) opines that Eldred Dale, an American artist,
believed in the enrichment of sculpture for the open landscape such that the
physical world, as a lab, becomes the open air studio, galleries and museums for
monumental works in places like city squares, schools, centre of traffic, vast arid
land and to punctuate jungles.
Whether aesthetically, physically or otherwise, all works of arts in the open
landscape perform a kind of function or the other. The likes of the environmental
sculpture that is the focus of this research are meant for public outdoor spaces and
to be large enough for the viewer to enter and move about. These are terracotta
pieces which are designed for display in the outdoor environment in such places as
street lobbies, pedestrian malls, and open fields either as pass-through, temporary
shelters for momentary stoppages by passers-by and even domestic animals.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Amidst the wind of change as brought to the fore by sculptors in Europe
and America in line with philosophy of modernism, and with reference to the
perennial use of clay as a material by both Ceramists and Sculptors (Okpe, 2004),
this researcher is not aware of the same level of exploration with sculptures for the
landscape in the Nigerian scene hence most works have continued to be entwined
within arch spaces. Despite its inherent qualities, prolong history of use, its low
cost and commonality, terracotta sculptures continued to be made largely for the
interior spaces as this researcher is also not aware of its extensive use for such
functional sculpture meant for practical public embrace in the open landscape in
Nigeria. The problem of this research therefore is how can terracotta sculptures be
explored in the open landscape to such a level of functionality as for people to go
in, walk around and through.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to explore the use of terracotta for
sculptures to be placed in the exterior public spaces while the other objective is to
create three dimensional terracotta sculptures for functionality as an ambience in
the public exterior spaces for practical utility.
1.4 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited in its scope to, primarily, the production of
sculptures for the open landscape using terracotta: the choice of the medium being
largely informed by its limited use for works meant for functionality as pass
through and temporary shelters outdoors.
1.5 Justification of the Study
The utter lack, absence or dearth of colossal or monumental terracotta
pieces for the public spaces in the open land space within Nigeria landscape forms
the basis of justification for this research. This is further strengthened by the fact
that the pieces are to be subjected to one form of public physical functionality or
the other.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Sculptures in open spaces in various media may have been done elsewhere
and especially in Nigeria. The bulk of the work of this research in an attempt to
stretch the context of the use of sculpture to such limit of functionality demanding
a public romance. This is in addition to bridging the yawning gap of such pieces in
a material like terracotta, an unusual phenomenon in the Nigerian landscape.

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