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Does Energy Price Enhance Energy Efficiency in Nigeria?

Chapter One


This study employed a quantitative survey research design to investigate the intricate relationship between energy prices and energy efficiency in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was meticulously designed to collect data from a targeted sample of 120 respondents within the energy sector. The survey instrument focused on eliciting responses related to historical trends in energy prices, patterns of energy efficiency, and the perceived impact of energy prices on energy efficiency over the past decade. Data collected from the respondents were presented and analyzed using SPSS27, a robust statistical software, that provides a comprehensive overview of the survey results. To test the formulated hypotheses, a one-sample t-test was conducted with an assumed mean of 0, considering a critical table value of 2.92 at a 5% level of significance. The findings of the t-test revealed several noteworthy insights. Firstly, there was a significant correlation between energy prices and energy efficiency in Nigeria, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions to enhance energy conservation practices. Secondly, historical trends in energy prices aligned with historical patterns of energy efficiency, suggesting a synchronicity that could inform future energy policies. Lastly, changes in energy prices exerted a significant impact on energy efficiency over the past decade, highlighting the dynamic nature of the energy landscape in Nigeria. In conclusion, this study contributes valuable insights into the factors influencing energy efficiency in Nigeria, with implications for policymakers, industry stakeholders, and the general public. The results emphasize the importance of considering historical trends, external influences, and governmental policies in shaping sustainable energy practices. As a result, recommendations include the implementation of targeted awareness campaigns, the formulation of adaptive energy policies, and the promotion of energy-efficient technologies. These findings collectively contribute to the ongoing discourse on sustainable energy practices in Nigeria, fostering a foundation for informed decision-making and future research endeavours in this crucial field.




Background to the Study

Energy efficiency plays a pivotal role in the pursuit of sustainable development, particularly in developing nations such as Nigeria. As a country grappling with the challenges of a burgeoning population and a rapidly expanding industrial sector, Nigeria confronts the pressing issue of managing its limited and often insufficient energy resources. The interdependence of energy prices and energy efficiency stands out as a crucial aspect in this context. Scholars and policymakers worldwide have extensively examined the intricate relationship between energy prices and the effectiveness of energy utilization. The most recent studies, such as Golubchikov’s “Green Homes: Towards Energy-Efficient Housing in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Region” (2019), shed light on the contemporary strategies and initiatives aimed at enhancing energy efficiency, offering valuable insights for sustainable development in Nigeria.

Nigeria, being the most populous country in Africa, faces a unique set of challenges concerning energy efficiency. The energy demand is soaring due to population growth and industrial expansion, exacerbating the strain on already limited resources. The recent study by Golubchikov (2019) emphasizes the importance of green homes and energy-efficient housing as crucial components of a sustainable energy strategy. The adoption of such practices not only aligns with global environmental goals but also addresses the specific challenges faced by developing countries like Nigeria. Green homes contribute to reducing energy consumption, mitigating the impact on the environment, and fostering a more sustainable and efficient energy landscape. This approach resonates with the broader concept of energy efficiency, emphasizing the need for innovative solutions to accommodate the rising energy demands in the face of resource constraints.

In the realm of energy policy and behaviour, recent research by Laitner et al. (2019) explores the scale of the behaviour-energy efficiency continuum. This examination provides insights into the factors influencing individual and collective energy-related decisions. Understanding the dynamics of energy behaviour is critical for formulating effective policies and interventions. The study suggests that the continuum spans a wide range of behaviours, from individual actions to broader societal patterns, underscoring the complexity of achieving energy efficiency goals. This complexity is particularly relevant to a country like Nigeria, where a diverse range of factors influences energy consumption patterns. Incorporating insights from studies like Laitner et al. (2019) into policy frameworks is essential for developing targeted and effective strategies that address the specific challenges and opportunities in the Nigerian context.

Furthermore, the theory of planned behaviour, as reviewed by Godin and Kok (2018), provides a valuable framework for understanding how individuals’ attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control influence their intentions and behaviours related to energy consumption. Applying this theory to the Nigerian context can offer valuable insights into the cultural and social factors that shape energy-related decisions. By understanding the determinants of behaviour, policymakers can tailor interventions to encourage energy-efficient practices that resonate with the population’s values and beliefs. Godin and Kok’s (2018) work serves as a contemporary reference that underscores the importance of behavioural aspects in the quest for energy efficiency, urging a more nuanced and culturally sensitive approach to policy formulation.

Statement of Problem

The statement of the problem is critical in identifying the specific challenges and gaps in the existing knowledge that the research aims to address. In the context of energy efficiency in Nigeria, recent studies, such as Golubchikov’s work on “Green Homes: Towards Energy-Efficient Housing in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Region” (2019), highlight the importance of sustainable housing practices. However, despite these advancements, Nigeria continues to face substantial challenges in managing its energy resources efficiently.

The demand for energy in Nigeria has surged due to rapid population growth and industrial expansion. This heightened demand places immense pressure on the already limited and insufficient energy resources, exacerbating the need for effective energy efficiency measures. The complex relationship between energy prices and energy efficiency, as explored in Golubchikov’s study, adds another layer of intricacy to the problem. Understanding how energy prices impact energy efficiency is crucial for developing targeted policies that align with the country’s economic and sustainability goals.

Moreover, recent research by Laitner et al. (2019) delves into the scale of the behaviour-energy efficiency continuum, emphasizing the importance of understanding individual and societal behaviours related to energy consumption. This brings attention to the need for a nuanced understanding of the cultural and social factors influencing energy-related decisions in Nigeria.

The economic dimension, as evidenced in Odularu and Okonkwo’s study on the relationship between energy consumption and economic performance in Nigeria (2019), introduces a further layer to the problem. Balancing the imperative for economic growth with the necessity for energy efficiency poses a complex challenge that demands careful consideration.

In summary, the statement of the problem revolves around the multifaceted challenges faced by Nigeria in optimizing its energy efficiency. It encompasses the need to address surging energy demand, understand the impact of energy prices, navigate behavioural complexities, and strike a balance between economic aspirations and sustainable energy practices. The recent literature provides a foundation for recognizing and probing these issues, forming the basis for a comprehensive investigation into the intricacies of energy efficiency in Nigeria.

Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study were as follows:

  1. To assess the historical trends of energy prices in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the historical patterns of energy efficiency in Nigeria.
  3. To analyze the impact of energy prices on energy efficiency in Nigeria over the past decade.

Research Questions

To achieve the stated objectives, the study sought to answer the following research questions:

  1. What are the historical trends of energy prices in Nigeria?
  2. What are the historical patterns of energy efficiency in Nigeria?
  3. How do changes in energy prices impact energy efficiency in Nigeria over time?

Research Hypotheses

The study formulated the following hypotheses based on the research questions:

  1. There is no significant correlation between energy prices and energy efficiency in Nigeria.
  2. The historical trends of energy prices does not align with the historical patterns of energy efficiency in Nigeria.
  3. Changes in energy prices have had no significant impact on energy efficiency in Nigeria over the past decade.

 Significance of the Study

This research holds substantial significance for multiple reasons, contributing substantially to the current understanding of the intricate interplay between energy prices and energy efficiency, with a specific focus on a developing nation like Nigeria. By delving into this complex relationship, the study adds depth and nuance to the existing body of knowledge, offering insights that can be valuable not only for Nigeria but also for other countries grappling with similar challenges.

Furthermore, the findings derived from this research carry practical implications for policymakers and energy stakeholders within the Nigerian context. As the study identifies and delineates the factors influencing energy efficiency, it equips decision-makers with crucial information to formulate and implement targeted policies. These informed decisions can potentially yield improvements in the efficient use of energy resources, aligning with broader sustainable development goals and contributing to the overall economic advancement of the country.

Beyond its immediate applications, this study serves as a stepping stone for future research endeavours. By laying down a comprehensive foundation, it invites scholars and researchers to delve deeper into related aspects, fostering a continuous and evolving discourse on energy efficiency in developing nations. The implications of the study extend beyond national borders, resonating with the global conversation on sustainable energy practices. As countries worldwide grapple with the challenges of balancing economic growth with responsible resource management, the insights garnered from this research contribute to the broader narrative, promoting dialogue and collaboration towards a more sustainable and energy-efficient future.

 Scope of the Study

The study focused on analyzing data from the past decade, covering the period from 2012 to 2022. This timeframe allows for a comprehensive examination of trends in energy prices and efficiency in Nigeria. The geographical scope of the study is limited to Nigeria, and the findings may not be directly applicable to other countries due to variations in energy infrastructure, policies, and economic conditions.

Operational Definition of Terms

To ensure clarity and consistency in the use of terminology throughout the study, the following terms were operationally defined:

Energy Prices: The cost associated with the production, distribution, and consumption of energy, including electricity, oil, and gas, expressed in monetary terms.

Energy Efficiency: The ratio of useful energy output to the total energy input in a system, expressed as a percentage. In the context of this study, energy efficiency refers to the effectiveness of energy use in various sectors of the Nigerian economy.

Sustainable Development: Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In the context of this study, sustainable development pertains to the responsible and efficient use of energy resources in Nigeria.

Policymakers: Individuals or groups responsible for formulating and implementing policies related to energy pricing and efficiency at the governmental level in Nigeria.

Stakeholders: Entities, including government agencies, businesses, and non-governmental organizations, are involved in the production, distribution, and consumption of energy in Nigeria.

Historical Trends: Patterns or changes observed over a specified period, usually expressed in terms of years, to provide context for understanding the evolution of energy prices and efficiency in Nigeria.

Correlation: A statistical measure indicating the extent to which two variables change together. In the context of this study, correlation is used to explore the relationship between energy prices and energy efficiency.

Impact: The effect or influence of one variable on another. In this study, the impact of energy prices on energy efficiency is assessed through data analysis and statistical methods.



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  • Guy, S. (2022). Consumption, Energy, and the Environment. Encyclopedia of Energy, Elsevier, New York, pp. 687–696. DOI: 10.1016/B0-12-176480-X/00553-2. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012176480X005532 (accessed on 14th December 2021).
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