Double Promotion And Academic Performance Of Pupils In Private Schools In Obio-Akpor Local Government Area
This study was on double promotion and academic performance of pupils in private schools in obio-akpor local government area. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected primary schools. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up headmasters, administrative staff, head teachers and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1Background of the study
The practice of allowing students to progress from one class to the next irrespective of their academic performance otherwise called automatic promotion or double promotion, has polarized education development stakeholders along the lines of those in support and those against. According to Steiner (1986), the origin of the policy can be traced to the 1930s and it is adopted and implemented in the perceived interest of a student’s social and psychological well-being. Arguments for and against double promotion are centered on its credibility as a viable alternative to grade retention, in the search for efficiency and better learning outcomes. Empirical and non-empirical studies conducted in both developed and developing countries to estimate the impact of automatic promotion policy and that of grade retention policy on students’ learning achievements show mixed and inconclusive results. Arguments in support for the policy as a better alternative to grade retention fall into three broad categories namely; enhancing education quality, improving internal efficiency of education and personal development of students/learners.
Enhancing the quality of education arguments point to the fact that repetition does not improve the achievement of the low-achiever, nor does it reduce the range of abilities, since each grade will carry the retained student into the next year as a source of a difference in ability (Ndaruhustse, 2008; and Peterson et al., 1987). Moreover, retaining students leads to crowding in classrooms, leading to high student-classroom ratios and high student-teacher ratios thus lowering the overall quality of education (Chimombo, 2005). By contrast, double promotion fosters equity in learning outcomes especially between male and female students (Ndaruhustse, 2008) and between rural-urban settings (Chen et al., 2010; and McCoy & Reynolds, 1999). In developing countries, female students and students in rural schools tend to register lower learning outcomes, compared to their respective counterparts
In terms of improving internal efficiency of education, the arguments highlight the policy’s ability to save costs for both governments and households since it reduces if not eliminates, grade repetition, increases survival and completion rates by reducing student dropout rates, and increases the number of years’ low achieving students spend in school (Mehrotra, 1998; Verspoor, 2006; and Ndaruhutse, 2008). Regarding personal development of learners, grade repetition is noted as having adverse effect on students’ self-esteem and motivation (Xia & Kirby, 2009). Likewise, retention stigmatizes students and impairs their natural ability to relate with their peers. This more often than not culminates into alienation of the students in question, thus resulting in eventual exiting of the schooling cycle (Holmes, 1989). Furthermore, repeating grades prolongs the actual school completion time as well as time to engage productively in the labor market, which represents a monetary cost to students over their life-cycles (Eide & Showalter, 2001).
Statement of the problem
Counter arguments against double promotion state that it negatively affects the overall quality of education since it eliminates competition, de-motivates students and teachers alike hence lowering teaching and learning outcomes (Koppensteiner, 2014; Taye, 2003; and Chohan & Qadir, 2011). By contrast, grade retention is viewed as leading to an improvement in cognitive learning outcomes (Brophy, 2006; Roderick et al., 2002; and King et al., 1999). It is worth noting that studies that have reported academic gains attributable to repetition have gone on to add that the gains are short-term and as a result eventually retained students end up lagging behind, which affects their self-esteem and increases the probability of dropping out (Brophy, 2006; and Jimerson et al., 1997).
Objective of the study
The objectives of the study are;
- To ascertain the effect of double promotion on academic performance of pupil
- To ascertain whether double promotion of pupil happen only in private school
- To ascertain whether double promotion affect pupils’ self-esteem and motivation
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no effect of double promotion on academic performance of pupil
H1: there is effect of double promotion on academic performance of pupil.
H02: double promotion affects no pupils’ self-esteem and motivation
H2: double promotion affects pupils’ self-esteem and motivation
Significance of the study
The study will be very significant to students, ministry of education and teachers. The study will give a clear insight on double promotion and academic performance of pupils in private schools. The study will also serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on the related topic
Scope and limitation of the study
The study covers double promotion and academic performance of pupils in private schools. Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Definition of terms
Double promotion: The major acceleration option discussed in primary school is grade skipping, sometimes called double promotion in other words, advancing a child more than one grade at the end of a school year.
Academic performance: Academic performance or academic achievement is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.