This is a survey research designed to investigate the factors responsible, for drug abuse in Maiduguri metropolis, in Borno State. To this end, three objectives and three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The three objectives were spelt out as follows:- (a) To identify he drugs that are commonly abused and factors associated with such drugs abuse. (b) To determine gender differences in relation to drug abuse among secondary schools students. (c) To find out whether guidance services are provided. And the four research questions were: (a) what are the drugs commonly abuse by secondary school students (b) is there gender difference among secondary school students on drug abuse (c) is there any form of guidance services provided on drug abuse in secondary schools. The population of the study comprises of all secondary school in Maiduguri using purposive sampling about eight (8) secondary schools were selected. About 160 teachers were used as respondent. The study used self-developed questionnaire as instrument comprising of dichotomous and like scale items. Descriptive statistic was used to analyses the data and the results revealed, that most commonly abused drugs include tobacco, alcohol, valium, marijuana e.t.c Also there is no gender difference on drug abuse among secondary school students, in addition guidance services are not provided in secondary schools. The study recommends that school authorities should sensitize students on dangers of drug abuse more often in addition to National Drugs Law Enforcement Agency (N.D.L.E.A) and National Agency for Food Drug Administrative and Control (NAFDAC) campaign on such cases. School authorities and agencies saddle with drugs control should be sensitive on gender when it comes to campaign on drug abuse. Ministry of education, should engage services of experience drug abuse and other social vices.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certification – – – – – – – – – – -ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – -iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – – -iv
Table of Content – – – – – – – – – -v
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – -viii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – – -ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – -1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – -7
1.3 Objective of the Study – – – – – – – -7
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – – – -8
1.5 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – -8
1.6 Scope and Limitation – – – – – – – -9
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms – – – – – 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Frame Work – – – – – – – 11
2.2 Drugs Commonly Abused by Secondary School Students – 14
2.3 Gender Difference on Drug Abuse – – – – – 19
2.4 Guidance Service and Drug Abuse – – – – – 22
2.5 Summary of the Literature Review and Uniqueness of the Study – – – – – – – – – – – 25
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 28
3.2 Population and Sampling- – – – – – – 29
3.3 Research Instrument – – – – – – – 30
3.4 Procedure for Data Collection – – – – – – 30
3.5 Method of Data Analysis- – – – – – – 31
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Data Analysis and Result – – – – – – – 33
4.2 Summary of Finding – – – – – – – – 41
4.3 Discussion – – – – – – – – – 41
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – – 44
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 44
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 45
References- – – – – – – – – – 46
1.1 Background of the Study
A drug can be define as any chemical solid liquid or amorphous substance drive form plants; animals or mineral resources which is applied externally or internally to cause some desirable effects. To a drug also defined drug as a substance which by its chemical nature has an effect to open body of higher nervous system (the mind) the effect of drug could be positive or negative.
The concept “Drug” is as old as man himself. Many authorities or scholars form various fields of study for example, sociology, medicine, guidance counselling, psychology, pharmacy, religion and over have written and commence on drug use and abuse. The view sore however, not far being Eimiker for example Aboyemi (1960) traces country of drugs such drugs were derived from plants barks, fruits, roots and overs were taken purposely, for stomachache, headache, wound and other pain and disease. Commenting on use of drugs, Ayele (1993) complementing, Ojo-Omo (1988) says that “Drugs are natural and chemical substances used for treatment, curing and preventing of sickness and disease as well as management of abnormal situation in man. Akindele (1974) and Olutunde (1996) see drugs as: A natural substance used in retuning what has been lodt from the human body. The change may be better or worse. They are administered to enhance, activate, or improve the activities and finances of umna body”.
Drug when properly used or taking into a living organism, produces result and may modify one or more of its functional parts it is usually prescribed by a medical practitioner. Such drugs or substances are either of vegetables, animals or mineral origin. They could be prepared for the human body that produce the desired, results into the treatment of disease and achievement. The negative effect of drug is also referred to as drug abuse. Drug abuse is therefore defined as the excessive consumption of a drug by any individual. Drug abuse results when there is self-injection or from the approved medical in a manner that deviates from the approved medical usage. Drug abuse is involved in the following:
- Excessive use of drugs and use of un-prescribed drugs.
- Use of hard drugs.
Excessive use of drugs ad use of prescribed drugs. This is when an individual takes in rugs without following the current prescription of the doctors. Use of hard drugs are capable of affecting the state of the body or mind by either depressing or estimating the central nervures system or producing other biochemical harm to the society at large.
According to Agwusike (2013) drug abuse is the use of drugs above the prescribed dosage and for the purpose other than for the original prescription. To Adi drug abuse as self-treatment of physical aliment which could result from ignorance. The society of doctors and pharmacists for when at the uncontrollable ways and manners in which the drugs are contributory factors to drug abuse. Uncivilized, and developed nations, drugs other than those for commons, cough and cold remedies are sold in a doctor’s prescription. Drug abuse could be viewed from different perspectives depending on the focus under view. It could be described as a non-medical use of drug, which may cause harm to the individual and society. These could be dugs which do not conform to the society’s cultural norm of a society. People generally misuse or abuse drugs because the substance after the mode of behavior of an individual. Over the years the use of hard drugs like Tabaco, sedatives, Indian hemp, cocoa leaves, alcohol, heroine, morphine, cocaine to mention but a few have drastically been on the increase especially in this part of the world (Africa). The dependence or addition, which is psychological is characterized by the compulsion to take drugs on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience, its mental effect.
The history of drug abuse could also be traced to the urge of man wanting to have power to relieve tension, satisfy his needs obtained occasional release from problems and the need to find a cure to some aliments, all these have contributed to drug use and abuse. The use of drug by man is as old as man himself. Man consumed the juices of opium poppies long before there were narcotics such as morphine and heroine. Man chewed cocoa leaf long before cocaine was extracted from American cocoa plants. Most traditional drugs are always misused or abused because of lack of dosage to determine the quantity, required by the users. The expiration period is never stated, substances that are today referred to as drugs originated from herbs and other natural chemical caffeine, which is the main ingredient in tea or coffee and nicotine as in Tabaco or cigarette, is widely used as mind stimulant and tension relieving drugs. They are considered socially acceptable and used recreationally.
However, they produce dependence and are also known to cause harm. Other drugs although are used medically for the treatment of one ailment or the other, may also cause problems for the individual. Examples of such drugs are psychoactive drugs or sedatives like valium and magadon, which are sleeping pills and pain killers which are medically prescribed but may be abuse thus causing dependence and harm.
Drug can be classified into the following:
- Stimulants such as tobacco cocaine or coffee.
- Depressant such as alcohol and other substance of depressants, such as a heroine, morphine and opiates.
STIMULANTS:- This kind of drug stimulates the nervous system of an individual to behave extraordinarily leading such individual to misbehave. The health implication is that the individual is acting on the influence of a cultivating factor such as tobacco, cocaine e.t.c. common incident that happens around us today is on the influence of these stimulants and if care is not taken, could lead to mental disorder.
DEPRESSANTS:- These are sleep inducing drug. They are used to calm anxious and restless subjects. These are barbiturates and non-barbiturates that are capable of producing some degree of depression of the central nervous system. CNS). They are the most dangerous drugs.
HALLUCINOGENS:- These are substances that produce, a state of altered perception and other alteration of mood such as illusion, hallucination, Example of these drugs are lysergic acid diethyl lamine (LSD) phylagibin (extracted from innobrowi) magaline. Drug abuse has caused great problem to humanity. A lot of damages have been done to human health as a result of drug use and abuse and these damages could be mental, physical, emotional and psychological so that it has in a long way reduce life span of man. There are also social problem associated, with drug use and abuse. They include high rate of crime, deformity either physically or mentally and affect unborn, children whose mothers abuse drugs when they are pregnant.
The role of guidance and counselling include the following:
- To provide students with a service which directly supports and compliments the work of the classroom teachers.
- To liaise with administrators and teachers about performance, of student and the implementation of programme geared toward helping students with educational, vocational, personal and social problems.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the present problem of secondary school in Maiduguri metropolis is the abuse of drug, a drug free child is the pride of his parents. Today drug abuse is common among adolescents which include students of various secondary schools. Such students are introduced, to drugs by their friends by increased availability, of psychoactive drugs in the country and by apparent, willingness of need to try drugs and use them as a solution to one’s daily problem. It is against this background that this research intent to find out the following:
- How do the students get to know about drugs?
- How effective has been the word of the guidance and counseling on drugs abuse.
- Which among the drugs is commonly abused.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The researcher aimed at achieving the following objectives,
- To identify the drugs that are commonly abused and factors associated with such drugs abuse.
- To determine there is gender differences in relation to drug abuse among secondary school students.
- To find out whether guidance services are adequately provided.
1.4 Research Questions
In the course of carrying out this research work, the research will attempt to proper solutions to the following questions:
- What are the drugs commonly abuse by secondary school students’?
- Is there gender difference on drug abuse among secondary school students’?
- Is there any form of guidance services provided on drug abuse in secondary school?
1.5 Significance of the Study
If one takes into consideration the increasing population of drugs abusers among secondary schools one could anticipate that in the near further everybody will become a victim. The research study related to theory, knowledge and policy. It with therefor enable teachers parent and other to know about antisocial, behavior of students and find out means of controlling such behavior.
This research is intended to help produce relevant solution on how to tackle these problems by focusing on the causes of the drugs abuses and how far it has been brought under control by guidance and counseling, rather than the administration of punishment on drug abusers.
The study is to enable the students to be sensitive, and awaken them to desist from joining their peer group in this undesirable act. At the end of the study a copy of this work will be kept in the library for any students that come across it to enable him/her to realize the dangers of indulging in drug abuse.
The research is going to be the source of help to parent’s government and society at large because it aimed, at reflecting the reality of drug abuse in our secondary schools and its effects on our youths and on the further of our nation. It also aimed on how it can be effectively, reduce in our secondary school.
1.6 Scope and Limitation
The study will cover some selected secondary schools in Maiduguri metropolis council of Borno state. It will however be limited to specific drugs of dependency such as depressant drugs stimulant and hallucinogen e.t.c.
The following are the selected secondary schools, in Maiduguri metropolis which the study will cover:
- Federal Government College Maiduguri (FGC)
- Government College Maiduguri (GCM)
- Government Girls College Maiduguri (GGC)
- Government Day Secondary School (GDSS)
- Brigadier Spring Secondary School (BSC)
- Himma Private Secondary School Maiduguri (HPSS)
- Maiduguri International Secondary School (MISS)
- Success Private Secondary School Maiduguri (SPSS)
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Drugs: any substance that can affect the activity, of the body.
Drugs Abuse: means taking of a drugs without doctor’s prescription or advice.
Drugs Abuser: as someone who is abusing drug that if he/she uses drugs continually in an abnormal way.