Drug Abuse And It’S Effect On Matrimonial Home
The main objective of this study was to establish the effect of drug abuse on the matrimonial homes. Particularly, the study sought to establish factors that lead to high drug consumption households, determine the effect of drugs on the matrimonial home, find out the effect of drugs on the health of the consumers and establish the community’s reaction towards the problem of drugs in society.
This study was conducted because inspite of the well-known negative effects of drugs in society, people still continue to abuse drug. This has led to drug-related injuries, health conditions and deaths, threats to the matrimonial home, and both society and the government are reacting.
Review of relevant literature indicated that drug abuse has negative effects on the individual and his health, on the matrimonial home and on society at large. To give a better understanding of drug abuse, the social disorganization and deviance theories were applied. The study adopted a descriptive study design and used both probability and non-probability sampling methods. Data collection tools used in this study included a questionnaire, and an interview guide.
The study found out that the following factors promote drug abuse: corruption, peer pressure, idleness, marital problems, media influence and work related stress. The study established that the major impacts of drug consumption on the matrimonial home are domestic violence, marital problems, selling of family property and death. On the health of the drug abusers, the study found that drug leads to: development of a variety of health conditions including cancers and drugs liver disease, placing of a heavy burden of disease in society due to HIV/AIDS and other STIs contracted by engaging in careless sex when drunk, injuries and accidents caused when working or driving when drunk.
1.1 Background to the Problem
Since, time in memorial earliest times, herbs, roots, bark leaves have been used to relieve pain and help control diseases. History tells us that the Chinese used Opium as a cure of dysentery before the 18th century. European countries such as Britain and Holland were known to exchange opium growth in their colonies for tea and silk with China, United Nations, (1995). Unfortunately, certain drugs that initially produce effects such as sense of feeling good, elation, serenity and power have evolved into a problem of dependence and abuse.
Drug abuse is a global problem that poses a great danger to the lives of individuals, society, political and security in many countries United Nations, (2008). According to the United Nations, (2005), the use of illicit drugs has increased throughout the world and the world trend is the increasing availability of many kinds of drugs among ever widening spectrum of consumers. Of major concern is that children seem to be targeted as the new market for the drug industry globally. NAFDAC, (2012)
Africa has not been spared from the abuse of drugs by the youth. The continent, over recent years has experienced an upsurge in the production, distribution and consumption of drugs with the young youth and young adults being most affected. Africa has huge young and vulnerable populations which has become the target market for the illicit drug industry. This constitutes (56) percent of the population aged between 14 – 19 years, which constitutes secondary school students. In Ethiopia, it is reported that (82) percent of the street children in Addis Ababa use some kind of a drug, United Nations, (2013). According to the United Nations statistics (2013), 37,000 people in Africa die annually from diseases associated with drug abuse. The UN estimates that there are 28 million drug users in Africa.
An International Conference on drug abuse in Kampala, (2013) reported that young people in consumption countries were the most vulnerable section of the population, especially those in the period of early and late adolescence who are mostly unable to resist peer pressure and start experimenting with drugs in schools or even outside the school.
In recent times however; drug consumption has been identified as a risk factor for many health, social and economic problems of communities. World Health Organization (WHO) report identified drug as being responsible for nearly 60 types of disorders and injuries (WHO, 2000). Drug consumption has been recognized as the fifth leading risk factor, next only to underweight, unsafe sex, blood pressure and tobacco usage (WHO, 2002).
Traditionally the adverse effects of drug use have been linked only to the acute immediate effects (states of intoxicatedness) and long-term effects of drug dependence (resulting from habitual, compulsive and long-term heavy taking). Numerous other common and frequent public health effects as well as the social and economic aspects have not been recognized by health professionals and policymakers. Drug consumption, in a dose-response manner, but especially heavy taking and drug use disorders, increases the risk of contracting TB and pneumonia, as well as the progression of TB and HIV (Rehm, Anderson, Kanteres, Parry, Samokhvalov and Patra, 2009).
1.2 Problem Statement
There is a wide range of negative effects associated with consumption of drug. Individuals who consume drug are more likely to experience a wide range of effects, among which include problems like: unwanted, unplanned, and unprotected sexual activity ; social problems; physical and sexual assault; physical problems; problems at school; legal problems; disruption of normal growth and sexual development; higher risk for suicide and homicide; drug-related car crashes and other unintended injuries; memory problems; drug abuse; changes in brain development; and death from drug poisoning.
Individuals are in most cases likely to be involved in risky behaviours after consuming drug and thus putting their lives in danger, as well as threatening the safety of the general population in the neighbourhood at large. According to a study conducted by Centre for Disease Control (CDC), consumption of drug has been found to be greatly linked to the practice of risky-sexual behaviours and other social problems (CDC, 2006).
It was also revealed from the study conducted by CDC that 33.9% of students nationwide were found to be sexually active. It was also further revealed that among those students who were found to be sexually active, 23.3% had consumed drug before their last occasion of sexual intercourse (ibid.).
Studies conducted revealed that male individuals were found to have been under the influence drug before their last occasion of sexual intercourse (27.9%) in comparison to 19% of females who reported using drugs or drug before their last occasion of sexual intercourse. These rates were also found to be higher among Hispanic (25.6%) and White (25%), than among Black (14.1%) individuals (CDC, 2006).
These risky sexual behaviours affect the welfare of adults and thus result into elevated possibilities for the contraction of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and AIDS as well as unplanned pregnancies. The potential for an unplanned pregnancy may result in fetal drug spectrum disorders which is a leading cause of mental retardation and this has drastic effects on the social development of individuals in particular and society at large (Jones & Smith, 1973).
Studies have also revealed that adolescents who indulge in underage taking are more likely to be exposed to a high risk of developing structural and functional changes in the course and process of their brain development. In addition to that, animal studies have also revealed that binge taking; especially among the adolescents has a drastically great detrimental effect on human memory and on motor impairment as well. The frontal cortex is also negatively affected as a result of drug consumption. Damage to the frontal cortex was also found to have significant affects regarding the development of self-regulation, problem solving, judgment, reasoning, and impulse control (Rodd et al., 2004).
In developed countries, a lot of studies have been done on the socio-economic impacts of drugs; and this study seeks to add to the knowledge and information base of Nigeria n the same by looking at both the family as a unit and rural society as a whole. Besides, Eastern Nigeria and Imo State in particular has been notorious of drugs menace and as such, the effect of drugs is more adverse and a survey of the same would be much holistic.
Therefore, the knowledge gap on why drugs has become a problem in society and the effect of drugs on the health and family welfare of rural Nigeria will be best covered by this study.
This study was designed to investigate drug abuse and its effects on matrimonial homes covering impact on the family, and the health of the consumers as well as what society is doing about it.
1.3 Research Questions
- Why has drugs become a problem in society?
- How does drugs affect one’s matrimonial home?
- How does drugs affect the health of its consumers?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
To establish the effect of drugs on the matrimonial homes.
The study sought to achieve the following specific objectives:
- To establish factors that lead to high drug consumption households;
- To determine the effect of drugs on the matrimonial home;
- To find out the effect of drugs on the health of the consumers;
1.5 Significance of the Study
In the recent past, a lot has been written and spoken on how people (men, women and the youth) in Nigeria have consumed drug excessively, leading to the decline in their socio- economic well-being and to increased poverty levels in the country. (Mwai, 2004).
Drugs is one of the major problems in society; the effects of this disease are serious leading to deaths, visual and physical impairment among other things. Drugs causes cancer in the stomach, kidneys, and liver. Besides, drug alters the digestion of nutrients that the body needs to stay healthy.
Drugs also causes severe damage to the neurons, so it causes alterations in the body movements, loss of appetite, and depression. There are other effects in the body like gastritis and cirrhosis of the liver. All these physical consequences could cause death if one consumes drug in mass quantities. Besides, many people get used to taking drug and they can easily abuse which compounds the problem. Drugs affects family harmony leading to break-ups in extreme. Thus, the necessity for education on the impacts of the vice on the community welfare especially on the matrimonial home is undisputable. Therefore, the adverse effects of drugs have motivated this study whose main purpose is to establish the social and economic effects of drugs.
This project was prompted by: the continued drug abuse, the subsequent numerous blindness cases, family break-ups, drug-related diseases and the resultant deaths and; the desire by a sociologist to empower people against drugs by providing relevant information on the impacts of the vice on societal welfare.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Conceptually, the study is bound by the factors that promote drug consumption, the effect of drugs on the matrimonial home, and the health of the consumer. Further, the study focuses on what society both at local and national level is doing to address the problem of drugs.[email protected][email protected]