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ABSTRACT

This research investigates the effect of acrylamide grafted polyethene waste on the physico-mechanical properties of concrete composite. The investigation was first carried out by hydroxylation before chemical grafting of acrylamide onto polyethene, to serve as filler for the production of the composite. Secondly, the grafted polyethene was used to replace the weight of aggregate in the production of Concrete Composites Cubes (CCCs) of standard dimensions (15cm x 15cm x 15cm). The results obtained from Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra shows that the grafting was successful as indicated by the absorption peaks at 1639.55cm-1 and 1712.85cm-1 due to acrylamide functional group. The FT-IR spectraalso shows the presence of the other functional groups at absorption peaks of 3301.28cm-1 and 3621.47cm-1 (N – H), 1059.92cm-1, 1368.97cm-1, 1024.24cm-1, 1290.42cm-1 and 1368.54cm-1 (C – N) functional groups. The compaction factor for the concrete mixes was 0.67 – 0.97 and slump test values of 10mm – 265mm. The CCCs produced show water absorption (3% – 25%), density (1320 – 2280kg/m3), compressive strength (0.67 – 5.63N/mm2). The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) results for the morphology of the grafted CCCs shows better interaction of aggregates than the ungrafted CCCs and presented fewer voids in the fibre/pore morphology.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – i Declaration – – – – – – – – – ii Certification – – – – – – – – – iii Acknowledgments – – – – – – – – iv Abstract – – – – – – – – – v Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vi List of Figures – – – – – – – – – x List of Tables – – – – – – – – – xi List of Plates – – – – – – – – – xii List of Appendices – – – – – – – – xiii Abbreviations – – – – – – – – – xvii CHAPTER ONE: 1.0 INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – – – 1 1.1 Background of the Research – – – – – – 1 1.2 Workability of Concrete – – – – – – – 2 1.3 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 3 1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Research – – – – – 4 1.5 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 4 1.6 Limitations of the Study – – – – – – – 5 CHAPTER TWO: 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW – – – – – – – 6
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CHAPTER THREE: 3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS – – – – – – 14 3.1 Materials – – – – – – – – – 14 3.2 Methods – – – – – – – – – 15 3.2.1 Preparation of waste Low Density Polyethene – – – – 15 3.2.2 Hydroxylation of Waste Low Density Polyethene and Linear Low Density Polyethene 15 3.2.3 Grafting of the Hydroxylated Samples – – – – – 16 3.3 Characterization of hydroxylated and grafted samples by FT-IR spectroscopy 16 3.4 Preparation of Components Composite Cubes – – – – 17 3.4.1 Cement, Sand and Gravel – – – – – – – 17 3.4.2 Prepared Moulds – – – – – – – – 18 3.5 Production of Concrete Composite Cubes – – – – – 19 3.5.1 Concrete Mix Design – – – – – – – – 19 3.5.1.1 Calculation of Weight of Control Sample – – – – – 19 3.5.1.2 Calculation of Partial Replacements of Coarse Aggregate (gravel) – – 20 3.5.1.3 Mix Proportion of Concrete Composite Cubes – – – – 20 3.5.1.4 Mixing and Compaction of Concrete Composite Cubes – – – 21 3.5.1.5 Workability of Concrete – – – – – – – 21 3.5.1.6 Compaction Factor Test – – – – – – – 21 3.5.1.7 Slump Test – – – – – – – – – 23 3.6 Curing of Concrete Composites Cubes – – – – – 24 3.7 Drying of the Concrete Composites Cubes – – – – – 25 3.8 Physical Characterization – – – – – – – 26 3.8.1 Density Test – – – – – – – – – 26 3.8.1.1 Calculation of Density – – – – – – – 26
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3.8.1.2 Calculation of Volume of Concrete Composite per Batch – – – 27 3.8.1.3 Calculation of Cement Content – – – – – – 27 3.9 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) – – – – – 28 3.10 The Sample Analysis Process – – – – – – 28 3.11 Compressive Strength – – – – – – – 29 CHAPTER FOUR: 4.0 RESULTS – – – – – – – – – 31 4.1 FT-IR of the Hydroxylated and Grafted LLDPE and LDPE – – 31 4.2 Compaction Factor and Slump Test – – – – – 32 4.3 Density Profile of Waste LDPE – – – – – – 34 4.4 Water Absorption Test – – – – – – – 36 4.5 Compressive Strength – – – – – – – 39 4.6 Scanning Electron Microscope Model – – – – – 43 CHAPTER FIVE: 5.0 Discussion – – – – – – – – – 46 5.1 FT-IR of the Hydroxylated and Grafted – – – – – 46 5.2 Compaction Factor and Slump Test – – – – – 47 5.3 Densities – – – – – – – – – 48 5.4 Water Absorption – – – – – – – – 49 5.5 Compressive Strength – – – – – – – 49 5.6 Scanning Electron Microscopy – – – – – – 50
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CHAPTER SIX: 6.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations – – – – 52 6.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – 52 6.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 54 6.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 55 References – – – – – – – – – 56 Appendix I – – – – – – – – – 59 Appendix II – – – – – – – – – 65 Appendix III – – – – – – – – – 70 Appendix IV – – – – – – – – – 71

 

Project Topics

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Research The management of waste has become a major public health and environmental concern in Nigeria and many developing countries. This concern is serious, particularly in our major towns and cities. Landfill sites in general are becoming overcrowded with waste plastics and other polymeric materials such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), High Density Polyethene (HDPE), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Low Density Polyethene (LDPE), Polypropylene (PP), Polystyrene (PS) and other resins. Most of these polymeric wastes are derived from water sachets, water bottles, detergent bottles, cooking oil bottles, milk and juice jugs, plastic pipes, shrink wrap, drinking straws, yoghurt tubes, syrup bottles, Styrofoam cups, peanut, produce bags, wrapping films, food container, “to-go” containers and shopping bags. If the production of waste cannot be prevented, then it is desirable to create an alternative use in another process instead of disposal. Therefore, many developing countries are converting these polymeric wastes into useful products. The use of polymeric and other plastic materials has been investigated for use in concrete in order to improve the properties and reduce cost of the concretes. (Zainab, et al., 2013) The developments in the last few decades have shown significant research activities and increasing applications of High Performance Fibre-Reinforced Cement-based Composites (HPFRCC). Recently in Japan some research work on some of these materials such as Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Composite (UHPFRC) and Strain-Hardening Fibre Reinforced Cement-based Composites (SHCC) were designed for particular applications varying from high requirement of high strength to
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that of high ductility.For example, Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) designed and applied to bridge decks overlays in buildings(Shann, 2012). Cement and aggregates, which are the most indispensable constituents used in concrete production are also vital materials needed for the construction industry. This has led to a continuous and increasing demand of natural materials used for their production. Meanwhile, waste materials and by-products are being generated in vast quantities causing detrimental effects to the environment. It is therefore imperative to utilize these waste materials and by-products in construction applications. Recently, there have been successful applications of local waste materials as partial replacements for cement or aggregates in manufacturing concrete products in most parts of the world.Among the waste materials, plastic is one of the most common environmental issues in the contemporary world. Disposal of these plastics is considered to be a big challenge due to its non-biodegradable nature. Most of these plastics end up in landfills and give the worst effect when they are burnt. (Ohemeng et al., 2014) 1.2 Workability of Concrete
The behavior of green or fresh concrete from mixing up to compaction depends mainly on the property called “workability of concrete”. Workability of concrete is a term which consistsof the following four partial properties of concrete namely, Mixability, Transportability, Mouldability and Compactibility. In general terms, workability represents the amount of work which is to be done to compact the compact the concrete in a given mould. The desired workability for a particular mix depends upon the type of compaction adopted and the complicated nature of reinforcement used in reinforced concrete. A workable mix should not segregate.
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a. Mixability:It is the ability of the mix to produce a homogeneous green concrete from the constituent materials of the batch, under the action of the mixing forces. A less mixable concrete mix requires more time of mixing to produce a homogeneous and uniform mix.
b. Transportability: Transportability is the capacity of the concrete mix to keep the homogeneous concrete mix from segregating during a limited time period of transportation of concrete and when forces due to handling operations of limited nature act. Any segregation that is caused during the remaining operations that follows.
c. Mouldability:It is the ability of the fresh concrete mix to fill completely the forms or moulds without losing continuity or homogeneity under the available techniques of placing the concrete at a particular job. This property is complex, since the behavior of concrete is to be considered under dynamic conditions.
d. Compactibility: Compactibility is the ability of concrete mix to be compacted into a dense, compact concrete, with minimum voids, under the existing means of compaction at the site. The best mix from the point of view of compatibility should close the voids to an extent of 99% of the original voids present, when the concrete was placed in the moulds.
The concrete workability was determined by compaction factor and slump tests carried out at the concrete laboratory of Civil Engineering Department of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 1.3 Statement of the Problem In Nigeria today, polyethene is the major constituent of solid waste generated by households which are not fully utilized for reused or recycled. Polyethene littering
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leads to untidy environment, blockage of drainages and generation of aerosols when burnt, which leads to ozone layer depletion. Management of polyethene wastes can be linked to creation of jobs, poverty alleviation and community participation. Polyethenewaste can be used as replacement of aggregate(s) in concrete mixes. However, the hydrophobic nature of polyethene wastemakes them hard to be bonded to cement and other aggregates in concrete mixes. 1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Research The aim of the study is to produce Concrete Composite Cubes using Grafted and Ungrafted waste Polyethene as a replacement of coarse aggregate in the concrete mixes. The objectives are as follows: 1. Hydroxylation of waste LLDPE and LDPE. 2. Grafting of Acrylamide onto WasteLLDPE and LDPE. 3. Characterization of hydroxylated and grafted waste LLDPE and LDPEusing FT-IR spectroscopy. 4. Production of Concrete Composite Cubes using the grafted and ungraftedPolyethene as a partial replacement of gravel aggregate. 5. Physico-mechanical analysis of the Concrete Composites Cubes using (Density, water absorption, compaction factor test, slump test, compressive strength and scanning electron microscopy. 1.5 Significance of the Study The research is expected to highlight the effect of grafted and ungrafted waste Low Density Polyethene (LDPE) as a replacement of coarse aggregate in cement concrete with the view to producing cheaper cement concretes to reduce cost in the building
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and civil engineering works. The use of waste LDPE in Concrete Composite Cubes (CCCs) will also contribute to providing environmentally friendly solution for waste LDPE disposal problems in Nigeria and the world as a whole. The conversion of waste to wealth will help in the creation of jobs to the unemployed citizens of Nigeria and foreigners. Furthermore, it will attract foreign investment in waste management industry in the country. 1.6 Limitations of the Study This research is limited to waste Low Density Polyethene (LDPE) from pure water sachets collected around the premises of Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria. The raw materials used for the production of the water sachetswere traced to be supplied by AAM plastics Nig. Ltd, Kaduna in form of granules, while the analysis of the Concrete Composite Cubes is limited to physical and mechanical properties.
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