Effect Of Co-Operative Learning On Secondary School Students’ Achievement and Interest In Chemistry In Obubra Local Government
The study examined the Effect of Co-operative learning method on Students‟ achievement in Chemistry in Secondary Schools in Obubra L.G.A. Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used quasi-experimental research design, 384 JSS II Students were sampled. The study used Chemistry Achievement Test (SOSSAT), and Test of Retention (TOR) as data collection instrument. The study answered five (5) research questions and tested five (5) null hypotheses. The data analysis tools were t-test Independent Sample, Cumulative Mean and Standard Deviation. The finding of the study revealed that JSS II Students performed better when taught Co-operative learning method compared to their counterparts taught Lecture Method. Therefore, based on the findings of this research, it is recommended that the Co-operative learning method is more effective with Students of Chemistry at Junior Secondary School than Lecture Method. The Co-operative learning method is effective for both Male and Female Students at JSS level and in Urban and Rural Schools. Based on the above the study recommended the use of Co-operative learning method by Chemistry Teachers in teaching JSS Students in Cross River State, Nigeria.
Chemistry Education is considered as necessary to be acquired at lower, middle and upper basic Education. As provided by Federal Government of Nigeria in the National Policy on Education that Secondary Schools.“ Shall teach basic subjects which will enable pupils to acquire further knowledge and skills. Every student shall offer a minimum of (10) and maximum of (13) subjects” (FGN 2004) these subjects include Chemistry as a core subject among others.
To strengthen further the need for Chemistry in nation building, the Nigerian Education Research and Development Council (NERDC) states six (6) objectives of Chemistry to be achieved by young Nigerian citizens. At both the basic Education and Junior Secondary levels as follows:
Develop the ability to adapt to his or her changing environment.
Become responsible and disciplined individual capable and willing to contribute to the development of their societies.
Inculcate the right types of values.
Develop a sense of comprehension towards other people, their diverse culture, history and those fundamental things that make them human.
Develop the capacity to recognize the many dimensions of being human in different cultural and social contexts and Develop a sense of solidarity and sharing based on a sense of security in one‟s own identity.
In order to achieve these objectives some teaching strategies are developed in order to ease teaching and learning at all Educational levels the world over, These strategies include Co-operative learning method, Aesthetic Value Strategy, Concept Mapping Strategy, Individualistic Instruction Strategy and many others. These Strategies have been confirmed by some research findings as effective. Aesthetic Value and Cooperative Learning Strategies research on the effect on Primary Pupils Chemistry Academic Performance Retention and Application in Gwale Local Government in Cross River State, shows that there is significant difference in the academic performance of primary school pupils taught Chemistry using Aesthetic Value Strategy, Co-operative learning method and those taught using conventional method (Sadauki 2012). In respect of this researchers pointed out that the techniques of teaching delivered by most of our teachers especially in the Primary and Secondary Schools is based on teacher-centered approaches, in which with the paradigm shift in the teaching practice learner is expected to take part in the lesson through discussion, sharing ideas, checking others work, use of materials and presenting finding by the members of the group. According to Ololobou (2010) the main role expected to be perform by a teacher is to move around group by group to support learners while they are carrying out the activities during the lesson. The teacher can do this through guide, clarification of instructions, supplying appropriate learning materials, as well as recording the learners respond after activity, in turn making learners to understand the lesson by summarizing what the learners‟ responses and relating with the content (topic of discussion).
As per above, teacher-centered approaches are considered ineffective due to the facts that, it create little impact on learners Academic Achievement, because the lesson is dominated by a teacher, talking to the learners where the learners remain passively listeners and recipient of knowledge. There were little or no use of materials by the learners, the learners level of abilities not taking into cognizance by the teacher. It is believed that use of learner-centered approach make teaching and learning more interesting, make the classroom environment lively, arouse learners interest and sustained their interest and attention throughout the teaching and learning process as a result of involving all learners in the lesson through pairs and group work, learners of all abilities get opportunity to think, the teacher focuses on understanding not just memorization and recall of fact. In the light of the above, the present study seeks to investigate the effectiveness or otherwise of Co-operative learning method on students‟ achievement and retention on Junior Secondary School Chemistry.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Despite the vital role Chemistry plays in preparing students to study subjects such as Government, History, Geography, Economics and Commerce at Senior Secondary School level, it also developed and orients in learners high sense of respect as well as acquisition of skills and competences necessary for self reliance, some obstacles have been discovered in the study area by the present researcher. Which includes mass examination failure, high drop-out rates, low level of students engagement in classroom instruction, conventional classroom size are relatively large ranging from 100 to 120 pupils in a class, unable to cover significant portion of syllabus by many Chemistry teachers, some teachers give note for pupils to copy in their exercise books to mention a few. The problem hinges on a determination of the extent to which the employment of Co-operative learning method in teaching JSS Students creates better academic achievement in Chemistry than the use of conventional teaching method.
However, there is the need to use innovative teaching approaches that centers on the learners to see if there will be improvement in their academic achievement and retention in Chemistry. Sequel to above, the study investigate the “Effect of Co-operative learning method on Students Achievement in Chemistry in Secondary Schools in Obubra L. G. A Cross River State, Nigeria”
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- find out the effect of Co-operative learning method on students‟ academic achievement in Chemistry in Secondary Schools in Obubra L. G. A Cross River
- assess the effect of Cooperatives Learning Strategy and Conventional Teaching Method on students‟ achievement of Chemistry in Secondary Schools.
- examine the effect of Co-operative learning method and Conventional Teaching Method on students‟ retention ability of Chemistry in Secondary Schools.
- measure the effect of Co-operative learning method on Male and Female students‟ achievement of Chemistry in Secondary Schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following are the research questions that guided the study:
- What is the difference in the mean achievement and retention scores of Students taught Chemistry using Co-operative learning method?
- What is the difference in the mean achievement scores of Students taught Chemistry using Co-operative learning method and those taught using Conventional Method?
- What is the difference in the mean retention scores of students taught Chemistry using Co-operative learning method and those taught using Conventional Method?
- What is the difference in the mean achievement scores of Male and Female Students taught Chemistry using Co-operative learning method?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
Based on the objectives of the study, the following Null Hypotheses were formulated to guide the conduct of the study to be tested at p≤0.05.
HO1: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement and retention scores of students taught Chemistry using Co-operative learning method.
HO2: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of Students taught Chemistry using Co-operative learning method and those taught using Conventional Method.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be of benefit to Cross River State Ministry of Education as it will help them understand the suitability and applicability of Co-operative learning method in teaching Chemistry in Secondary Schools. Curriculum planners such as Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) Cross River Educational Research Development (KERD) State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) Nigerian Teachers Institute (NTI).
It will also be beneficial to teachers since the teachers in the classroom are the main force or engine room of curriculum implementation. They ensure the implementation of curriculum according to specifications. They decide on the kind of methods, strategy, resource and evaluation techniques that are best suitable for a particular lesson.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study which was conducted in all Secondary Schools in Obubra L. G. A Cross River State was aimed at investigating the Effect of Co-operative learning method on Students’ Achievement in Chemistry in Secondary Schools in Obubra L. G. A Cross River State, Nigeria. Only Co-operative learning method and Conventional Method were used for the study. Also JSS II Students was used throughout the study which lasted for six (6) weeks.
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