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ABSTRACT

The research study was to determine the adoption of green chemistry in the Reduction of pollution in Edo State, Nigeria. The research looked at various factors cited as green chemistry adoption this include green energy consumption, water and liquid waste, air quality and green house gas emissions, green building and design and solid waste management. The study was guided by the following research objectives: to determine the extent of adoption of green chemistry in the Reduction of pollution in Edo State, Nigeria and to establish the factors influencing adoption of green chemistry by reduction of pollution in Edo State, Nigeria. The research used cross-sectional census survey design to collect quantitative by use of primary data questionnaires. This was preferred as it could enable the researcher to obtain complete and possible accurate information. The population was 31 hotels and the response number was 24 of the hotels. The data collected was then analyzed by use of SPSS. The presentation of data was by tables with frequencies and percentages to show the statement rate under study. The findings indicated that many Edo State hotels are frequented by visitors from Europe with many of them being adults of over 20 years. The research also showed over 75% of hotels in Edo have bed occupancy of less than 30 beds making them small hotels and many hotels are over 15 years old. Of the green chemistry adopted. Eco-friendly building and designs led in adopting green chemistry followed by solid waste management, then water and liquid waste management, then green consumption and efficiency air finally clean air quality management and water control as the least variable adopting green practice. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter one presents the introduction of the study, chapter two reviews the literature for similar study, chapter three describes how the study was conducted, chapter four shows the research study findings and chapter five gives the discussions and conclusions for the study. The overall study recommendations should be that the tourism and hospitality industry should act fast and implement green chemistry since there are potential benefits to the State. The overall research study revealed that hotels in Edo have started to appreciate the eco- friendly practices in running and managing their hotels and that there is still room for improvement in adopting green chemistry. The research has also shown that the main drivers for hotels to adopt green chemistry is hotel policy and the customer‟s attractions to green chemistry and the accrued benefits the hotels get in saving.

 

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

Green chemistry is an environmental aspect that institutes and follows ecologically sound programs such as water and energy savings, reduction of solid waste and consumption of energy. Environmental management embraces both technical and organizational activities aimed at reducing the environmental negative impact caused by firms operations, (Salzman, 2000) hence the long term planning of environment management activities determines the environmental strategy of a firm, this strategy may differ depending on the industry , the characteristics of each organization and its implication on the environment, the importance of the natural environment has been addressed in the context of services in general and in the case of the hospitality industry in particular (Schendler, 2001).

 

This study was based on resource based theory, institutional theory and theory of planned behaviour. The resource based theory of the firm defines the firm as a broad collection of resources possessing and deploying heterogeneous and immobile resources. It provides valuable insight into the competitive advantage that exists when an organization increases its level of environmental commitment. From an institutional perspective, firms operate within a social framework of norms, values and taken for granted assumptions about what constitutes appropriate or acceptable economic behaviour, it suggests that the motives of human behaviour extend beyond economic optimization to social justification and social obligation. This is a result of an organization developing competitive capabilities such as total quality control, cross functional and cross stakeholder management (Aragon-Correa & Sharma, 2003) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) which has a strong predictive utility for a wide range of human behaviours. As in the original theory of reasoned action, a central factor in the theory of planned behaviour is the individual‟s intention to perform a given behaviour. Intentions are assumed to capture the motivational factors that influence a behaviour; they are indications of how hard people are willing to try, of how much of an effort they are planning to exert, in order to perform the behaviour.

 

While hotel and hospitality sector is one of the fastest growing forms of tourism, the economic environment of coastal tourism is unquestionable. The tourism aspect of Edo State lies in the fact that it is a unique State amongst ancient for its rich cultural heritage and architectural buildings and art. It consists of the Edo mankind side and the Edo archipelago (Pate Island, Kiwayu and Manda Toto) and the major hotels such as Maljis and Peponi hotels. Edo is Nigeria‟s oldest State continually inhabited town; it is one of the original Swahili settlements along coastal East Africa founded in 1370. (Edo Tourist Association, 2021). In addition it is home to over 50 mosques in Edo Island, including the Riyadha Mosque built in 1900 and a donkey sanctuary. The island has no motorized vehicles. Transportation and heavy work is done with the help of donkey transport. It is home to the Maulidi festival which celebrates Mohamed birth. The Edo cultural festival, a colourful carnival is usually held in the last week of August which since 2000 has featured traditional dancing crafts including kofia embroidery and dhow races. (Edo Tourist Association, 2021).

 

1.1.1  Green chemistry

Green chemistry have become increasingly relevant. There is a demand for businesses to take responsibility for what they are contributing to declining environmental state (Lynch, 2008). The notion of “green business” emerged at the end of the 20th century in the wake of the ever increasing public concern about the sustainability of economic development. The latter, in turn, was roused up by the growing awareness of environmental issues such as the accelerating depletion of natural resources and the deterioration of environmental quality. While the origins of the modern “green movements” can be traced down to the middle of the 1960s, it took almost 20 years for businesses to adapt to the “greening” trends and adopt them into its ideology and practice, coining the term green business for that purpose (Sara, 2012). However, even today, the substance of the green business concept is rather ambiguous as demonstrated by the variety of its definitions that could be found in different sources. Furthermore, green business practices are still far from being universally embraced and applied by business entities around the world, with perceptible differences of business penetration by the “green” ideas in various countries. This is due to several reasons, one of them being the fact that the “greening of business” is still largely perceived as an extra burden (in terms of cost increase or revenue loss), and the other

 

reason being related to the national specifics in terms of cultural, political, and economic differences (Mensah, 2007).

 

Becoming green is a multifaceted process; there are various practices that can be applied when business wants to shift to a green behaviour. Business should participate at least in one of “4Rs” – reduction, reuse, recycling, and recovery (Kassaye, 2001). Each of those “Rs” can be achieved through several practices, some of which might serve the purpose of more that one “R”. “R” as reduction has a twofold meaning: as a reduction of resource consumption and a reduction of waste. A typical example of the first type of practice is the reduction of energy consumption, example by replacing incandescent lamps with energy-efficient compact fluorescents bulbs which enable to save up to 75% of energy, or simply by turning off electronic appliances when they are not in use. In order to save trees, some companies recommend printing on both sides of paper or to print only the main documents. Application of green packaging might serve either one or both goals of reduction: some companies minimize the volume and weight of packaging, while others strive to reduce packaging waste or using degradable, natural or organic ingredients for their products. Companies might also apply the “product stewardship” policy. It means that the manufacturer is responsible for waste reduction, recycling, and the use of renewable materials (Juahari, 2002).

 

However, a desire for environmental practices to be achieved at any cost and in the shortest possible time, leads to a constant, albeit very often uncontrollable environment management. In this context bringing tourism environment to a sustainable level, at the same time, enhancing the tourism product, attracting diversified clientele and upgrading the quality of the offer and services, are seen as priorities allowing for tourism development to satisfy both visitors and those who make a living out of it (UNWTO).

 

Green chemistry can be divided into the following four areas (a) energy efficiency, (b) water conservation, (c) recycling, and (d) clean air. Energy efficiency refers to activities that reduce the use of energy but provide the same level of energy service. Although it may vary by the type, size and age of the hotel facility and/or the number of rooms, the common methods of reducing energy consumption are controlling

 

temperature and retrofitting lighting. Installation of new equipment such as fluorescent lights is costly, but the benefits should be considered based on not initial costs but on the entire life cycle (Bohdanowicz, 2006). Water conservation refers to reclaiming wastewater for different purposes and reducing the usage of water (David, 2001).

 

1.1.2  Adoption of Green chemistry

The natural environment is increasingly being viewed as a pillar of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility). Research on CSR and environmental sustainability in the management literature is converging because of shared environmental, economic, and social concerns (Montiel, 2008). In 1995, Shrivastava identified a shift in businesses to „ecocentric‟ management, highlighting an increase in ecologically sustainable organization environment relations. Organizations operating under the ecocentric paradigm „establish harmonious relationships between their natural and social environments. They seek to systematically renew natural resources and to minimize waste and pollution‟ (Shrivastava, 1995). A number of variables have been used to identify and assess environmental responsibility, including the existence of pollution abatement programs, the extent to which an organization conserves natural resources, involvement in voluntary environmental restoration, eco-design practices, or the systematic reduction of waste and emissions from operations (Montiel, 2008).

 

Regulatory compliance and social responsibility to address environmental impacts are components of corporate environmental management, which (Montiel, 2002), is driven by legal and/or social sanctions. However, the underlying thread in the literature on environmental strategy is that through a complex web of constituents, whether customers, shareholders, investors or employees, environmentalism becomes transformed from something external to the market environment to a core objective of the arm. In recent years, the environment has been one of the factors of greatest interest in terms of the market‟s attitude toward CSR (Bird, 2007). Indeed, some reports point at improved financial performance as a result of environmental performance development (Klassen & McLaughlin, 1996). Similarly, (Welford, 2007) and (Kassinis & Vafeas, 2006) found the environment to be the most important concern for stakeholders in a company‟s CSR efforts. Wahba, (2008) explored the moderating effect of financial performance on the relationship between corporate

 

environmental responsibility and institutional investors and concluded that environmental responsibility had a positive and significant effect on institutional ownership, although this was the case only when financial performance was high. Another perspective of a corporation‟s role in environmental management suggests that top management‟s green commitment is a factor, among others, influencing the formulation of different types of corporate environmental practices (Lee and Ball, 2003).

 

As pollution mounts, global warming increases and natural resources are being depleted, the need to go green is more important than ever. Natural resources are depleted when we log forests, fish, use water and exploit available natural resources. Global climate change is a serious problem now that we have exceeded the sustainable level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The tourism sector uses a lot of natural resources and can contribute a lot in conserving them by applying green chemistry. Tourism and the environment go hand in hand. Tourism visit game parks, scenic areas and farms, go fishing, boat rides and sailing. Tourism use beaches, forests and natural scenic areas. However, global climate change threatens to raise sea levels, which could flood coastal areas, melt glaciers and snow packs which may cause areas to be dry and arid. The result is the areas and activities once enjoyed by tourists are made less attractive and hospitable (KAHC, 2021).

 

1.2  Research Problem

Green chemistry have become more relevant in everyday life (LaVecchia, 2008). Green businesses operate using standards that solve, rather than cause, environmental and social problems. These businesses utilize principles, policies, and practices that improve the quality of life for their customers, employees and community. These practices are instituted as a means to reduce the production of greenhouse gases, conserve natural resources and cut costs to business owners (O’Brien, 2002). It is important to remember that instituting green chemistry is not necessarily something that can be visible to customers. Awareness of the world‟s environmental issues such as global warming, carbon emissions, toxic substance usage, and resource scarcity has escalated over the past decades. Policy makers and activists are advocating for going green, and many organizations throughout the world have responded to this by applying green principles (Xie and Breen, 2012).

Tourism and hospitality industry in the coastal region is commonly recognized as an important role in economic growth and continues to expand at a rapid rate (KNBS, 2014). Tourism development has been a profitable economic tool, making it an alluring industry and form of development for many countries and regions around the world. The hospitality industry incurs huge operating costs due to its nature of consuming large amounts of energy and water resources. Hotels equally incur huge costs in the operational departments of housekeeping, kitchen and laundry. While there are a number of ways in which costs can be addressed, green operation practices have been found significant in managing the costs of operations in organizations and enhance operational performance (McCrea, 2010). These practices can be adopted by hotels and hospitality industry in the areas of energy and water conservation, waste reduction, indoor air quality and environmental education.

 

Related studies have been on green chemistry (Sara, 2013) Report of lean management and supply management: their role in green chemistry and performance London examined that Organizations are faced with increasing pressure to engage in sustainable development and to integrate environmental and social dimensions into their traditional performance metrics. Lean management and supply management are potentially important determinants of environmental performance and can be seen as capabilities that ease the adoption of environmental practices therefore supply management as well as lean activities provide means by which environmental actions can be encouraged leading then to improved environmental performance (Qinghua, 2004). On relationships between operational practices and performance among early adopters of green supply chain management practices in Chinese Manufacturing enterprises examined that green supply chain management (GSCM) is emerging to be an important approach for Chinese enterprises to improve performance, possibly on both these dimensions. GSCM has emerged as an important new archetype for companies to achieve profit and market share objectives by lowering their environmental risks and impacts and while raising their ecological efficiency. Mugabe (2013), on green management practices and supply chain performance of pharmaceutical companies in Nairobi, Nigeria examined that green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) has emerged as an important component of the environmental and supply chain strategies for a number of companies and, they have been aiming at integrating environmental concerns in their business operations and in interactions with their stakeholders in embracing environmental sustainability into business strategies. Whilst the issue of green chemistry in the tourism industry is sparse, there is a need to explore the hotel and hospitability firms in Edo. This study seeks to answer the research questions: To what extent has reduction of pollution in Edo State adopted green chemistry?

 

1.3  Research Objectives

The research objectives for this study are:

  1. To determine the extent of adoption of green chemistry in the Reduction of pollution in Edo State, Nigeria.
  2. To establish the factors influencing adoption of green chemistry in reduction of pollution in Edo State, Nigeria.

 

  • Research Questions
  • What is the extent of adoption of green chemistry in the Reduction of pollution in Edo State, Nigeria?
  • What are the factors influencing adoption of green chemistry in reduction of pollution in Edo State, Nigeria.

 

1.5  Significance of the Study

Green chemistry adoption being one of the major initiatives in the tourism industry and the world at large the study will be important to various stakeholders mainly the tourism industry players and largely contribute to the theoretical view on the adoption of green chemistry in the reduction of pollution.

 

The findings of this study can be important to policy makers as it may help them formulate policies that can steer the industry to put in place appropriate infrastructure that may empower the hotel and hospitality industry towards green chemistry in order to maintain environmental management practices. The academic fraternity will find the report important in helping them understand green chemistry in the tourism sector. In effect it will open up research and study opportunities in areas not adequately covered in the report. The study will be a source of reference material for future researchers on other related topics. It will also help other academicians who undertake the same topics in their studies.

1.6  Limitations of the Study

This study was limited by the fact that some respondents deemed the information required as confidential. As such, some questions were left unanswered. Because a qualitative questionnaire survey was used, a limitation to this study is that the results may suffer from the respondent bias. Participants may modify their responses to be socially acceptable or to appear rational and logical. For example, respondents would not incriminate themselves by suggesting they do not adopted green chemistry or that they do not or could not implement them. Nevertheless, the fact that the survey was voluntary and anonymous may have minimized this problem to some extent and language barrier was an issue because the respondent management were not Nigerian based.

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