• Format: ms-word (doc)
  • Pages: 85
  • Chapter 1 to 5
  • With abstract reference and questionnaire
  • Preview abstract and chapter 1 below


Effect of Herders and Farmers Conflict on the Socio-economic Development in Bokkos Local Government Area in Plateau State



This study investigated the socio-economic impacts of the herders and farmers conflict in Bokkos Local Government Area (LGA), Nigeria, employing a quantitative survey research design. A structured questionnaire was developed to collect data from a purposive sample of 120 respondents, reflecting the demographic diversity of the conflict-affected population. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS 27, with a focus on descriptive statistics and inferential analysis, particularly employing the one-sample t-test to test hypotheses related to agricultural productivity, community resilience, and the effectiveness of government interventions. The findings revealed significant negative impacts of the conflict on agricultural productivity, as evidenced by a mean difference of 92.25 (t = 23.511, p < .001, 95% CI [79.76, 104.74]). This underscores the severe reduction in agricultural output due to resource scarcity and disruptions caused by the conflict. Additionally, the study highlighted considerable adverse effects on community resilience and social cohesion, with a mean difference of 90.00 (t = 31.493, p < .001, 95% CI [80.91, 99.09]), indicating profound challenges in community relations and societal stability. In evaluating government policies and interventions, the study found mixed effectiveness, with a mean difference of 82.75 (t = 15.956, p = .001, 95% CI [66.25, 99.26]). While some policies showed promise in mitigating conflict impacts, gaps in implementation and coordination were evident, suggesting a need for more robust and context-specific approaches to sustainable peacebuilding. In conclusion, the study contributes to understanding the complex dynamics of the herders and farmers conflict in Bokkos LGA, emphasizing its multi-dimensional impacts on agriculture, community well-being, and governance. The findings underscore the urgent need for integrated strategies that address both the immediate socio-economic repercussions and the underlying causes of conflict. Recommendations include enhancing agricultural support mechanisms, fostering inter-community dialogue, and strengthening institutional capacities for conflict resolution and peacebuilding.




Background to the Study

The conflict between herders and farmers has been a longstanding and pervasive issue in various regions of Nigeria, including Bokkos Local Government Area (LGA) in Plateau State. This conflict stems from competition over land resources, exacerbated by factors such as environmental degradation, population growth, and ineffective land management policies (Olatunji, 2002). In Bokkos LGA, these tensions have escalated into recurrent clashes between Fulani herdsmen and local farmers, resulting in devastating consequences for both communities.

The socio-economic impact of these clashes in Bokkos LGA is profound. According to Hussein, Sumberg, and Seddon (2021), the violence has led to loss of lives among both herders and farmers, further aggravating existing ethnic and communal tensions. The frequent disruptions to agricultural activities have significantly affected food production and security in the region (Okoro, 2022), as agricultural lands become battlegrounds for competing interests.

Furthermore, the displacement of communities due to these conflicts has created a humanitarian crisis in Bokkos LGA. As noted by Ofuoku and Isife (2023), many families have been forced to abandon their homes and livelihoods, seeking refuge in overcrowded camps or relocating to other safer areas, which strains already limited resources and infrastructure (Mikailu, 2022). This displacement also disrupts social cohesion and traditional community structures, leading to long-term socio-economic instability.

The root causes of the conflict in Bokkos LGA are multifaceted. Historical grievances over land ownership and access, exacerbated by demographic pressures and climate change impacts, play a significant role in perpetuating these tensions (Van’tHooft et al., 2021). Additionally, the failure of successive governments to effectively address land tenure issues and implement sustainable land use practices has further fueled the conflict (Zillmann, 2019).

Efforts to resolve these conflicts have been largely ineffective, with peace initiatives often failing to address the underlying issues. According to Olakiitan (2022), sporadic peace agreements and security interventions have provided temporary relief but have not addressed the structural inequalities and resource competition driving the conflict. The lack of trust between communities and government institutions also hampers sustainable peace-building efforts (Oli et al., 2023).

The economic implications of the conflict are profound, particularly for agriculture, which is the mainstay of the local economy in Bokkos LGA (Ofem & Inyang, 2022). Crop destruction and livestock theft during clashes not only result in immediate economic losses but also undermine long-term agricultural productivity and food security (Taiwo, 2020). This cycle of violence perpetuates poverty and hinders socio-economic development in the region.

In essence, the conflict between herders and farmers in Bokkos LGA, Plateau State, Nigeria, represents a complex interplay of historical, socio-economic, and environmental factors. It has devastating consequences for local communities, leading to loss of lives, displacement, economic disruption, and social instability. Addressing this conflict requires holistic approaches that tackle the root causes, promote sustainable land management practices, and foster inclusive dialogue and reconciliation among affected communities and stakeholders (Hagmann, 2023). Without concerted efforts to address these underlying issues, the cycle of violence and its detrimental impact on livelihoods and social cohesion will likely persist.

Statement of Problem

The conflict between herders and farmers in Bokkos Local Government Area (LGA), Plateau State, Nigeria, presents a significant and complex challenge that remains inadequately addressed in current research. While existing studies have explored various aspects of this conflict, considerable gaps persist, particularly in understanding the nuanced dynamics specific to Bokkos LGA.

One critical gap is the lack of detailed analysis of the specific triggers and escalation factors of conflicts in Bokkos LGA. Existing literature often provides broad overviews of herder-farmer conflicts across Nigeria but fails to delve into localised factors that contribute uniquely to tensions in Bokkos (Hussein, Sumberg, & Seddon, 2021). Without a nuanced understanding of these local dynamics, efforts to devise effective conflict mitigation strategies are hindered.

Furthermore, there is limited research focusing on the socio-economic impacts of the conflict at the community level in Bokkos LGA. While general trends and impacts are discussed in broader studies (Okoro, 2022), detailed examinations of how these conflicts affect specific communities within Bokkos, including their livelihoods, social structures, and access to basic services, are lacking. Such insights are crucial for developing targeted interventions that address the immediate needs and vulnerabilities of affected populations.

Additionally, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of existing peacebuilding and reconciliation efforts in Bokkos LGA. While some studies discuss broader peace initiatives in Nigeria (Olakiitan, 2022), there is little empirical evidence on the ground-level implementation and outcomes of these efforts specifically tailored to the local context of Bokkos. Understanding the successes and failures of past interventions is essential for refining future strategies and policies aimed at fostering sustainable peace and development in the region.

In sum, while existing research provides valuable insights into the herder-farmer conflict in Nigeria, including its causes and general impacts, there remains a critical need for localised, context-specific studies that can inform targeted interventions and policy-making in Bokkos LGA. Addressing these gaps is essential for developing comprehensive strategies that promote lasting peace, mitigate socio-economic disruptions, and foster inclusive development in the region.

Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study were:

  1. To assess the socio-economic impact of the herder’s and farmers’ conflict on agricultural productivity in Bokkos LGA.
  2. To examine the effects of the conflict on community resilience and social cohesion in the affected areas.
  3. To explore the role of government policies and interventions in mitigating the conflict and promoting sustainable peace in Bokkos LGA.

Research Questions

To guide the study, the following research questions were formulated:

  1. How has the herders and farmers conflict affected agricultural productivity in Bokkos LGA?
  2. What are the social and economic consequences of the conflict on communities in the area?
  3. What measures have been taken by the government and other stakeholders to address the conflict, and how effective have these interventions been?

Research Hypotheses

Based on the objectives and research questions, the following hypotheses were formulated:

  1. The herders and farmers conflict has not significantly reduced agricultural productivity in Bokkos LGA.
  2. The conflict has not negatively impacted community resilience and social cohesion in the affected areas.
  3. Effective government policies and interventions have not significantly mitigated the impact of the conflict and promoted sustainable peace in Bokkos LGA.

Significance of the Study

The significance of studying the conflict between herders and farmers in Bokkos Local Government Area (LGA), Plateau State, Nigeria, extends beyond academic inquiry to practical implications for policy-making, peacebuilding, and sustainable development efforts.

Firstly, understanding the dynamics of this conflict in Bokkos LGA is crucial for developing context-specific interventions that address the root causes of violence and promote peaceful coexistence. By identifying the localized triggers and escalation factors, policymakers and stakeholders can tailor strategies that effectively mitigate tensions and prevent future outbreaks of violence. This targeted approach is essential for fostering sustainable peace and stability in the region.

Secondly, the study holds significant implications for enhancing socio-economic resilience and livelihood sustainability among affected communities. By comprehensively documenting the socio-economic impacts of the conflict, such as displacement, loss of lives, and disruptions to agricultural activities, the research can inform policies aimed at rebuilding livelihoods and enhancing economic opportunities in Bokkos LGA. This includes initiatives focused on agricultural revitalization, infrastructure development, and access to essential services, which are critical for supporting community recovery and long-term development.

Moreover, the study contributes to broader efforts aimed at promoting social cohesion and reconciliation within diverse communities in Bokkos LGA. By examining the social impacts of the conflict, such as communal distrust and the breakdown of traditional systems, the research can guide initiatives that foster dialogue, mutual understanding, and collective action towards peacebuilding. This participatory approach encourages community involvement in conflict resolution processes and strengthens local capacities for managing future challenges collaboratively.

Additionally, the findings from this study can inform national and regional policies on land tenure and resource management. By highlighting gaps in current land governance frameworks and their implications for conflict resolution, the research underscores the need for reforms that promote equitable access to land resources, mitigate environmental degradation, and ensure sustainable land use practices. Such policy recommendations are essential for addressing underlying structural inequalities and promoting inclusive development across Nigeria’s diverse landscapes.

Lastly, the study contributes to academic scholarship by expanding the knowledge base on herder-farmer conflicts in Nigeria. It provides empirical insights into localized dynamics, which can enrich theoretical frameworks and comparative analyses of conflict resolution strategies. By documenting lessons learned and best practices from interventions in Bokkos LGA, the research contributes to global efforts aimed at understanding and addressing complex conflicts that intersect with environmental, socio-economic, and political factors.

Scope of the Study

The study delved into the intricacies of the conflict between herders and farmers, specifically within the confines of Bokkos Local Government Area (LGA) in Plateau State, Nigeria. It comprehensively analyzed the evolution of this conflict, tracing its origins from the initial escalation of tensions to its current status. By focusing on this specific geographical area and timeframe, the research aimed to provide a nuanced understanding of the localized dynamics at play. This approach facilitated a detailed examination of the factors contributing to conflict escalation, including land disputes, demographic shifts, and environmental pressures. Moreover, the study explored the socio-economic impacts of the conflict on communities within Bokkos LGA, shedding light on its implications for livelihoods, social cohesion, and economic stability. By documenting these insights, the research sought to inform targeted interventions and policy recommendations that could effectively mitigate tensions, promote peacebuilding efforts, and support sustainable development initiatives in the region.

Operational Definition of Terms

To ensure clarity and consistency in the study, the following terms were operationally defined:

  1. Herders: Individuals or groups primarily engaged in the rearing of livestock, including cattle, sheep, and goats.
  2. Farmers: Individuals or groups involved in agricultural activities such as crop cultivation, including staple crops like maize, millet, and sorghum.
  3. Conflict: Refers to disputes, disagreements, or clashes between herders and farmers over access to land resources, water sources, or other related issues.
  4. Socio-economic impact: The effects of the conflict on both the social and economic aspects of the affected communities, including livelihoods, infrastructure, and community well-being.
  5. Agricultural productivity: The ability of farmers to produce crops or herders to rear livestock efficiently and sustainably, considering factors such as land availability, water resources, and market access.
  6. Community resilience: The capacity of communities in Bokkos LGA to withstand, adapt to, and recover from the impacts of the herders and farmers conflict.
  7. Social cohesion: The degree of unity, trust, and cooperation among individuals and groups within communities affected by the conflict.
  8. Government policies and interventions: Refers to legislative measures, programs, or actions implemented by governmental authorities aimed at addressing the herders and farmers conflict and its impacts in Bokkos LGA.



  • Vanguard. (2018, March 24). Farmers/herdsmen crisis: 80,450 children trapped in eight IDP camps across Benue. Retrieved from https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/03/farmers-herdsmen-crisis-80450-children-trapped-eight-idp-camps-across-benue/
  • Vanguard. (2021). Breaking: Over 29 killed in fresh Plateau attack. Retrieved from https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/10/breaking-29-killed-fresh-plateau-attack/
  • Voice of the Persecuted. (2018). Death Toll in Jos, Nigeria Attacks at 218, including Pastor, Wife and Son. Retrieved from https://voiceofthepersecuted.wordpress.com/2018/07/03/death-toll-in-jos-nigeria-attacks-at-218-including-pastor-wife-and-son/
  • Yin, R. K. (2018). Case Study Research and Applications: Designs and Methods (6th ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
  • Zillmann, D. (2019). Hostility and Aggression. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 126–133.


Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 08060082010, 08107932631 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: [email protected].


Disclaimer: This PDF Material Content is Developed by the copyright owner to Serve as a RESEARCH GUIDE for Students to Conduct Academic Research.

You are allowed to use the original PDF Research Material Guide you will receive in the following ways:

1. As a source for additional understanding of the project topic.

2. As a source for ideas for you own academic research work (if properly referenced).

3. For PROPER paraphrasing ( see your school definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase).

4. Direct citing ( if referenced properly).

Thank you so much for your respect for the authors copyright.

Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 08060082010, 08107932631 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: [email protected].

Welcome! My name is Damaris I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.