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Effect Of Human Relation Practices On Employee Performance In Opobo Nkoro Council.

ABSTRACT

This research work empirically explored the effect of human relation practices on employee performance in Opobo Nkoro Council. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between human relation practices and employees performance in Opobo Nkoro Council, and identify the impact of employee’s performance on Opobo Nkoro Council output. The scope of the study is Opobo Nkoro Council in 2020 making use of its staffs, Human Relations Theory was used as a framework. The research design used for this study is survey, the population targeted for this study consists of all staffs of Opobo Nkoro Council.  150 staffs were used as sample size and cluster sampling technique was applied. Instrument used for this study is the questionnaire. Data collected were collected from primary sources. Chi-square was used to test the hypothses. From the analysis of the data, the findings shows that there is a relationship between human relation practices and employees performance in Opobo Nkoro Council, employee’s performance affect Opobo Nkoro Council’s output. Following the findings, it was recommended that proper human resource practice should be ensured in an organization, improper human resource practice affect employee performance therefore management should ensure that employees get job satisfaction, employee performance determine organizational output therefore, organization should employ possible means of improving employee performance. The study therefore concludes that human relation has a positive impact on employee’s performance in the public sector.

Keywords: human relation practice, employee performance, Opobo-Nkoro council, public sector.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page       –           –           –           –           –           –           –          –           –           –           i

Declaration                –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Approval Page           –           –           –           –           –          –           –          –           –           iii

Dedication                  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgement     –           –           –           –           –           –          –           –           –           v

Abstract         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –          –           –           vi

Table of Contents      –           –           –           –           –           –          –          –           –           vii

List of Tables –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           viii

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the study –           –           –           –          –          –           –           –           1

1.2. Statement of problem   –  –           –           –           –          –          –           –           –           4

1.3. Objectives of the study    –           –           –           –           –          –           –           –           5

1.4. Research questions           –           –           –           –           –            –          –           –           5

1.5. Research hypothesis         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.6. Significance of the study –           –           –           –           –          –           –           –           5

1.7. Scope of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.8. Operational definition of terms   –           –           –           –            –          –           –           7

1.9. Organization of the Study           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1.   Introduction                   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           10

2.2.   Conceptual Literature                –           –           –           –           —                      –           10

2.2.1. Employee Performance –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           10

2.2.2. Human Relation Practices         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           12

2.2.3.   Human Resource Practices and Employee Performance        –           –           –           14

2.2.4. Productivity      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           16

2.2.5. Overview of Opobo Nkoro Council     –           –           –           –           –           –           17

2.3.   Theoretical Review        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           18

2.3.1. Theory X and Theory Y                        –           –           –           –           –           –           18

2.3.2. Contingency Management Theory        –           –           –           –           –           –           19

2.3.3. Scientific Theory           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           20

2.3.4. Human Relations Theory          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           21

2.3.5. Expectancy Theory of Motivation        –           –           –           –           –           –           22

2.4. Theoretical Framework                –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

2.5.   Empirical Review           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           24

2.6   Existing Gaps for the study        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           29

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1.   Introduction –     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           31

3.2.   Research Design –          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           31

3.3.   Population of the Study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           32

3.4.   Sampling Size    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           32

3.5.   Sampling Technique       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           33

3.6.   Instrument for Data Collection  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           33

3.7.   Method of Data Collection        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           34

3.8.   Validity/Reliability of Instrument         –           –           –           –           –           –           34

3.8.1. Reliability test   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           35

3.9.    Method of Data Analysis         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           37

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, FINDING AND DISCUSSION

4.1.   Introduction       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           38

4.2.   Data Presentation/Analysis        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           38

4.3. Testing of hypothesis       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           43

4.4.   Discussion of Findings  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1.   Introduction       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

5.2.   Summary            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

5.3.   Conclusion         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           49

5.4.   Recommendations         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           50

5.5.   Limitations to the Study                        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           51

5.6.   Suggestions for Further Studies                        –           –           –           –           –           –           52

 

REFERENCES        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           53

 

APPENDIX   –          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           57

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Sex of Respondents   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           38

Table 2 Age distribution of Respondents       –           –           –           –           –           –           39

Table 3 Marital status of respondents             –           –           –           –           –           –           39

Table 4: Education Attainment of Respondents        –           –           –           –           –           40

Table 5: Respondents views on whether human relation practice affect employee performance

in their organization  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           40

Table 6: Respondent view on how human relation practice affect employee performance

in your organization            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41

Table 7: Respondent view on factor that gave rise to high employee’s performance            41

Table 8: Respondents view on factor contributed to high organizational performance         42

Table 9: Organization performed better as a result of good employee relationship               42

Table 10: Test of Hypothesis I            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           43

Table 11: Test of Hypothesis II          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           45

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the Study

The main objective of every organization whether private or public is to achieve organizational success. Employees are key to organizational success. Organization have realised the importance of human resource and thus tried to attract, retain and motivate them in order to achieve organizational goals. Onah (2014) what sets most successful organization apart is how they manage human resources. Organizations today gives higher priority to the issues of employees satisfaction, retention, job enrichment, job design in order to keep the employees loyal to the organization (Abid et al, 2013). Human relation practices is an important factor that makes significant impact over employees’ performance.

Manpower is the total number of all available workers in an organization. Ojohwoh (2011) manpower occupies an indispensable position in any establishment, be it an industry, commercial or educational institution.   The role and importance of manpower in the long term viability of any business or enterprises cannot be overemphasized. Manpower is the basis of all resources used and it is the indispensable means of converting other resources to mankind’s use and benefits, so how well we develop and manage human resources is fundamental in deciding how much will be accomplished as an organization and a nation; Human relation practices is of utmost importance to any organization, as it deals with how best to keep employees comfortable in their jobs, resourceful and versatile; this is expected to ensure optimal and continual performance of their assigned roles in an efficient and effective manner. The above is very important given the nature of human existence in the contemporary times (Ajieh, 2014).

The nature and characteristics of employee’s job have a great impact on workers motivation and satisfaction. Research have shown that the design of work, its content and structure affect both productivity and employee’s motivation and morale. Human relation practices has been one of the most effective tools used for optimizing an employee’s performance. An effective human relation brings about involvement of an employee in work related activities. Theories behind human relation traditionally focus on creating or changing the nature of employee’s job to improve their psychological state and therefore increase their performance outcomes. In order to efficiently influence performance, organization can use tools such as providing employees with training or performance appraisal (Wright, Gardner and Maynihan, 2003). Employee’s performance is essential to an organization, therefore it is crucial for organizations to understand how employees perceive and react to the human resource practices (Beijer, 2014; Nishii and Wright, 2007).

The aim of a human resource practices is to improve quality of employee and to reduce employees’ problems such as grievances. Saraswathi (2010) says manpower development in the organizational context is a process by which the employees of an organization are helped in a continuous, planned ways to acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles; develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own inner potentials for their own and/or organizational development processes; and develop an organizational culture in which supervisor-subordinate relationships, team work and collaboration among sub-units are strong and contribute to the professional well-being, motivation and pride of employees for the general well-being of the entire organization.

There is no doubt that in this advanced age of development and technological breakthrough, manpower must be developed to meet the challenges of modern technology, thus human resource practices is required. Trained and well-developed manpower is the essential ingredient for efficiency and effectiveness in Opobo Nkoro Council.

1.2. Statement of the Research Problem

The human resources (manpower) is considered the most critical to any organizational. Employees in every organization wants to attain fulfilment from their jobs. Today’s human resource management practices is a unique approach to employment management that aims to attain competitive advantage through the strategic improvement of well dedicated and competent workers by means of incorporated collection of cultural, structural and human resource techniques.

The fact that human resource practice are available or that employee make use of them does not imply that employees perceive the human resource practice as effective for their performance (Van de Voorde and Beijer, 2015). In Opobo Nkoro Council, the ability to achieve and sustain competitive advantage lies within the willingness of employee to perform their duties effectively. It is against this background that the researcher considered the study of effect of human relation practices on employee performance in Opobo Nkoro Council.

1.3. Objectives of the study

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of human relation practices on employee performance in Opobo Nkoro Council. The specific objectives are to:

  1. examine the relationship between human relation practices and employees performance in Opobo Nkoro Council.
  2. investigate the impact of employee’s performance on Opobo Nkoro Council output.

1.4. Research Questions

This study will be guided by the following research questions:

  1. Is there any relationship between human relation practices and employees performance in Opobo Nkoro Council?
  2. What are the impacts of employee’s performance on Opobo Nkoro Council’s output?

1.5. Research Hypotheses

The study is guided by the following hypotheses:

  1. H0: human relation practices has no impact on employees performance

in Opobo Nkoro Council

  1. H0: employee’s performance has no effect on Opobo Nkoro Council’s

output.

1.6. Significance of the Study

The critical nature of human relation practices to the success or growth of any organization is given. Empirically, this study is carried out to assess the effect of human relation practices on employee performance in Opobo Nkoro Council. This study will be important to Opobo Nkoro Council. It will teach it the importance of human relation practices and the necessary guide of a proper human relation practices so as to get maximum value from the employees.

This study will be of utmost importance to investors, government and the researchers because it will provide policy recommendations. It is hoped that the exploration of Opobo Nkoro Council will provide a broad view of the operations of public sector to the government. It will contribute to existing literature on the subject matter. This study will be of benefit to;

The Academia: members of the academia will find the study relevant as it will also form basis for further research and a reference tool for academic works.

Government: this study will reveal to the government happenings in the public sector. Formulation and implementation of policies based on this findings would ensure development in the area.

Investors: this study shall also be valuable to the investors especially those who may have research interest as it shall guide their private investment decisions.

1.7. Scope of the Study

This study is intended to examine the effect of human relation practices on employee performance in Opobo Nkoro Council in 2020.

1.8. Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms have been defined operationally.

  • Employee performance: refers to how workers behave in the workplace and how well they perform the job duties obligated to them.
  • Manpower: the total number of all available workers; the workforce. This implied the total number of employees of Opobo/Nkoro council.
  • Human relation: it explains the informal relations among employers and employees and concerned with moral and psychological rather than legal aspect of an organization. It involves relation with or between people particularly in a workplace setting.
  • Human resource management: is the way organizations manage their staff and help them to develop in order to be able to execute organizations’ missions and goals successfully. It relates to the way Opobo/Nkoro council manages its staffs.

 

 

1.9. Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction which consists of the background to the study, statement of problem, research questions, research  hypotheses,  objectives  of  the study, the  significance  of  the  study,   the scope  and  limitations  of  the  study  and  finally the  organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the literature review which consists of the conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, theoretical framework. Chapter three gives the research methodology including research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, validity/reliability of instrument.  Chapter four is presentation and analysis of data, discussion of findings. Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

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