Effect Of Job Satisfaction On The Performance Of Non Academic Staff In Michael Okpara University Of Agriculture Umudike
The topic of this project report on the Impact of Job Satisfaction on employee performance in the public sector (PS). There was a time when it was considered sound economic policy for government to establish and invest in corporation and enterprises. It was then agreed that the public sector were better for stimulating and accelerating natural economic development rather than private initiative. This research therefore aimed at investigating, identifying, analysis and presenting research findings on the Impact of Job Satisfaction on employee performance. To achieve the above aims, research hypothesis were formulated to that whether promotion has no impact on job performance, there is no relationship between salary and job satisfaction and conducive environment does not contribute to job satisfaction in the public sector. The researcher made use of research questionnaire, which were designed and distributed to employees of these the public sector. The method of analysis is the use of tables, percentage and chi-square. The major finding of the research is that promotion has a significant relationship with job satisfaction, there is relationship between salary and job satisfaction and conductive environment contribute to job satisfaction among employee in the public sector. In view of the above findings the study recommended that: 1.The public sector should see increase/prompt payment as a motivation factor, that can increase productivity in the organization. 2. Government should use employee inputs as a criteria for promotion of workers, because most of these workers in government are idle.
- Government should make the working environment conducive, so that the workers, can see their working environment as their second home. 4. The public sector should adopt management by objective in which employee should be part in decision making of the organization so that all hands will be on deck. 5. The structure of the organization should be restructure so that there will be cordial relationship between the employees and employer. 6.Working conditions should be improved and sustainable to enhance performance. 7. Management should be sensitive to the difference in needs and values among the employee. Every individual is unique and will respond differently to attempts to motive him or her. 8. Management should be sensitive to employees, complaints about low pay and unchallenging work. Too often management delude them into thinking that employees dissatisfaction can be lessened by painting work area piping in music, giving out a few more words of praise, or giving people longer work breaks.
1.1 Background of the Study
In contemporary organizations the yearning for satisfaction is the most important issue on the part of the employees. Need and environment play a pivotal role in the determination of man’s behaviour (Ujo, 2004), and Maslow (1943) identified seven important needs of human beings rated in their order of priority; these include physiological, safety, love and affection, achievement, self esteem aesthetic and self actualization needs. Ascending of these needs summed up in one word, motivation involves needs, want and Satisfaction, motivation refers specifically “to the drive and effort to satisfy an identified want or goal” satisfaction on the other hand refers to “a state of contentment experienced when a particular want is satisfied”. The issue of job satisfaction has been given much attention over the years. This is because the importance of such a concept cannot be over emphasized. When there came the emergence of large formal organizations which made management more complex followed by a shift in dependent variable, little attention was given to their impact upon job performance. The door was let open to consider the place of motivation in relation to performance and production morale, group dynamics democratic supervision and personal relations because factors that are very important and have been shown in contemporary studies as being related to job satisfaction and increased productivity. Ujo (2004) quoting Davis (1977) asserts; what employees do when joining an organization is to make an unwritten psychological contract with it, this contract is In addition to the economic contract for wages and working conditions. Employees agree to give a certain amount of work and loyalty, but in return they demand more than economic rewards from the system. They seek security, treatment as human beings and rewarding relationship with people and support in fulfilling expectations. If the organization honours only the economic contract, employees will tend to loose interest in their jobs. Following this trend, there is an agreement that job satisfaction is the extent to which a job helps one attain his important job values. This agreement can be described as unity in diversity because the numerous definitions of job satisfaction all pointed to the same view.
Salawu (2008) defined job satisfaction” as the extent or degree a person is satisfied with the job he or she is doing, in terms of the salary, self actualization, prestige of the job, autonomy, control and condition of the job”. Locke (1976), defined job satisfaction ” as the appraisal one’s job as attaining or allowing the attainment of one’s important job values providing these values are congruent with or help fulfill one’s basic needs”. For Davis (1977) job satisfaction is “the favourableness or unfavourableness with which employees view their work, public servant like any other worker has a bundle of needs. They need food, shelter, self esteem and self actualization to mention but few. It is the urge to satisfy some of these needs that motivate people to accept these jobs. The attempt to take a job therefore, may have a variety of motives which may essentially be complex and conflicting but the ultimate goal is satisfaction.
Although, a great deal of Nigeria workers consider their jobs as a means of providing them with the necessary money to cater for their needs, cloth them and perhaps save part of it or invest for their family members.
Job condition and employer, employee relationships are very important since they affect the performance of workers. Every organization, whether in private or public sector strives to effectively elicit the best from the professionals, unfortunately, it seems the desired goal has remained elusive. An in-depth study of job satisfaction has shown that there are people who do have job satisfaction in spite of their organization’s provisions of those conditions that are satisfactory. Studies have also shown that workers achieve different levels of job satisfaction at different period in their careers and at different occupational levels. Closely related to this is the fact that despite the growing sophistication in technology a great percentage of Nigerian work-force seen dissatisfaction with their jobs, lack of commitment and are always willing to leave their’ jobs for more promising and satisfaction ones. Incessant conflicts, disagreement, protest, tension, distrust, trade disputes, strikes etc. also characterized the actions of the worker in different unions in Nigeria. This implies that the various organizations are far from solving the workers problem. It also signifies frustrating, unchallenging, unsatisfying and bring job conditions.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Despite the ban on private practice by government, public servant still engage in very serious private businesses and some times use their official time for their personal business.
They sell, hawk, and even scramble for contracts and supplies when they are supposed to be in their offices. The individuals whose goals and aspirations are thwarted by the organization becomes frustrated, develop feelings of low self-worth, become apathetic, disinterested and tend to withdraw self commitment in their work. Personal business outside the organization becomes more important.
The unsatisfied worker may be physically present at their place of work, but his mind and thought are off the job. The increased death rates in our hospitals, poor performance of students in school certificate, examination and low productivity in the civil service are testimonies of poor performance of public servants. There is no doubt that if public servants have job satisfaction, they will perform better in their job, the research will therefore examine the impacts of job satisfaction on employees performance.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The objectives of the study are;
- To identify the role of promotion on job performance among employees.
- To determine effect of salary on job performance among employees.
- To identify the important of conductive environment on job performance.
1.4 Research Questions
This study asks the following questions:
- Is there any relationship between job satisfaction and employees performance?
- Can good incentive scheme bring about employee job satisfaction for enhanced performance?
- Is the working environment of any relevance in ensuring employees job satisfaction?
- Is recognition and reward factors that can bring workers productivity.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Management of the public sector has been a thorny issue in Nigeria and has generated quite a high number of debates and literature in the last two decades. This study is therefore significant because it will add to the existing body of literature in these areas.
It is also significant because it would provide information on the trend and journey so far in the management of the public sector. The results of the study will be discerning as it will reveal how much job satisfaction is obtainable in the public sector as well as how these have affected employee productivity in the organizations.
Since independence, government in establishment of businesses and maintaining them has invested so much; yet not much has been recorded in the area of productivity and employee morale.
According, this study will be useful to economists, management practitioners, students and the general public because it will provide direction on the way forward. The recommendations are useful because they will serve as advice to the government on what ought to be the appropriate relationship between government and the businesses.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The scope of the study covers non-teaching staffs in some secondary schools in Michael Okpara university, Umudike, the Capital of Michael Okpara university, Umudike State. The concern of the study was the government owned organizations within the city. Michael Okpara university, Umudike served as capital of defunct Eastern Region, East Central State, and old Anambra State hence its good number of government businesses, which are either headquartered in the city or have regional offices there.
This study has quite a number of significant limitations to it. The first was that the researcher as a worker has to combine her work with the study and this was not easy. Additionally, the study was conducted during the period of fuel scarcity this resulting in high cost of transportation and in some most cases, low attendance by employees of the organizations visited for the distribution of questionnaires. Conducting a study of this nature in our environment receptive of answering the oral questions while others did not take time off of study the questionnaire hence few of the discard due to wrong filling. These limitations did not affect the outcome of the study in any way.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Motivation: This is a process of stimulating people to action in order to achieve desired goals or accomplish a desired task: Hezbong, Fedenick (1964).
- Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction is a measure of workers’ contentedness with their job, whether they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.
- Job performance assesses whether a person performs a job well. Job performance, studied academically as part of industrial and organizational psychology, also forms a part of human resources management.
- Persons employed by educational institutions who have no instructional responsibilities. Non-teaching staff generally include headteachers, principals and other administrators of schools, supervisors, counsellors, school psychologists, school health personnel, librarians or educational media specialists, curriculum developers, inspectors, education administrators.